94 found
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  1. Stakes and Kidneys: Why Markets in Human Body Parts Are Morally Imperative.James Stacey Taylor - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (225):627-629.
     
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  2. Practical Autonomy and Bioethics.James Stacey Taylor - 2009 - Routledge.
    This is the first volume in which an account of personal autonomy is developed that both captures the contours of this concept as it is used in social philosophy and bioethics, and is theoretically grounded in, and a part of, contemporary autonomy theory. James Stacey Taylor’s account is unique as it is explicitly a political one, recognizing that the attribution of autonomy to agents is dependent in part on their relationships with others and not merely upon their own mental states. (...)
     
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  3.  79
    Personal Autonomy: New Essays on Personal Autonomy and its Role in Contemporary Moral Philosophy.James Stacey Taylor (ed.) - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Autonomy has recently become one of the central concepts in contemporary moral philosophy and has generated much debate over its nature and value. This 2005 volume brings together essays that address the theoretical foundations of the concept of autonomy, as well as essays that investigate the relationship between autonomy and moral responsibility, freedom, political philosophy, and medical ethics. Written by some of the most prominent philosophers working in these areas, this book represents research on the nature and value of autonomy (...)
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  4.  23
    The Irrelevance of Harm for a Theory of Disease.Dane Muckler & James Stacey Taylor - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (3):332-349.
    Normativism holds that there is a close conceptual link between disease and disvalue. We challenge normativism by advancing an argument against a popular normativist theory, Jerome Wakefield’s harmful dysfunction account. Wakefield maintains that medical disorders are breakdowns in evolved mechanisms that cause significant harm to the organism. We argue that Wakefield’s account is not a promising way to distinguish between disease and health because being harmful is neither necessary nor sufficient for a dysfunction to be a disorder. Counterexamples to the (...)
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  5.  88
    Death, Posthumous Harm, and Bioethics.James Stacey Taylor - 2012 - Routledge.
    _Death, Posthumous Harm, and Bioethics_ offers a highly distinctive and original approach to the metaphysics of death and applies this approach to contemporary debates in bioethics that address end-of-life and post-mortem issues. Taylor defends the controversial Epicurean view that death is not a harm to the person who dies and the neo-Epicurean thesis that persons cannot be affected by events that occur after their deaths, and hence that posthumous harms are impossible. He then extends this argument by asserting that the (...)
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  6.  45
    Death, Posthumous Harm, and Bioethics.James Stacey Taylor - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):636-637.
    If pressed to identify the philosophical foundations of contemporary bioethics, most bioethicists would cite the four-principles approach developed by Tom L Beauchamp and James F Childress,1 or perhaps the ethical theories of JS Mill2 or Immanuel Kant.3 Few would cite Aristotle's metaphysical views surrounding death and posthumous harm.4 Nevertheless, many contemporary bioethical discussions are implicitly grounded in the Aristotelian views that death is a harm to the one who dies, and that persons can be harmed, or wronged, by events that (...)
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  7. Death, Posthumous Harm, and Bioethics.James Stacey Taylor - 2012 - Routledge.
    Death, Posthumous Harm, and Bioethics offers a highly distinctive and original approach to the metaphysics of death and applies this approach to contemporary debates in bioethics that address end-of-life and post-mortem issues. Taylor defends the controversial Epicurean view that death is not a harm to the person who dies and the neo-Epicurean thesis that persons cannot be affected by events that occur after their deaths, and hence that posthumous harms are impossible. He then extends this argument by asserting that the (...)
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  8.  36
    The Metaphysics and Ethics of Death: New Essays.James Stacey Taylor (ed.) - 2013 - Oup Usa.
    The Metaphysics and Ethics of Death brings together original essays that both address the fundamental questions of the metaphysics of death and explore the relationship between those questions and some of the areas of applied ethics in which they play a central role.
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  9. Autonomy and Informed Consent: A Much Misunderstood Relationship.James Stacey Taylor - 2004 - Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (3):383-391.
  10.  83
    The Myth of Posthumous Harm.James Stacey Taylor - 2005 - American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (4):311 - 322.
  11.  56
    How Not to Argue for Markets.James Stacey Taylor - 2017 - Journal of Social Philosophy 48 (2):165-179.
  12.  47
    Vote Buying and Voter Preferences.James Stacey Taylor - 2017 - Social Theory and Practice 43 (1):107-124.
    A common criticism of plurality voting is that it fails to reflect the degree of intensity with which voters prefer the candidate or policy that they vote for. To rectify this, many critics of plurality voting have argued that vote buying should be allowed. Persons with more intense preferences for a candidate could buy votes from persons with less intense preferences for the opposing candidate and then cast them for the candidate that they intensely support. This paper argues that instead (...)
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  13. Privacy and Autonomy: A Reappraisal.James Stacey Taylor - 2002 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 40 (4):587-604.
  14.  12
    Why Prohibiting Donor Compensation Can Prevent Plasma Donors From Giving Their Informed Consent to Donate.James Stacey Taylor - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (1):10-32.
    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the degree of philosophical attention devoted to the question of the morality of offering financial compensation in an attempt to increase the medical supply of human body parts and products, such as plasma. This paper will argue not only that donor compensation is ethically acceptable, but that plasma donors should not be prohibited from being offered compensation if they are to give their informed consent to donate. Regulatory regimes that prohibit (...)
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  15.  18
    What Limits Should Markets Be Without?James Stacey Taylor - 2016 - Business Ethics Journal Review 4 (7):41-46.
    In Markets Without Limits Brennan and Jaworski defend the view that there are “no legitimate worries about what we buy, trade, and sell.” But rather than being a unified defense of this position Brennan and Jaworski unwittingly offer three distinct pro-commodification views—two of which are subject to counterexamples. This Commentary will clarify what should be the thesis of their volume and identify the conditions that any counterexample to this must meet.
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  16.  47
    Autonomy, Duress, and Coercion.James Stacey Taylor - 2003 - Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (2):127-155.
    For the past three decades philosophical discussions of both personal autonomy and what it is for a person to “identify” with her desires have been dominated by the “hierarchical” analyses of these concepts developed by Gerald Dworkin and Harry Frankfurt. The longevity of these analyses is owed, in part, to the intuitive appeal of their shared claim that the concepts of autonomy and identification are to be analyzed in terms of hierarchies of desires, such that it is a necessary condition (...)
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  17.  35
    Moral Repugnance, Moral Distress, and Organ Sales.James Stacey Taylor - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (3):312-327.
    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons’ feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez (...)
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  18.  11
    The Ethics and Politics of Blood Plasma Donation.James Stacey Taylor - 2020 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (1):89-103.
    Legal prohibitions on the financial compensation of donors are frequently justified by appealing either to concerns about patient safety or to concerns about the putatively unethical nature of such compensation. But jurisdictions that legally prohibit the financial compensation of donors routinely import plasma that has been collected from financially compensated donors—and they do so knowing its origins. I outline some possible ways in which this puzzle could be resolved and find them all wanting. Focusing on Canada I draw upon public (...)
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  19.  42
    Autonomy, Vote Buying, and Constraining Options.James Stacey Taylor - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (5):711-723.
    A common argument used to defend markets in ‘contested commodities’ is based on the value of personal autonomy. Autonomy is of great moral value; removing options from a person's choice set would compromise her ability to exercise her autonomy; hence, there should be a prima facie presumption against removing options from persons’ choice sets; thus, the burden of proof lies with those who wish to prohibit markets in certain goods. Christopher Freiman has developed a version of this argument to defend (...)
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  20.  12
    Semiotic Arguments and Markets in Votes.James Stacey Taylor - 2017 - Business Ethics Journal Review 5 (6):35-39.
    Jacob Sparks has developed a semiotic critique of markets that is based on the fact that “market exchanges express preferences.” He argues that some market transactions will reveal that the purchaser of a market good inappropriately prefers it to a similar non-market good. This avoids Brennan and Jaworski’s criticism that semiotic objections to markets fail as the meaning of market transactions are contingent social facts. I argue that Sparks’ argument is both incomplete and doomed to fail. It can only show (...)
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  21.  12
    Social Autonomy and Family-Based Informed Consent.James Stacey Taylor - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (5):621-639.
    The Western focus on personal autonomy as the normative basis for securing persons’ consent to their treatment renders this autonomy-based approach to informed consent vulnerable to the charge that it is based on an overly atomistic understanding of the person. This leads to a puzzle: how does this generally-accepted atomistic understanding of the person fits with the emphasis on familial consent that occurs when family members are provided with the opportunity to veto a prospective donor’s wish to donate after she (...)
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  22.  9
    From Directed Donation to Kidney Sale: Does the Argument Hold Up?James Stacey Taylor - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):597-614.
    The UCLA Medical Center has initiated a “voucher program” under which a person who donated a kidney would receive a voucher that she could provide to someone of her choosing who could then use it to move to the top of the renal transplantation waiting list. If the use of such vouchers as incentives for donors is morally permissible, then cash payments for kidneys are also morally permissible. But, that argument faces five objections. First, there are some goods whose nature (...)
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  23.  74
    Autonomy, Constraining Options, and Organ Sales.James Stacey Taylor - 2002 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (3):273–285.
    We should try to alleviate it through allowing a current market in them continues to be morally condemned, usually on the grounds tha.
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  24.  60
    The Unjustified Assumptions of Organ Conscripters.James Stacey Taylor - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (2):115-133.
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  25.  19
    Harming the Dead.James Stacey Taylor - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Research 33:185-202.
    It is widely accepted that a person can be harmed by events that occur after her death. The most influential account of how persons can suffer such posthumous harm has been provided by George Pitcher and Joel Feinberg. Yet, despite its influence the Feinberg-Pitcher account of posthumous harm has been subject to several well-known criticisms. Surprisingly, there has been no attempt to defend this account of posthumous harm against these criticisms, either by philosophers who work on the metaphysics of death (...)
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  26.  19
    Markets in Votes, Voter Liberty, and the Burden of Justification.James Stacey Taylor - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Research 42:325-340.
    Christopher Freiman, Jason Brennan, and Peter M. Jaworski have recently defended markets in votes. While their views differ in several respects they all believe that the primary justificatory burden lies not with those who defend markets in votes but with those who oppose them. Yet while the burden of proof should typically rest with those who wish to prohibit markets in certain goods this does not hold for the debate over markets in votes. Votes are crucially different from other goods (...)
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  27. Harming the Dead.James Stacey Taylor - 2008 - Journal of Philosophical Research 33:185-202.
    It is widely accepted that a person can be harmed by events that occur after her death. The most influential account of how persons can suffer such posthumous harm has been provided by George Pitcher and Joel Feinberg. Yet, despite its influence (or perhaps because of it) the Feinberg-Pitcher account of posthumous harm has been subject to several well-known criticisms. Surprisingly, there has been no attempt to defend this account of posthumous harm against these criticisms, either by philosophers who work (...)
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  28. Why the 'Black Market' Arguments Against Legalizing Organ Sales Fail.James Stacey Taylor - 2006 - Res Publica 12 (2):163-178.
    One of the most widespread objections to legalizing a market in human organs is that such legalization would stimulate the black market in human organs. Unfortunately, the proponents of this argument fail to explain how such stimulation will occur. To remedy thus, two accounts of how legalizing markets in human organs could stimulate the black market in them are developed in this paper. Yet although these accounts remedy the lacuna in the anti-market argument from the black market neither of them (...)
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  29.  8
    The Myth of Semiotic Arguments in Democratic Theory and How This Exposes Problems with Peer Review.James Stacey Taylor - 2021 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (1):13-29.
    In a recent series or books and articles Jason Brennan and Peter M. Jaworski have developed criticisms of what they term “semiotic” arguments. They hold that these arguments are widely used both to criticize markets in certain goods, to defend democracy, and criticize epistocracy. Their work on semiotics is now widely cited. In this paper I argue that there is no reason to believe that any defenders of democracy or critics of epistocracy have offered semiotic arguments for their positions. I (...)
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  30. In Praise of Big Brother: Why We Should Learn to Stop Worrying and Love Government Surveillance.James Stacey Taylor - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (3):227-246.
  31.  10
    Market-Based Reforms in Health Care Are Both Practical and Morally Sound.James Stacey Taylor - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):537-546.
    In this paper I argue that the free-market provision of health care is both practical and morally sound, and is superior in both respects to its provision by the State. The State provision of health care will be inefficient compared to its free-market alternative. It will thus provide less health care to persons for the same amount of expenditure, and so save fewer lives and alleviate less suffering for two reasons: state actors have no incentive to husband their resources effectively, (...)
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  32. Stakes and Kidneys: Why Markets in Human Body Parts Are Morally Imperative.James Stacey Taylor - 2005 - Routledge.
    In 'Stakes and Kidneys' the author discusses various ethical issues surrounding the international trade in human organs.
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  33.  5
    Market-Based Reforms in Health Care Are Both Practical and Morally Sound.James Stacey Taylor - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):537-546.
    Markets have long had a whiff of sulphur about them. Plato condemned innkeepers, whose pursuit of profit he believed led them to take advantage of their customers, Aristotle believed that the pursuit of profit was indicative of moral debasement, and Cicero held that retailers are typically dishonest as this was the only path to gain. And even those who are more favorably disposed towards markets in general are frequently inclined to be suspicious of markets in medical goods and services. For (...)
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  34.  35
    A Scandal in Geneva.James Stacey Taylor - 2014 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):219-234.
    In 2013 the World Health Organization published a Report in which it was argued that countries should become self-sufficient in safe blood and blood products, and that these should be secured through voluntary non-remunerated donation. These two claims were putatively supported by a wealth of citations to peer-reviewed academic papers, the results of Royal Commissions and Public Inquiries in both Canada and the United Kingdom, and data collected from Non-Government Organizations. Yet not only do many of the sources cited by (...)
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  35.  14
    Autonomy and Informed Consent on the Navajo Reservation.James Stacey Taylor - 2004 - Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (4):506-516.
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  36.  12
    Information for Contributors.Thomas Magnell, Moving Away From A. Local, Tibor R. Machan, Kevin Graham, Sharon Sytsma, Agape Sans Dieu, Jonathan Glover, Harry G. Frankfurt, James Stacey Taylor & Peter Singer - 2002 - Journal of Value Inquiry 36 (3):601-603.
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  37.  6
    Promises to the Dead.James Stacey Taylor - 2021 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 90:81-103.
    Many people attempt to give meaning to their lives by pursuing projects that they believe will bear fruit after they have died. Knowing that their death will preclude them from protecting or promoting such projects people who draw meaning from them will often attempt to secure their continuance by securing promises from others to serve as their caretakers after they die. But those who rely on such are faced with a problem: None of the four major accounts that have been (...)
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  38.  11
    Book Review of John Martin Fischer, Death, Immortality, and Meaning in Life. [REVIEW]James Stacey Taylor - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (2):213-218.
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  39.  4
    Facing Death, Epicurus and His Critics.James Stacey Taylor - 2004 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (1):109-110.
  40.  17
    Public Moralities and Markets in Organs.James Stacey Taylor - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (3):223-227.
    Schweda and Schicktanz argue that the debate over the ethics of using financial incentives to procure human transplant organs rests on socioempirical premises that need to be critically assessed. They contend that once this is achieved a completely new perspective on the debate should be adopted, with organ donation being viewed primarily as a reciprocal social interaction between donor and recipient. This paper challenges this conclusion, arguing that rather than supporting a new perspective on the debate over the commercial procurement (...)
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  41.  36
    The Value of Autonomy and the Right to Self-Medication.James Stacey Taylor - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):587-588.
    In ‘Three Arguments Against Prescription Requirements’, Jessica Flanigan argues that ‘prescription drug laws violate patients' rights to self-medication’ and that patients ‘have rights to self-medication for the same reasons they have rights to refuse medical treatment according to the doctrine of informed consent , claiming that the strongest of these reasons is grounded on the value of autonomy. However, close examination of the moral value of autonomy shows that rather than being the strongest justification for the DIC, respect for the (...)
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  42.  11
    Organs: Tradable, but Not Necessarily Inheritable.James Stacey Taylor - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (1):62-62.
    Teck Chuan Voo and Soren Holm argue that “organs should be inheritable if they were to be socially and legally recognised as tradable property.”1 To support this view they first observe that “…legal recognition of objects as property… opens up the possibility of the legal recognition of the survival of the property rights and their inheritability after the death of the source/owner, even if those rights are intimately bound with the person.”1 They also note that if organs are tradable property (...)
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  43. Buying and Selling Friendship.James Stacey Taylor - 2019 - American Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2):187-202.
    It is widely believed that the nature of love and friendship precludes them from being bought or sold. It will be argued in this paper that this view is false: There is no conceptual bar to the commodification of love and friendship. The arguments offered for this view will lead to another surprising conclusion: That these goods are asymmetrically alienable goods, goods whose nature is such that separate arguments must be provided for the views that they can be bought and (...)
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  44. Willing Addicts, Unweilling Additicts, and Acting of One's Own Free Will.James Stacey Taylor - 2005 - Philosophia 33 (1-4):237-262.
  45.  44
    The Case Against the Case for Colonialism.James Stacey Taylor - 2018 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (1):19-32.
    In a recent paper entitled “The Case for Colonialism” Bruce Gilley argued that Western colonialism was “as a general rule” both beneficial to those subject to it and considered by them to be legitimate. He then advocated for a return to the Western colonization of the Third World. Gilley’s article provoked a furious response, with calls for its retraction being followed by the resignation of much of the publishing journal’s editorial board. In this paper I note that Gilley’s article meets (...)
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  46.  21
    Satz and Semiotics.James Stacey Taylor - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):243-257.
    Jason Brennan and Peter M. Jaworski have recently developed an argument against semiotic objections to markets. They argue that all such semiotic arguments are unsound because they fail to recognize that the meaning of market transactions is a contingent socially-constructed fact. They attribute this type of argument to Debra Satz. This paper argues both that Brennan and Jaworski are mistaken to attribute this particular semiotic objection to Satz and that they are mistaken to attribute to her a semiotic objection of (...)
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  47.  19
    Titmuss Revisited: From Tax Credits to Markets.James Stacey Taylor - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (8):461-462.
    Petersen and Lippert-Rasmussen argue that persons who decide to be organ donors should receive a tax break, and then defend their view against eight possible objections. However, they misunderstand the Titmuss-style concerns that might be raised against their proposal. This does not mean that it should be rejected, but, instead, that when it is reconfigured to meet the Titmuss-style charges against it, they should support legalizing markets in human organs rather than merely offering tax breaks to encourage their donation.
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  48.  76
    Introduction: Moral and Political Issues in Vaccination.James Stacey Taylor - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (1):1-3.
    In 1998, The Lancet published a research paper by Andrew Wakefield that provided support to the formerly-discredited theory that the Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccine could cause colitis and autism spectrum disorders (Wakefield et al. 1998). Although this paper was fully retracted in 2010 after being exposed as fraudulent, it served as a catalyst for concerns about the safety of vaccination, both the MMR vaccine in particular and vaccination in general. While the scientific consensus concerning both the MMR vaccine and (...)
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  49. Personal Autonomy, Organ Sales, and the Arguments From Market Coercion.James Stacey Taylor - 2007 - In Paul Kurtz & David R. Koepsell (eds.), Science and Ethics: Can Science Help Us Make Wise Moral Judgments? Prometheus Books.
     
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  50. Autonomy Inducements and Organ Sales.James Stacey Taylor - 2005 - In Nafsika Athanassoulis (ed.), Philosophical Reflections on Medical Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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