68 found
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  1.  11
    The “Ought-Is” Problem: An Implementation Science Framework for Translating Ethical Norms Into Practice.Bryan A. Sisk, Jessica Mozersky, Alison L. Antes & James M. DuBois - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (4):62-70.
    We argue that once a normative claim is developed, there is an imperative to effect changes based on this norm. As such, ethicists should adopt an “implementation mindset” when formulating...
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  2.  26
    Serious Ethical Violations in Medicine: A Statistical and Ethical Analysis of 280 Cases in the United States From 2008–2016. [REVIEW]Heidi A. Walsh, Jessica Mozersky, John T. Chibnall, Emily E. Anderson & James M. DuBois - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):16-34.
    Serious ethical violations in medicine, such as sexual abuse, criminal prescribing of opioids, and unnecessary surgeries, directly harm patients and undermine trust in the profession of medicine. We review the literature on violations in medicine and present an analysis of 280 cases. Nearly all cases involved repeated instances of intentional wrongdoing, by males in nonacademic medical settings, with oversight problems and a selfish motive such as financial gain or sex. More than half of cases involved a wrongdoer with a suspected (...)
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  3.  27
    The Role of Culture and Acculturation in Researchers’ Perceptions of Rules in Science.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):361-391.
    Successfully navigating the norms of a society is a complex task that involves recognizing diverse kinds of rules as well as the relative weight attached to them. In the United States, different kinds of rules—federal statutes and regulations, scientific norms, and professional ideals—guide the work of researchers. Penalties for violating these different kinds of rules and norms can range from the displeasure of peers to criminal sanctions. We proposed that it would be more difficult for researchers working in the U.S. (...)
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  4.  46
    Professional Decision-Making in Research : The Validity of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall, Raymond C. Tait, Jillon S. Vander Wal, Kari A. Baldwin, Alison L. Antes & Michael D. Mumford - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):391-416.
    In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity measures to a group of NIH-funded researchers and research trainees who were diverse in terms of age, years of experience, types of research, and race. The PDR demonstrated adequate reliability and parallel form (...)
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  5.  64
    IRB Decision-Making with Imperfect Knowledge: A Framework for Evidence-Based Research Ethics Review.Emily E. Anderson & James M. DuBois - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):951-969.
    Institutional Review Board decisions hinge on the availability and interpretation of information. This is demonstrated by the following well-known historical example. In 2001, 24-year-old Ellen Roche died from respiratory distress and organ failure as a result of her participation in a study at Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center. The non-therapeutic physiological study, “Mechanisms of Deep Inspiration-Induced Airway Relaxation,” was designed to examine airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy individuals in order to better understand the pathophysiology of asthma. Participants inhaled hexamethonium, a (...)
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  6.  30
    Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall & John Gibbs - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):965-988.
    In the world of research, compliance with research regulations is not the same as ethics, but it is closely related. One could say that compliance is how most societies with advanced research programs operationalize many ethical obligations. This paper reports on the development of the How I Think about Research questionnaire, which is an adaptation of the How I Think questionnaire that examines the use of cognitive distortions to justify antisocial behaviors. Such an adaptation was justified based on a review (...)
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  7.  33
    Is Compliance a Professional Virtue of Researchers? Reflections on Promoting the Responsible Conduct of Research.James M. DuBois - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (4):383 – 395.
    Evidence exists that behavioral and social science researchers have been frustrated with regulations and institutional review boards (IRBs) from the 1970s through today. Making matters worse, many human participants protection instruction programs - now mandated by IRBs - offer inadequate reasons why researchers should comply with regulations and IRBs. Promoting compliance either for its own sake or to avoid penalties is contrary to the developmental aims of moral education and may be ineffective in fostering the responsible conduct of research. This (...)
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  8.  48
    Environmental Factors Contributing to Wrongdoing in Medicine: A Criterion-Based Review of Studies and Cases.James M. DuBois, Emily E. Anderson, Kelly Carroll, Tyler Gibb, Elena Kraus, Timothy Rubbelke & Meghan Vasher - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (3):163 - 188.
    In this article we describe our approach to understanding wrongdoing in medical research and practice, which involves the statistical analysis of coded data from a large set of published cases. We focus on understanding the environmental factors that predict the kind and the severity of wrongdoing in medicine. Through review of empirical and theoretical literature, consultation with experts, the application of criminological theory, and ongoing analysis of our first 60 cases, we hypothesize that 10 contextual features of the medical environment (...)
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  9.  65
    Is Anesthesia Intrinsically Wrong? On Moral Absolutes and Natural Law Methodology: Articles.James M. Dubois - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):206-216.
    This article engages two fundamentally different kinds of so-called natural law arguments in favor of specific moral absolutes: Elizabeth Anscombe's claim that certain actions are known to be intrinsically wrong through intuition, and John Finnis's claim that such actions are known to be wrong because they involve acting directly against a basic human good. Both authors maintain, for example, that murder and contraceptive sexual acts are known to be wrong, always and everywhere, through their respective epistemological lens. This article uses (...)
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  10. Adolf Reinach: Metaethics and the Philosophy of Law.James M. DuBois - 2002 - Springer Verlag.
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  11.  13
    What Explains Associations of Researchers’ Nation of Origin and Scores on a Measure of Professional Decision-Making? Exploring Key Variables and Interpretation of Scores.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1499-1530.
    Researchers encounter challenges that require making complex professional decisions. Strategies such as seeking help and anticipating consequences support decision-making in these situations. Existing evidence on a measure of professional decision-making in research that assesses the use of decision-making strategies revealed that NIH-funded researchers born outside of the U.S. tended to score below their U.S. counterparts. To examine potential explanations for this association, this study recruited 101 researchers born in the United States and 102 born internationally to complete the PDR and (...)
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  12.  22
    Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Values in Scientific Work.Tammy English, Alison L. Antes, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):393-418.
    In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work. This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work and more classic work values in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career (...)
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  13.  18
    What Counts as Empirical Research in Bioethics and Where Do We Find the Stuff?James M. DuBois - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):70-72.
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  14.  24
    Dead Tired of Repetitious Debates About Death Criteria.James M. DuBois - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):45-47.
  15. On the Theory and Therapy of Mental Disorders an Introduction to Logotherapy and Existential Analysis.Viktor Emil Frankl & James M. Dubois - 2004
  16. Judgment and Sachverhalt. An Introduction to Adolf Reinach's Phenomenological Realism.James M. Dubois - 1997 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 59 (2):359-360.
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  17.  21
    Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Defense of the Required Determination of Death.James M. DuBois - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (2):126-136.
    The family of a patient who is unconscious and respirator-dependent has made a decision to discontinue medical treatment. The patient had signed a donor card. The family wants to respect this decision, and agrees to non-heart-beating organ donation. Consequently, as the patient is weaned from the ventilator, he is prepped for organ explantation. Two minutes after the patient goes into cardiac arrest, he is declared dead and the transplant team arrives to begin organ procurement. At the time retrieval begins, it (...)
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  18.  17
    Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Defense of the Required Determination of Death.James M. DuBois - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (2):126-136.
    The family of a patient who is unconscious and respirator-dependent has made a decision to discontinue medical treatment. The patient had signed a donor card. The family wants to respect this decision, and agrees to non-heart-beating organ donation. Consequently, as the patient is weaned from the ventilator, he is prepped for organ explantation. Two minutes after the patient goes into cardiac arrest, he is declared dead and the transplant team arrives to begin organ procurement. At the time retrieval begins, it (...)
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  19.  9
    Physician Decision Making and the Web of Influence.James M. DuBois - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):24-26.
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  20.  8
    Increasing Rates of Organ Donation: Exploring the Institute of Medicine's Boldest Recommendation.James M. DuBois - 2009 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 20 (1):13.
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  21. Judgment and Sachverhalt. An Introduction to Adolf Reinach's Phenomenological Realism.James M. Dubois - 1999 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 2:274-275.
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  22.  45
    Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research Integrity: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. 31 May - 3 June 2015.Lex Bouter, Melissa S. Anderson, Ana Marusic, Sabine Kleinert, Susan Zimmerman, Paulo S. L. Beirão, Laura Beranzoli, Giuseppe Di Capua, Silvia Peppoloni, Maria Betânia de Freitas Marques, Adriana Sousa, Claudia Rech, Torunn Ellefsen, Adele Flakke Johannessen, Jacob Holen, Raymond Tait, Jillon Van der Wall, John Chibnall, James M. DuBois, Farida Lada, Jigisha Patel, Stephanie Harriman, Leila Posenato Garcia, Adriana Nascimento Sousa, Cláudia Maria Correia Borges Rech, Oliveira Patrocínio, Raphaela Dias Fernandes, Laressa Lima Amâncio, Anja Gillis, David Gallacher, David Malwitz, Tom Lavrijssen, Mariusz Lubomirski, Malini Dasgupta, Katie Speanburg, Elizabeth C. Moylan, Maria K. Kowalczuk, Nikolas Offenhauser, Markus Feufel, Niklas Keller, Volker Bähr, Diego Oliveira Guedes, Douglas Leonardo Gomes Filho, Vincent Larivière, Rodrigo Costas, Daniele Fanelli, Mark William Neff, Aline Carolina de Oliveira Machado Prata, Limbanazo Matandika, Sonia Maria Ramos de Vasconcelos & Karina de A. Rocha - 2016 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 1 (Suppl 1).
    Table of contentsI1 Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research IntegrityConcurrent Sessions:1. Countries' systems and policies to foster research integrityCS01.1 Second time around: Implementing and embedding a review of responsible conduct of research policy and practice in an Australian research-intensive universitySusan Patricia O'BrienCS01.2 Measures to promote research integrity in a university: the case of an Asian universityDanny Chan, Frederick Leung2. Examples of research integrity education programmes in different countriesCS02.1 Development of a state-run “cyber education program of research ethics” in (...)
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  23.  11
    Navigating Complex, Ethical Problems in Professional Life: A Guide to Teaching SMART Strategies for Decision-Making.Tristan McIntosh, Alison L. Antes & James M. DuBois - 2020 - Journal of Academic Ethics 19 (2):139-156.
    This article demonstrates how instructors of professionalism and ethics training programs can integrate a professional decision-making tool in training curricula. This tool can help trainees understand how to apply professional decision-making strategies to address the threats posed by a variety of psychological and environmental factors when they are faced with complex professional and ethical situations. We begin by highlighting key decision-making frameworks and discussing factors that may undermine the use of professional decision-making strategies. Then, drawing upon findings from past research, (...)
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  24. An Introduction to Adolf Reinach's 'The Supreme Rules of Rational Inference According to Kant'.James M. DuBois - 1995 - Aletheia 6:94.
     
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  25. Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2021 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 11 (3):vii-ix.
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  26. On Finding the Self to Be Substantial: A Preface to Virtue Theory.James M. Dubois - 1997 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 71:233-242.
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  27.  23
    Self-Regulation of Science: What Can We Still Learn From Asilomar?Carole R. Baskin, Robert A. Gatter, Mark J. Campbell, James M. Dubois & Allison C. Waits - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (3):364-381.
    Ethical decision-making in public health rarely involves simply avoiding a bad choice in favor of a good choice. Instead, it requires policymakers to strike a balance among conflicting goals that are all good—goals such as the health of populations and individuals, knowledge gained through scientific research, autonomy, social justice, and the efficient use of limited resources. This balance can be elusive, and perfect examples are the legal instruments governing dual-use research, a term describing scientific endeavors meant to produce beneficial knowledge (...)
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  28.  10
    Introduction: Conflicting Interest in Medicine: Stories by Physicians on How Financing Affects Their Work.James M. DuBois - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (2):65-66.
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  29. Ethics in Behavioral and Social Science Research.James M. DuBois - 2006 - In Ana Smith Iltis (ed.), Research Ethics. Routledge.
     
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  30.  37
    Handbook of Metaphysics and Ontology.James M. DuBois - 1992 - Review of Metaphysics 46 (2):391-392.
    This book is destined to become the definitive reference in the field of first philosophy. While the title is apt, it is worth mentioning at the outset that the scope of this two-volume study extends beyond metaphysics proper into the intrinsically related fields of epistemology and logic, thus allowing for a more comprehensive treatment of the central issues and figures of philosophy.
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  31.  25
    Organ Transplantation: An Ethical Road Map.James M. DuBois - 2002 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 2 (3):413-453.
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  32.  6
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2020 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 10 (2):v-vi.
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  33.  25
    Does the Public Support Organ Donation Using Higher Brain-Death Criteria?James M. DuBois & Tracy Schmidt - 2002 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 14 (1-2):26-36.
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  34.  10
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2019 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 9 (1):v-vi.
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  35.  21
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Susan G. DuBois - 2012 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 2 (2):v-vi.
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  36.  5
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2020 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 10 (1):v-vii.
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  37.  5
    Reanimated: Navigating Life After a Near-Death Experience.James M. DuBois - 2020 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 10 (1):1-4.
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  38.  32
    Editor's Introduction - the Varieties of Clinical Consulting Experience.James M. Dubois - 2003 - HEC Forum 15 (4):303-309.
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  39.  19
    Introduction: Organ Donation and Death From Unexpected Circulatory Arrest: Engaging the Recommendations of the Institute of Medicine.James M. DuBois & Rebecca L. Volpe - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (4):731-734.
    This symposium explores the boldest recommendation of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Increasing Rates of Organ Donation, namely, the recommendation that the U.S. consider a new population of potential donors. In its 2006 report, Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action, the committee recommended pilot programs in socalled “uncontrolled” donation after a circulatory determination of death. Potential uDCD donors have died from an unexpected loss of circulation, either due to sudden cardiac arrest or excessive blood loss following traumatic injury. Because circulation (...)
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  40.  3
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2020 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 10 (3):v-vi.
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  41.  6
    The Roots and Method of Phenomenological Realism.James M. Dubois - unknown
    This thesis is concerned with answering the following question: What is phenomenological realism? I have tried to accomplish this, in part, by looking at the history of phenomenological realism. However, it is not sufficient to look at the history of this movement if we are to understand what it is today. Thus, I have tried to present the reader with the attitude, methods, and the ontological and epistemological foundations of phenomenological realism, both in some of their early formulations and in (...)
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  42.  23
    On Finding the Self to Be Substantial: A Preface to Virtue Theory.James M. Dubois - 1997 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 71:233-242.
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  43.  29
    Colloquy.Gerald P. Koocher, Thomas G. Plante, James M. DuBois, Simon Shimshon Rubin, Armin Paul Thies & Mary Marple Thies - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (1):65-87.
    This article examines the clergy sexual abuse crisis in the Roman Catholic Church from an ethical point of view. The article uses the RRICC values model of ethical decision making to review the behavior of Catholic bishops and other religious superiors as they have tried to manage clergy sex offenders and their victims. Hopefully, the recent press attention and resulting policy changes on these matters from the U.S. Council of Catholic Bishops will increase the chances that future decisions will be (...)
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  44.  7
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2018 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 8 (3):v-vi.
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  45.  13
    Making Ethical Decisions: Stories From Surgeons.James M. DuBois & Ana S. Ilitis - 2015 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 5 (1):1-2.
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  46.  5
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2019 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 9 (2):v-vi.
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  47.  11
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois & Ana S. Iltas - 2012 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 2 (1):v-vi.
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  48.  7
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2018 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 8 (1):v-v.
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  49.  3
    From Research to Clinical Practice: Ethical Issues with Neurotechnology and Industry Relationships.Tristan McIntosh & James M. DuBois - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (3):210-212.
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  50.  6
    Editors’ Note.James M. Dubois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2018 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 8 (2):v-vi.
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