Results for 'James H. Michelman'

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  1.  39
    Some ethical consequences of economic competition.James H. Michelman - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):79 - 87.
    Commonly accepted dictates of morality clash with the a priori laws of free economic competition. These divergent directives — that stem from the essence of their sources and cannot be changed or negated without altering their sources — contradict each other and so set up conflicts of the most fundamental kind in men's psyches (or souls). In addition, this clash of moralities implies a most serious question respecting real freedom under a system of so-called free-enterprise. For, if in order to (...)
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  2.  37
    Deception in commercial negotiation.James H. Michelman - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):255 - 262.
    Buyers and sellers of inputs of production, to the degree that they must negotiate directly with each other and cannot have recourse to more impersonal markets, share in certain aspects of bilateral monopoly. Under these circumstances, and assuming profit maximizing goals for each, deception often seems to be an unavoidable characteristic of negotiation.
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  3.  63
    James H. Nehring 57.James H. Nehring - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  4.  11
    Glossary of epistemology/philosophy of science.James H. Fetzer - 1993 - New York: Paragon House. Edited by Robert F. Almeder.
    Explains terms and concepts related to the nature and theory of knowledge, and identifies important individuals in the field.
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  5.  5
    The Future of Social Epistemology: A Collective Vision.James H. Collier (ed.) - 2015 - New York: Rowman & Littlefield International.
    Offers a vital, unique and agenda-setting perspective for the field of social epistemology – the philosophical basis for prescribing the social means and ends for pursuing knowledge.
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  6.  48
    Bad Blood Thirty Years Later: A Q&A with James H. Jones.James H. Jones & Nancy M. P. King - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):867-872.
    Historian James H. Jones published the first edition of Bad Blood, the definitive history of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, in 1981. Its clear-eyed examination of that research and its implications remains a bioethics classic, and the 30-year anniversary of its publication served as the impetus for the reexamination of research ethics that this symposium presents. Recent revelations about the United States Public Health Service study that infected mental patients and prisoners in Guatemala with syphilis in the late 1940s in (...)
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  7. Zen and the Brain: Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness.James H. Austin - 1998 - MIT Press.
    The book uses Zen Buddhism as the opening wedge for an extraordinarily wide-ranging exploration of consciousness.
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  8. Artificial Intelligence: Its Scope and Limits.James H. Fetzer - 1990 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    1. WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? One of the fascinating aspects of the field of artificial intelligence (AI) is that the precise nature of its subject ..
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  9.  8
    Philosophy and Cognitive Science.James H. Fetzer - 1991 - New York: Paragon House.
  10.  33
    Computer Reliability and Public Policy: Limits of Knowledge of Computer-Based Systems*: JAMES H. FETZER.James H. Fetzer - 1996 - Social Philosophy and Policy 13 (2):229-266.
    Perhaps no technological innovation has so dominated the second half of the twentieth century as has the introduction of the programmable computer. It is quite difficult if not impossible to imagine how contemporary affairs—in business and science, communications and transportation, governmental and military activities, for example—could be conducted without the use of computing machines, whose principal contribution has been to relieve us of the necessity for certain kinds of mental exertion. The computer revolution has reduced our mental labors by means (...)
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  11.  47
    Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Wesley Salmon.James H. Fetzer - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (4):597-610.
    If the decades of the forties through the sixties were dominated by discussion of Hempel's “covering law“ explication of explanation, that of the seventies was preoccupied with Salmon's “statistical relevance” conception, which emerged as the principal alternative to Hempel's enormously influential account. Readers of Wesley C. Salmon's Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World, therefore, ought to find it refreshing to discover that its author has not remained content with a facile defense of his previous investigations; on the (...)
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  12.  39
    Philosophy of science.James H. Fetzer - 1993 - New York: Paragon House Publishers.
    The development of science has been a distinctive feature of human history in recent times, especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In light of the problems that define the philosophy of science today, James Fetzer provides a foundation for inquiry into the nature of science, the history of science, and the relationship between the two. In Philosophy of Science, Fetzer investigates the aim and methods of empirical science and examines the importance of methodological commitments to the study of (...)
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  13.  11
    The Nature of Explanation.James H. Fetzer - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (3):516-519.
  14. Language and mentality: Computational, representational, and dispositional conceptions.James H. Fetzer - 1989 - Behaviorism 17 (1):21-39.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore three alternative frameworks for understanding the nature of language and mentality, which accent syntactical, semantical, and pragmatical aspects of the phenomena with which they are concerned, respectively. Although the computational conception currently exerts considerable appeal, its defensibility appears to hinge upon an extremely implausible theory of the relation of form to content. Similarly, while the representational approach has much to recommend it, its range is essentially restricted to those units of language that (...)
     
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  15.  14
    Zen-Brain Reflections: Reviewing Recent Developments in Meditation and States of Consciousness.James H. Austin - 2006 - MIT Press.
    This sequel to the widely read Zen and the Brain continues James Austin's explorations into the key interrelationships between Zen Buddhism and brain research. In Zen-Brain Reflections, Austin, a clinical neurologist, researcher, and Zen practitioner, examines the evolving psychological processes and brain changes associated with the path of long-range meditative training. Austin draws not only on the latest neuroscience research and new neuroimaging studies but also on Zen literature and his personal experience with alternate states of consciousness.Zen-Brain Reflections takes (...)
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  16. Towards a theory of privacy in the information age.James H. Moor - 1997 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 27 (3):27-32.
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  17. Three myths of computer science.James H. Moor - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):213-222.
  18.  18
    Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems.James H. Moor - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (3):455-457.
  19.  13
    Zen-Brain Reflections.James H. Austin - 2010 - MIT Press.
    This sequel to the widely read Zen and the Brain continues James Austin's explorations into the key interrelationships between Zen Buddhism and brain research. In Zen-Brain Reflections, Austin, a clinical neurologist, researcher, and Zen practitioner, examines the evolving psychological processes and brain changes associated with the path of long-range meditative training. Austin draws not only on the latest neuroscience research and new neuroimaging studies but also on Zen literature and his personal experience with alternate states of consciousness.Zen-Brain Reflections takes (...)
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  20. An analysis of the Turing test.James H. Moor - 1976 - Philosophical Studies 30 (4):249 - 257.
  21. Why we need better ethics for emerging technologies.James H. Moor - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):111-119.
    Technological revolutions are dissected into three stages: the introduction stage, the permeation stage, and the power stage. The information revolution is a primary example of this tripartite model. A hypothesis about ethics is proposed, namely, ethical problems increase as technological revolutions progress toward and into the power stage. Genetic technology, nanotechnology, and neurotechnology are good candidates for impending technological revolutions. Two reasons favoring their candidacy as revolutionary are their high degree of malleability and their convergence. Assuming the emerging technologies develop (...)
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  22.  29
    Mental Algorithms: Are Minds Computational Systems?James H. Fetzer - 1994 - Pragmatics and Cognition 2 (1):1-29.
    The idea that human thought requires the execution of mental algorithms provides a foundation for research programs in cognitive science, which are largely based upon the computational conception of language and mentality. Consideration is given to recent work by Penrose, Searle, and Cleland, who supply various grounds for disputing computationalism. These grounds in turn qualify as reasons for preferring a non-computational, semiotic approach, which can account for them as predictable manifestations of a more adquate conception. Thinking does not ordinarily require (...)
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  23.  33
    Mental algorithms: Are minds computational systems?James H. Fetzer - 1994 - Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (1):1-29.
    The idea that human thought requires the execution of mental algorithms provides a foundation for research programs in cognitive science, which are largely based upon the computational conception of language and mentality. Consideration is given to recent work by Penrose, Searle, and Cleland, who supply various grounds for disputing computationalism. These grounds in turn qualify as reasons for preferring a non-computational, semiotic approach, which can account for them as predictable manifestations of a more adquate conception. Thinking does not ordinarily require (...)
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  24.  45
    Group decision and social interaction: A theory of social decision schemes.James H. Davis - 1973 - Psychological Review 80 (2):97-125.
  25. Program verification: the very idea.James H. Fetzer - 1988 - Communications of the Acm 31 (9):1048--1063.
    The notion of program verification appears to trade upon an equivocation. Algorithms, as logical structures, are appropriate subjects for deductive verification. Programs, as causal models of those structures, are not. The success of program verification as a generally applicable and completely reliable method for guaranteeing program performance is not even a theoretical possibility.
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  26. Information: Does it Have To Be True?James H. Fetzer - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (2):223-229.
    Luciano Floridi (2003) offers a theory of information as a “strongly semantic” notion, according to which information encapsulates truth, thereby making truth a necessary condition for a sentence to qualify as “information”. While Floridi provides an impressive development of this position, the aspects of his approach of greatest philosophical significance are its foundations rather than its formalization. He rejects the conception of information as meaningful data, which entails at least three theses – that information can be false; that tautologies are (...)
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  27. The discretionary normativity of requests.James H. P. Lewis - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18:1-16.
    Being able to ask others to do things, and thereby giving them reasons to do those things, is a prominent feature of our interpersonal lives. In this paper, I discuss the distinctive normative status of requests – what makes them different from commands and demands. I argue for a theory of this normative phenomenon which explains the sense in which the reasons presented in requests are a matter of discretion. This discretionary quality, I argue, is something that other theories cannot (...)
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  28.  17
    Chase, Chance, and Creativity: The Lucky Art of Novelty.James H. Austin - 2003 - MIT Press.
    A personal story of the ways in which persistence, chance, and creativity interact in biomedical research. This first book by the author of Zen and the Brain examines the role of chance in the creative process. James Austin tells a personal story of the ways in which persistence, chance, and creativity interact in biomedical research; the conclusions he reaches shed light on the creative process in any field. Austin shows how, in his own investigations, unpredictable events shaped the outcome (...)
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  29.  28
    Hume's philosophical development.James H. Noxon - 1973 - New York,: Clarendon Press.
  30.  41
    Connectionism and cognition: Why Fodor and Pylyshyn are wrong.James H. Fetzer - 1992 - In A. Clark & Ronald Lutz (eds.), Connectionism in Context. Springer Verlag. pp. 305-319.
  31.  23
    Moral Dilemmas.James H. McGrath - 1990 - Noûs 24 (2):360-363.
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  32.  42
    "Group decision and social interaction: A theory of social decision schemes": Errata.James H. Davis - 1973 - Psychological Review 80 (4):302-302.
  33. What is computer ethics?James H. Moor - 1985 - Metaphilosophy 16 (4):266-275.
  34. The Musicality of Speech.James H. P. Lewis - 2022 - Philosophers' Imprint 22.
    It is common for people to be sensitive to aesthetic qualities in one another’s speech. We allow the loveliness or unloveliness of a person’s voice to make impressions on us. What is more, it is also common to allow those aesthetic impressions to affect how we are inclined to feel about the speaker. We form attitudes of liking, trusting, disliking or distrusting partly in virtue of the aesthetic qualities of a person’s speech. In this paper I ask whether such attitudes (...)
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  35. Just consequentialism and computing.James H. Moor - 1999 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):61-65.
    Computer and information ethics, as well as other fields of applied ethics, need ethical theories which coherently unify deontological and consequentialist aspects of ethical analysis. The proposed theory of just consequentialism emphasizes consequences of policies within the constraints of justice. This makes just consequentialism a practical and theoretically sound approach to ethical problems of computer and information ethics.
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  36. The Meaning of ΝΟΥΣ in the Posterior Analytics.James H. Lesher - 1973 - Phronesis 18 (1):44 - 68.
    In his Posterior Analytics Aristotle confronted a problem that threatened his vision of scientific knowledge as an axiomatic system: if scientific knowledge is demonstrative in character, and if the axioms of a science cannot themselves be demonstrated, then the most basic of all scientific principles will remain unknown. In the famous concluding chapter of this work (II 19), he claimed to solve this problem by distinguishing two kinds of knowledge: we cannot have epistêmê of the first principles, but we can (...)
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  37. Global Health and the Scientific Research Agenda.James H. Flory & Philip Kitcher - 2004 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (1):36-65.
  38. Varieties of Second-Personal Reason.James H. P. Lewis - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    A lineage of prominent philosophers who have discussed the second-person relation can be regarded as advancing structural accounts. They posit that the second-person relation effects one transformative change to the structure of practical reasoning. In this paper, I criticise this orthodoxy and offer an alternative, substantive account. That is, I argue that entering into second-personal relations with others does indeed affect one's practical reasoning, but it does this not by altering the structure of one's agential thought, but by changing what (...)
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  39. Relationality without obligation.James H. P. Lewis - 2022 - Analysis 82 (2):238-246.
    Some reasons are thought to depend on relations between people, such as that of a promiser to a promisee. It has sometimes been assumed that all reasons that are relational in this way are moral obligations. I argue, via a counter example, that there are non-obligatory relational reasons. If true, this has ramifications for relational theories of morality.
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  40.  71
    Professor William James' Interpretation of Religious Experience.James H. Leuba - 1904 - International Journal of Ethics 14 (3):322-339.
  41. The status and future of the Turing test.James H. Moor - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):77-93.
    The standard interpretation of the imitation game is defended over the rival gender interpretation though it is noted that Turing himself proposed several variations of his imitation game. The Turing test is then justified as an inductive test not as an operational definition as commonly suggested. Turing's famous prediction about his test being passed at the 70% level is disconfirmed by the results of the Loebner 2000 contest and the absence of any serious Turing test competitors from AI on the (...)
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  42.  39
    The Meaning of NOYΣ in the Posterior Analytics.James H. Lesher - 1973 - Phronesis 18 (1):44-68.
  43.  44
    Our complicated system: James Madison on power and liberty.James H. Read - 1995 - Political Theory 23 (3):452-475.
    It has been remarked that there is a tendency in all Governments to an augmentation of power at the expense of liberty. But the remark as usually understood does not appear to me well founded.... It is a melancholy reflection that liberty should be equally exposed to danger whether the Government have too much or too little power, and that the line which divides the extremes should be so inaccurately drawn by experience. -/- Madison, letter to Jefferson, October 17, 1788.
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  44.  52
    Reason, relativity, and responsibility in computer ethics.James H. Moor - 1998 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 28 (1):14-21.
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  45.  65
    A world of dispositions.James H. Fetzer - 1977 - Synthese 34 (4):397 - 421.
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  46.  3
    Religion With/out Religion: The Prayers and Tears of John D. Caputo.James H. Olthuis (ed.) - 2002 - Psychology Press.
    Written in response to John Caputo's The Prayers and Tears of Jacques Derrida, this work gathers together cutting-edge theologians and philosophers to examine the relationship between Derridan deconstruction and religion. Containing a lengthy counter-response by Caputo, as well as an interview, Religion With/Out Religion will be required reading for all those involved in contemporary theological debate.
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  47. Problem : Theoretical Psychology.James H. Vanderveldt - 1949 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 23:148.
     
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  48.  20
    Theoretical Psychology.James H. Vanderveldt - 1949 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 23:148-156.
  49.  5
    Theoretical Psychology.James H. Vanderveldt - 1949 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 23:148-156.
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  50.  14
    Meditating Selflessly: Practical Neural Zen.James H. Austin - 2011 - MIT Press.
    Based on the Zen philosophy about focusing away from the self, a guide to "neural Zen" meditative practices draws on recent findings in brain research to outline recommendations for various methods of pursuing a balanced, selfless state of ...
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