In this paper I argue for the view that structuralism offers the best perspective for an acceptable account of the applicability of mathematics in the empirical sciences. Structuralism, as I understand it, is the view that mathematics is not the science of a particular type of objects, but of structural properties of arbitrary domains of entities, regardless of whether they are actually existing, merely presupposed or only intentionally intended.
In this paper I discuss Husserl's solution of the problem of imaginary elements in mathematics as presented in the drafts for two lectures hegave in Göttingen in 1901 and other related texts of the same period,a problem that had occupied Husserl since the beginning of 1890, whenhe was planning a never published sequel to Philosophie der Arithmetik(1891). In order to solve the problem of imaginary entities Husserl introduced,independently of Hilbert, two notions of completeness (definiteness in Husserl'sterminology) for a formal axiomatic (...) system. I present and discuss these notionshere, establishing also parallels between Husserl's and Hilbert's notions ofcompleteness. (shrink)
In this paper I discuss the version of predicative analysis put forward by Hermann Weyl in Das Kontinuum. I try to establish how much of the underlying motivation for Weyl''s position may be due to his acceptance of a phenomenological philosophical perspective. More specifically, I analyze Weyl''s philosophical ideas in connexion with the work of Husserl, in particular Logische Untersuchungen} and Ideen .I believe that this interpretation of Weyl can clarify the views on mathematical existence and mathematical intuition which are (...) implicit in Das Kontinuum. (shrink)
This article is mainly about two things: first, exploring the gatherings of studying in the university. And second, it is about describing new relations to understand studying practices beyond the normative interventions carried out inside learning environments and the clearly demarcated functions imposed to their practice. In a certain sense, common assumptions about study recognize its importance for achieving learning goals and its capacity to be designed according to pre-conceived intentions. However, in an attempt to reconsider our understanding about studying, (...) the basic arguments here is that studying practices are constituted by open-ended activities that are guided by present interests to things that matter. Based on Theodore Schatzki’s practice theory, activities of studying were observed through scenes, where students and study-materiality join together in the event of studying at the Agora Learning Centre of KU Leuven in Belgium. Adopting a particular sensibility and narrative to describe and attend to actions and material entities entangled on studying activities, the article attempts to take a look at these activities beyond their functionality. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to take a look at ‘what is going on’ in studying practices. (shrink)
This article argues that New Granadian and Co-lombian leaders examined models of material and intellectual progress in the United States and in their neighboring countries within the hemisphere. For many Spanish-Americans, the material progress already achieved by the United States and the North Atlantic overall was an idealized end, and they looked at some U.S. institutions as potential templates. As for the means to meet such an idealized end, influential people in New Granada and Colombia found among their neighboring countries (...) a more pragmatic set of experiences that would help them foster progress in their own right. Over the second half of the nineteenth century, and more acti-vely when turning into the twentieth, some Colombian leaders sought to follow the example of countries such as Argentina, one of the front-runners of Latin American contemporary progress. (shrink)
In the first year of the twentieth century, in Gottingen, Husserl delivered two talks dealing with a problem that proved central in his philosophical development, that of imaginary elements in mathematics. In order to solve this problem Husserl introduced a logical notion, called “definiteness”, and variants of it, that are somehow related, he claimed, to Hilbert’s notions of completeness. Many different interpretations of what precisely Husserl meant by this notion, and its relations with Hilbert’s ones, have been proposed, but no (...) consensus has been reached. In this paper I approach this question afresh and thoroughly, taking into consideration not only the relevant texts and context, as others have also done before, but, more importantly, Husserl’s philosophy, his intuition-based epistemology in particular. Based on a system of clearly defined concepts that I here present, I reinforce an interpretation—definiteness as a form of syntactic completeness—that has, I believe, some advantages vis-à-vis alternative interpretations. It is in conformity with the available texts; it makes clear that Husserl’s notion of definiteness is indeed close to Hilbert’s notions of completeness; it solves the important problem of imaginaries for which it was created; and last, but not least, it fits naturally into Husserl’s system of concepts and ideas. (shrink)
This article aims to review the standard objections to dualism and to argue that will either fail to convince someone committed to dualism or are flawed on independent grounds. I begin by presenting the taxonomy of metaphysical positions on concrete particulars as they relate to the dispute between materialists and dualists, and in particular substance dualism is defined. In the first section, several kinds of substance dualism are distinguished and the relevant varieties of this kind of dualism are selected. The (...) remaining sections are analyses of the standard objections to substance dualism : It is uninformative, has troubles accounting for soul individuation, causal pairing and interaction, violates laws of physics, is made implausible by the development of neuroscience and it postulates entities beyond necessity. I conclude that none of these objections is successful. (shrink)
Roughly speaking, classical statistical physics is the branch of theoretical physics that aims to account for the thermal behaviour of macroscopic bodies in terms of a classical mechanical model of their microscopic constituents, with the help of probabilistic assumptions. In the last century and a half, a fair number of approaches have been developed to meet this aim. This study of their foundations assesses their coherence and analyzes the motivations for their basic assumptions, and the interpretations of their central concepts. (...) The most outstanding foundational problems are the explanation of time-asymmetry in thermal behaviour, the relative autonomy of thermal phenomena from their microscopic underpinning, and the meaning of probability. A more or less historic survey is given of the work of Maxwell, Boltzmann and Gibbs in statistical physics, and the problems and objections to which their work gave rise. Next, we review some modern approaches to (i) equilibrium statistical mechanics, such as ergodic theory and the theory of the thermodynamic limit; and to (ii) non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as provided by Lanford's work on the Boltzmann equation, the so-called Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon approach, and stochastic approaches such as `coarse-graining' and the `open systems' approach. In all cases, we focus on the subtle interplay between probabilistic assumptions, dynamical assumptions, initial conditions and other ingredients used in these approaches. (shrink)
This study investigates the effects of internal and external corporate governance and monitoring mechanisms on the choice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement and the value of firms engaging in CSR activities. The study finds the CSR choice is positively associated with the internal and external corporate governance and monitoring mechanisms, including board leadership, board independence, institutional ownership, analyst following, and anti- takeover provisions, after controlling for various firm characteristics. After correcting for endogeneity and simultaneity issues, the results show that (...) CSR engagement positively influences firm value measured by industry-adjusted Tobin’s q. We find that the impact of analyst following for firms that engage in CSR on firm value is strongly positive, while the board leadership, board independence, blockholders’ ownership, and institutional ownership play a relatively weaker role in enhancing firm value. Furthermore, we find that CSR activities that address internal social enhancement within the firm, such as employees diversity, firm relationship with its employees, and product quality, enhance the value of firm more than other CSR subcategories for broader external social enhancement such as community relation and environmental concerns. (shrink)
Resumen El sujeto es negatividad, pero esto no es ninguna carencia o falta, al contrario, es potencia: La sustancia, su autocontracción en un punto vacío, es la singularidad como lo opuesto a la particularidad el sujeto es el poder de la negatividad. Así la negatividad del sujeto es eso que va más allá de cualquier sustancia particular. La negatividad de la que plantea este trabajo tomará la vía que se propone desde la propuesta del filósofo esloveno Zizek desde su apuesta (...) hegeliano- lacaniana. En esa propuesta ya no se trata de poder recuperar a ese Otro a como dé lugar, situación que podría explicar muchas de las manifestaciones subjetivas en el siglo XXI, donde el sujeto al pretender reactivamente taponar la inconsistencia del Otro, tapona la fisura de mismo del sujeto. La practica psicoanalítica desde la negatividad apuesta por un trabajo que bordee ese agujero, dicha práctica en vez de apuntar a un yo positivizado para llenar ese vacío constitutivo del sujeto, se apuesta por el vacío no sólo del sujeto sino del Otro para constituir un proyecto común donde la negatividad sea tratada desde un saber hacer que no la desconozca sino la enfrente. (shrink)
For 170 years, Harriet Taylor Mill has been presented as a footnote in John Stuart Mill’s life. This volume gives her a separate voice. Readers may assess for themselves the importance and influence of her ideas on "women’s" issues such as marriage and divorce, education, domestic violence, and suffrage. And they will note the overlap of her ideas on ethics, religion, arts, and socialism, written in the 1830s, with her more famous husband’s works, published 25 years later.
The purpose of this investigation is to establish the interference of Artificial Intelligence in the legal field, with special attention to the legal decision. For this, a descriptive analysis of its use in judicial, administrative and legislative decisions is carried out addressing scenarios of substantive, procedural and probative law in order to solve the following legal question: Is artificial intelligence an instrument to adopt legal decisions or Is it a new entity that generates legal decisions? This question is developed taking (...) into account different sources of law, including judicial pronouncements, doctrine and legislation that develops the use of artificial intelligence, which are analyzed with government and state policies that have raised their incorporation into the field of law. (shrink)
Este artículo contiene la edición y traducción al castellano de cinco cartas conservadas en el Archivo nacional de la Torre do Tombo. Estos documentos datan de la primera mitad del siglo XVI y forman parte de la correspondencia procedente de las plazas portuguesas en el Norte de África. Desde un punto de vista lingüístico, las cartas se caracterizan por estar escritas en árabe medio, una variedad de lengua que presenta importantes divergencias gramaticales con respecto a la norma del árabe clásico (...) y en la cual se combinan elementos dialectales y otros del árabe estándar. (shrink)
El siglo XXI inaugura la era de la post-Verdad como espectáculo visual que favorece las apariencias por encima de todo lo demás. Pero de forma esquizofrénica, la aceptación social de la mentira choca frontalmente con la mantenida idealización de la Verdad como espejo objetivo de los hechos, que continúa siendo la hoja de ruta regulatoria de Occidente y su eurocentrismo. Las víctimas parecen quedar así atrapadas así entre el precipicio del espejo objetivante y el abismo de la post-Verdad espectacularizada, dos (...) formas de absolutización de la Verdad al vaivén de las voluntades e intereses de poder. Este artículo parte de esta bipolaridad paradójica contemporánea, para, a través del debilitamiento epistémico de la Verdad propuesto por el filósofo Gianni Vattimo, atajar la cuestión de dignidad y la justicia de las víctimas. La debilitación epistémica de la Verdad que plantea Vattimo abre efectivamente las posibilidades para una transformación democrática, pero nada garantiza qué ni quiénes vayan a sacar partido de esa apertura debolista. Para ser transformadora, la Verdad deja de ser absoluta, incluso de pretenderlo, pero sin perder por ello la referencia de criterios que habitan las vidas humanas dignas como fuente corporal. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to analyse the relation between the second law of thermodynamics and the so-called arrow of time. For this purpose, a number of different aspects in this arrow of time are distinguished, in particular those of time-reversal (non-)invariance and of (ir)reversibility. Next I review versions of the second law in the work of Carnot, Clausius, Kelvin, Planck, Gibbs, Caratheodory and Lieb and Yngvason, and investigate their connection with these aspects of the arrow of time. It (...) is shown that this connection varies a great deal along with these formulations of the second law. According to the famous formulation by Planck, the second law expresses the irreversibility of natural processes. But in many other formulations irreversibility or even time-reversal non-invariance plays no role. I therefore argue for the view that the second law has nothing to do with the arrow of time. (shrink)
In this article, we examine the empirical association between corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement by investigating their causal effects. Employing a large and extensive US sample, we first find that while the lag of CSR does not affect CG variables, the lag of CG variables positively affects firms’ CSR engagement, after controlling for various firm characteristics. In addition, to examine the relative importance of stakeholder theory and agency theory regarding the associations among CSR, CG, and corporate (...) financial performance (CFP), we also examine the relation between CSR and CFP. After correcting for endogeneity bias, our results show that CSR engagement positively influences CFP, supporting the conflict-resolution hypothesis based on stakeholder theory, but not the CSR overinvestment argument based on agency theory. Furthermore, firms’ CSR engagement with the community, environment, diversity, and employees plays a significantly positive role in enhancing CFP. (shrink)
I discuss here the pragmatic problem in the philosophy of mathematics, that is, the applicability of mathematics, particularly in empirical science, in its many variants. My point of depart is that all sciences are formal, descriptions of formal-structural properties instantiated in their domain of interest regardless of their material specificity. It is, then, possible and methodologically justified as far as science is concerned to substitute scientific domains proper by whatever domains —mathematical domains in particular— whose formal structures bear relevant formal (...) similarities with them. I also discuss the consequences to the ontology of mathematics and empirical science of this structuralist approach. (shrink)
Jairo Moreno adapts the methodologies and nomenclature of Foucault’s "archaeology of knowledge" and applies it through individual case studies to the theoretical writings of Zarlino, Descartes, Rameau, and Weber. His conclusion summarizes the conditions—musical, philosophical, and historical—that "make a certain form of thought about music necessary and possible at the time it emerges." Musical Meaning and Interpretation—Robert S. Hatten, editor.
De acordo com Feenberg existe uma pluralidade de modelos alternativos na origem dos objetos técnicos. Para ele, há uma série de possíveis configurações de dispositivos capazes de realizar as mesmas funções de forma eficiente. Há interesses diferentes presentes nos vários agentes envolvidos no plano de construção desses objetos que se apresentam diferenças sutis em relação ao funcionamento e à preferência por este ou aquele tipo de desenho do que pode ser denominado como o mesmo dispositivo. Para Feenberg, há uma grande (...) variedade de soluções para os problemas técnicos e as soluções estão pendentes e podem se tornar objeto de disputa política. Nossa intenção é mostrar a partir de uma determinada compreensão da atividade artística qual é a direção técnica que ela demanda no processo de design dos objetos técnicos. Compreendemos a atividade artística como atividade de fabulação de mundos e de criação de pequenos universos com sentido, o que nos permitirá pensar em um vetor de transformação da tecnologia. Trata-se da requisição na projetação dos objetos técnicos de uma dimensão de abertura técnica neles para a construção de novos mundos artísticos. (shrink)
The target article by Locke & Bogin (L&B) focuses on the evolution of language as a communicative tool. They neglect, however, that from infancy onwards humans have the ability to go beyond successful behaviour and to reflect upon language (and other domains of knowledge) as a problem space in its own right. This ability is not found in other species and may well be what makes humans unique.
Psychiatric diagnoses such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are primarily attributed on the basis of behavioral criteria. The aim of most of the biomedical research on ASD is to uncover the underlying mechanisms that lead to or even cause pathological behavior. However, in the philosophical and sociological literature, it has been suggested that autism is also to some extent a ‘social construct’ that cannot merely be reduced to its biological explanation. We show that a one-sided adherence to either a biological (...) or a social explanation leads to a moral dilemma, a Catch-22, for autistics and for those living with them. Such explanations close the space for self-identifying as autistic and at the same time being considered to be in good mental health. They foreclose the possibility of making sense of the lived experience of (and with) autistics. In this paper we argue that such lack of space for moral imagination inherently leads to scientific stalemate. We propose that one can only go beyond this stalemate by taking an ethical stance in theorizing, one that enables better intersubjective understanding. Only on such a view can behavior and biology be linked without either disconnecting them or reducing the one to the other. (shrink)
In this paper I discuss the version of predicative analysis put forward by Hermann Weyl in "Das Kontinuum". I try to establish how much of the underlying motivation for Weyl's position may be due to his acceptance of a phenomenological philosophical perspective. More specifically, I analyze Weyl's philosophical ideas in connexion with the work of Husserl, in particular "Logische Untersuchungen" and "Ideen I". I believe that this interpretation of Weyl can clarify the views on mathematical existence and mathematical intuition which (...) are implicit in "Das Kontinuum". (shrink)
This cumulative index to the thirty-seven volumes of The Collected Works of John Dewey, 1882–1953, is an invaluable guide to The Collected Works. The Collected Works Contents incorporates all the tables of contents of Dewey’s individual volumes, providing a chronological, volume-by-volume overview of every item in _The Early Works, The Middle Works, _and _The Later Works. _ The Title Index lists alphabetically by shortened titles and by key words all items in The Collected Works. Articles republished in the collections listed (...) above are also grouped under the titles of those books. The Subject Index, which includes all information in the original volume indexes, expands that information by adding the authors of introductions to each volume, authors and titles of books Dewey reviewed or introduced, authors of appendix items, and relevant details from the source notes. (shrink)
Resumen: El artículo es la primera parte de un trabajo académico que estudia los fundamentos teórico-conceptuales de la propuesta metodológica de Norman Fairclough e Isabela Fairclough, especialmente la relación entre el concepto de contexto y deliberación con los que sustentan que el discurso político de un determinado actor político para ser político debe pertenecer a un contexto institucionalizado. Tesis que defienden desde la naturaleza política de Aristóteles concebida como un medio para llegar cooperativamente y a través de la acción de (...) la deliberación a asuntos de interés común. Si bien la naturaleza de la política en Aristóteles tiene como esencia la acción humana y la deliberación, también es claro en su política que los esclavos no deliberan. Se pretende mostrar la manera como Norman Fairclough e Isabela Fairclough lidian con la exclusión aristotélica para contribuir al desarrollo teórico-conceptual del análisis crítico del discurso.: This article is the first part of an academic work that studies the theoretical-conceptual foundations of the methodological proposal of Norman Fairclough and Isabela Fairclough, especially the relationship between the concept of context and deliberation with those who support that the political discourse of a given political actor must belong to an institutionalized context. Thesis that they defend from the concept of political nature from Aristotle, conceived to arrive cooperatively and through the action of deliberation to matters of common interest. While the nature of Aristotle's politics is based on human action and deliberation, it is also clear in its policy that slaves do not deliberate. It is intended to show the way Norman Fairclough and Isabela Fairclough deal with Aristotelian exclusion to contribute to the theoretical-conceptual development of critical discourse analysis. (shrink)
I attempt to make a fresh start on the subject of the interaction between the Isaiah prophets and Mesopotamian culture. The results will probably surprise and even alarm, since they threaten to overturn a great deal of previous scholarship and to gore a number of sacred cows. First is the idea that 1st Isaiah is either the work of the historical prophet or was composed, along with the rest of the Hebrew Bible, in the Persian or Hellenistic period. I have (...) no doubt that some passages are to be connected with the historical prophet, but not merely one or two but indeed the bulk of 1st Isaiah’s prophecies, albeit often pre-exilic in origin, are, in my view, too late to be contemporary with Isaiah himself. (shrink)
The current techno-scientific revolution has transformed the concepts of person and human being. Techno-scientific developments raise questions about our very own humanity and bring again the Übermensch, about whom Nietzsche once spoke, for discussion. Technology has increased the desire to modify our human condition, aiming for the perfection of the physical, intellectual and psychological abilities. Different sciences and disciplines have had the necessity to adapt themselves to these techno-scientific transformations. Psychology has not been the exception and, because of that, a (...) new paradigm of approaching the human mind has been recently established. Concepts such as cybertherapy, virtual reality therapy to treat patients with phobias, and the use of Artificial Intelligence have revolutionized Psychology. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to establish whether the use of Artificial Intelligence in Psychotherapy actually contributes to the improvement of human beings by making possible progress within the field of Mental Health Care or, on the contrary, it poses a risk to humanity, which might face the possibility of replacing human therapists with intelligent machines. (shrink)
This article is a product of research about global public policies. In this is proposes an ethical basis of international cooperation as a GPP capable of providing public world goods of the international system. Through an analysis of the recent theoretical framework of IC it is concluded that such theories, even those that do not declare it explicitly, are based on Kantian cosmopolitan ethics. Even those theories that are based on the hobbesian premise of natural anarchy in state of war. (...) In this article also is suggests the urgency of an international governance system with a GPP focused in cooperation and capable to providing the world's supreme public good: The peace with human security. (shrink)
O artigo discute as proposições de Erick Felinto (2011) sobre a epistemologia da comunicação. No artigo, discutimos alguns tópicos que consideramos centrais em seus argumentos: o reconhecimento das reflexões epistemológicas no Brasil, a diferença entre teoria e epistemologia, política e epistemologia, e a comunicação como objeto inclusive no âmbito dos processos midiáticos. Além de reiterar a questão de campo como um dos eixos de reflexão epistemologia e a centralidade da comunicação como objeto de perguntas e proposições da área, desenvolvemos a (...) proposição da epistemologia como espaço clínico-reflexivo coletivo. (shrink)
Although argumentation plays an essential role in our lives, there is no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Instead research on argumentation is conducted in a number of separate research communities that are spread across disciplines and have only limited interaction. With a view to bridging these different strands, we first distinguish between three meanings of the word ?argument?: argument as a reason, argument as a structured sequence of reasons and claims, and argument as a social exchange. (...) All three meanings are integral to a complete understanding of human reasoning and cognition. Cognitive psychological research on argumentation has focused mostly on the first and second of these meanings, so we present perspectives on argumentation from outside of cognitive psychology, which focus on the second and third. Specifically, we give anoverview of the methods, goals, and disciplinary backgrounds of research on the production, the analysis, and the evaluation of arguments. Finally, inintroducing the experimental studies included in this special issue, which were conducted by researchers from a range of theoretical backgrounds, weunderline the breadth of argumentation research as well as stress opportunities for mutual awareness and integration. (shrink)
The whole of Montaigne's work can be read as a great educational proposal: to know oneself better in order to build oneself better and face life better. In this article we will examine a reading from a vital dialectic of education in, The Essays. A dialectic that starts from Montaigne's individual experience, moves through the entire human condition, and returns to the reader willing to be analyzed. From this dialogical perspective, training in judgment is studied as a nodal point in (...) the educational process, in which the teacher plays a fundamental role. In conclusion, a tentative proposal of Montaigne’s curriculum is asserted in which philosophy has a fundamental role, by offering elements to converse with life. (shrink)