Results for 'Jacob M. Pollock'

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  1.  9
    Economic Globalization and Labor Rights: a Disaggregated Analysis.Dursun Peksen & Jacob M. Pollock - 2021 - Human Rights Review 22 (3):279-301.
    Does economic globalization create a “race to the bottom” or a “race to the top” in labor rights practices? Despite significant research on the possible impact of economic globalization on labor conditions, little consensus exists as to whether and what forms of economic openness might help or undermine labor rights. In this study, we illustrate the significance of considering the two distinct processes of de facto and de jure globalization. We argue that whereas de facto globalization in the form of (...)
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  2. Totalism Without Repugnance.Jacob M. Nebel - 2022 - In Jeff McMahan, Tim Campbell, James Goodrich & Ketan Ramakrishnan (eds.), Ethics and Existence: The Legacy of Derek Parfit. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 200-231.
    Totalism is the view that one distribution of well-being is better than another just in case the one contains a greater sum of well-being than the other. Many philosophers, following Parfit, reject totalism on the grounds that it entails the repugnant conclusion: that, for any number of excellent lives, there is some number of lives that are barely worth living whose existence would be better. This paper develops a theory of welfare aggregation—the lexical-threshold view—that allows totalism to avoid the repugnant (...)
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  3. The Good, the Bad, and the Transitivity of Better Than.Jacob M. Nebel - 2018 - Noûs 52 (4):874-899.
    The Rachels–Temkin spectrum arguments against the transitivity of better than involve good or bad experiences, lives, or outcomes that vary along multiple dimensions—e.g., duration and intensity of pleasure or pain. This paper presents variations on these arguments involving combinations of good and bad experiences, which have even more radical implications than the violation of transitivity. These variations force opponents of transitivity to conclude that something good is worse than something that isn’t good, on pain of rejecting the good altogether. That (...)
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  4. Hopes, Fears, and Other Grammatical Scarecrows.Jacob M. Nebel - 2019 - Philosophical Review 128 (1):63-105.
    The standard view of "believes" and other propositional attitude verbs is that such verbs express relations between agents and propositions. A sentence of the form “S believes that p” is true just in case S stands in the belief-relation to the proposition that p; this proposition is the referent of the complement clause "that p." On this view, we would expect the clausal complements of propositional attitude verbs to be freely intersubstitutable with their corresponding proposition descriptions—e.g., "the proposition that p"—as (...)
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  5. Normative Reasons as Reasons Why We Ought.Jacob M. Nebel - 2019 - Mind 128 (510):459-484.
    I defend the view that a reason for someone to do something is just a reason why she ought to do it. This simple view has been thought incompatible with the existence of reasons to do things that we may refrain from doing or even ought not to do. For it is widely assumed that there are reasons why we ought to do something only if we ought to do it. I present several counterexamples to this principle and reject some (...)
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  6. Aggregation Without Interpersonal Comparisons of Well‐Being.Jacob M. Nebel - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    This paper is about the role of interpersonal comparisons in Harsanyi's aggregation theorem. Harsanyi interpreted his theorem to show that a broadly utilitarian theory of distribution must be true even if there are no interpersonal comparisons of well-being. How is this possible? The orthodox view is that it is not. Some argue that the interpersonal comparability of well-being is hidden in Harsanyi's premises. Others argue that it is a surprising conclusion of Harsanyi's theorem, which is not presupposed by any one (...)
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  7. Calibration Dilemmas in the Ethics of Distribution.Jacob M. Nebel & H. Orri Stefánsson - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    This paper presents a new kind of problem in the ethics of distribution. The problem takes the form of several “calibration dilemmas,” in which intuitively reasonable aversion to small-stakes inequalities requires leading theories of distribution to recommend intuitively unreasonable aversion to large-stakes inequalities. We first lay out a series of such dilemmas for prioritarian theories. We then consider a widely endorsed family of egalitarian views and show that they are subject to even more forceful calibration dilemmas than prioritarian theories. Finally, (...)
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  8. An Intrapersonal Addition Paradox.Jacob M. Nebel - 2019 - Ethics 129 (2):309-343.
    I present a new argument for the repugnant conclusion. The core of the argument is a risky, intrapersonal analogue of the mere addition paradox. The argument is important for three reasons. First, some solutions to Parfit’s original puzzle do not obviously generalize to the intrapersonal puzzle in a plausible way. Second, it raises independently important questions about how to make decisions under uncertainty for the sake of people whose existence might depend on what we do. And, third, it suggests various (...)
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  9. Status Quo Bias, Rationality, and Conservatism About Value.Jacob M. Nebel - 2015 - Ethics 125 (2):449-476.
    Many economists and philosophers assume that status quo bias is necessarily irrational. I argue that, in some cases, status quo bias is fully rational. I discuss the rationality of status quo bias on both subjective and objective theories of the rationality of preferences. I argue that subjective theories cannot plausibly condemn this bias as irrational. I then discuss one kind of objective theory, which holds that a conservative bias toward existing things of value is rational. This account can fruitfully explain (...)
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  10. Utils and Shmutils.Jacob M. Nebel - 2021 - Ethics 131 (3):571-599.
    Matthew Adler's Measuring Social Welfare is an introduction to the social welfare function (SWF) methodology. This essay questions some ideas at the core of the SWF methodology having to do with the relation between the SWF and the measure of well-being. The facts about individual well-being do not single out a particular scale on which well-being must be measured. As with physical quantities, there are multiple scales that can be used to represent the same information about well-being; no one scale (...)
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  11. Consequences of Comparability.Cian Dorr, Jacob M. Nebel & Jake Zuehl - 2021 - Philosophical Perspectives 35 (1):70-98.
    We defend three controversial claims about preference, credence, and choice. First, all agents (not just rational ones) have complete preferences. Second, all agents (again, not just rational ones) have real-valued credences in every proposition in which they are confident to any degree. Third, there is almost always some unique thing we ought to do, want, or believe.
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  12. Priority, Not Equality, for Possible People.Jacob M. Nebel - 2017 - Ethics 127 (4):896-911.
    How should we choose between uncertain prospects in which different possible people might exist at different levels of wellbeing? Alex Voorhoeve and Marc Fleurbaey offer an egalitarian answer to this question. I give some reasons to reject their answer and then sketch an alternative, which I call person-affecting prioritarianism.
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  13. Rank-Weighted Utilitarianism and the Veil of Ignorance.Jacob M. Nebel - 2020 - Ethics 131 (1):87-106.
    Lara Buchak argues for a version of rank-weighted utilitarianism that assigns greater weight to the interests of the worse off. She argues that our distributive principles should be derived from the preferences of rational individuals behind a veil of ignorance, who ought to be risk averse. I argue that Buchak’s appeal to the veil of ignorance leads to a particular way of extending rank-weighted utilitarianism to the evaluation of uncertain prospects. This method recommends choices that violate the unanimous preferences of (...)
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  14. Ethics Without Numbers.Jacob M. Nebel - manuscript
    The most rigorous framework for theorizing about the measurement and aggregation of value is the framework of social welfare functionals developed by Amartya Sen. In this framework, a social or overall betterness ordering is assigned to each possible profile of real-valued utility functions. Different possibilities for the measurability and interpersonal comparability of well-being are captured, in this framework, by invariance conditions, which require the same ordering to be assigned to profiles that are deemed informationally equivalent. But these invariance conditions are (...)
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  15. Corporate Directors and Social Responsibility: Ethics Versus Shareholder Value.Jacob M. Rose - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (3):319-331.
    This paper reports on the results of an experiment conducted with experienced corporate directors. The study findings indicate that directors employ prospective rationality cognition, and they sometimes make decisions that emphasize legal defensibility at the expense of personal ethics and social responsibility. Directors recognize the ethical and social implications of their decisions, but they believe that current corporate law requires them to pursue legal courses of action that maximize shareholder value. The results suggest that additional ethics education will have little (...)
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  16. Sex Rights for the Disabled?Jacob M. Appel - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (3):152-154.
    The public discourse surrounding sex and severe disability over the past 40 years has largely focused on protecting vulnerable populations from abuse. However, health professionals and activists are increasingly recognising the inherent sexuality of disabled persons and attempting to find ways to accommodate their intimacy needs. This essay explores several ethical issues arising from such efforts.
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  17.  65
    Marx Via Feuerbach: Species-Being Revisited.Jacob M. Held - 2009 - Idealistic Studies 39 (1-3):137-148.
    Although there has been consistent interest in Marx and Marxism there has been little sustained interest in the origins of Marx’s ethical thought and his relation to the German philosophical tradition as a whole. Work has been done linking Marx to Fichte, and a great deal more linking him to Hegel. However, the fundamental concept joining them all is recognition, or interpersonal relations in general. In this regard, none of the German thinkers can be understood withoutfirst grasping their understanding of (...)
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  18. Conflicts Among Multinational Ethical and Scientific Standards for Clinical Trials of Therapeutic Interventions.Jacob M. Kolman, Nelda P. Wray, Carol M. Ashton, Danielle M. Wenner, Anna F. Jarman & Baruch A. Brody - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):99-121.
    There has been a growing concern over establishing norms that ensure the ethically acceptable and scientifically sound conduct of clinical trials. Among the leading norms internationally are the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, guidelines by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, the International Conference on Harmonization's standards for industry, and the CONSORT group's reporting norms, in addition to the influential U.S. Federal Common Rule, Food and Drug Administration's body of regulations, and information sheets by the Department of (...)
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  19. A Fixed-Population Problem for the Person-Affecting Restriction.Jacob M. Nebel - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (9):2779-2787.
    According to the person-affecting restriction, one distribution of welfare can be better than another only if there is someone for whom it is better. Extant problems for the person-affecting restriction involve variable-population cases, such as the nonidentity problem, which are notoriously controversial and difficult to resolve. This paper develops a fixed-population problem for the person-affecting restriction. The problem reveals that, in the presence of incommensurable welfare levels, the person-affecting restriction is incompatible with minimal requirements of impartial beneficence even in fixed-population (...)
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  20. Neonatal Euthanasia: Why Require Parental Consent? [REVIEW]Jacob M. Appel - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (4):477-482.
    The Dutch rules governing neonatal euthanasia, known as the Groningen Protocol, require parental consent for severely disabled infants with poor prognoses to have their lives terminated. This paper questions whether parental consent should be dispositive in such cases, and argues that the potential suffering of the neonate or pediatric patient should be the decisive factor under such unfortunate circumstances.
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  21.  53
    Asymmetries in the Friendship Preferences and Social Styles of Men and Women.Jacob M. Vigil - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (2):143-161.
    Several hypotheses on the form and function of sex differences in social behaviors were tested. The results suggest that friendship preferences in both sexes can be understood in terms of perceived reciprocity potential—capacity and willingness to engage in a mutually beneficial relationship. Divergent social styles may in turn reflect trade-offs between behaviors selected to maintain large, functional coalitions in men and intimate, secure relationships in women. The findings are interpreted from a broad socio-relational framework of the types of behaviors that (...)
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  22.  14
    The Effects of Compensation Structures and Monetary Rewards on Managers’ Decisions to Blow the Whistle.Jacob M. Rose, Alisa G. Brink & Carolyn Strand Norman - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):853-862.
    Recent research indicates that compensation structure can be used by firms to discourage their employees from whistleblowing. We extend the ethics literature by examining how compensation structures and financial rewards work together to influence managers’ decisions to blow the whistle. Results from an experiment indicate that compensation with restricted stock, relative to stock payments that lack restrictions, can enhance the likelihood that managers will blow the whistle when large rewards are available. However, restricted stock can also threaten the effectiveness of (...)
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  23. Asymmetries in the Value of Existence.Jacob M. Nebel - 2019 - Philosophical Perspectives 33 (1):126-145.
    According to asymmetric comparativism, it is worse for a person to exist with a miserable life than not to exist, but it is not better for a person to exist with a happy life than not to exist. My aim in this paper is to explain how asymmetric comparativism could possibly be true. My account of asymmetric comparativism begins with a different asymmetry, regarding the (dis)value of early death. I offer an account of this early death asymmetry, appealing to the (...)
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  24. The Case for Comparability.Cian Dorr, Jacob M. Nebel & Jake Zuehl - forthcoming - Noûs.
    We argue that all gradable expressions in natural language obey a principle that we call Comparability: if x and y are both F to some degree, then either x is at least as F as y or y is at least as F as x. This principle has been widely rejected among philosophers, especially by ethicists, and its falsity has been claimed to have important normative implications. We argue that Comparability is needed to explain the goodness of several patterns of (...)
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  25.  94
    A Suicide Right for the Mentally Ill? A Swiss Case Opens a New Debate.Jacob M. Appel - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (3):21-23.
  26.  20
    Embodied Simulation and the Search for Meaning Are Not Necessary for Facial Expression Processing.Jacob M. Vigil & Patrick Coulombe - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):461 - 463.
    Embodied simulation and the epistemic motivation to search for the of other people's behaviors are not necessary for specific and functional responding to, and hence processing of, human facial expressions. Rather, facial expression processing can be achieved through lower-cognitive, heuristical perceptual processing and expression of prototypical morphological musculature movement patterns that communicate discrete trustworthiness and capacity cues to conspecifics.
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  27.  37
    Trade-Offs in Low-Income Women’s Mate Preferences.Jacob M. Vigil, David C. Geary & Jennifer Byrd-Craven - 2006 - Human Nature 17 (3):319-336.
    A sample of 460 low-income women completed a mate preference questionnaire and surveys that assessed family background, life history, conscientiousness, sexual motives, self-ratings (e.g., looks), and current circumstances (e.g., income). A cluster analysis revealed two groups of women: women who reported a strong preference for looks and money in a short-term mate and commitment in a long-term mate, and women who reported smaller differences across mating context. Group differences were found in reported educational levels, family background, sexual development, number of (...)
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  28.  22
    Medical Repatriation Does Not Justify Hospital Entanglement in Nonmedical Matters.Jacob M. Appel - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (9):9-11.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 9, Page 9-11, September 2012.
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  29.  1
    Substituted Judgment for the Never-Capacitated: Crossing Storar's Bridge Too Far.Jacob M. Appel - 2022 - Bioethics 36 (2):225-231.
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  30.  15
    Dr. Seuss and Philosophy: Oh, the Thinks You Can Think!Jacob M. Held (ed.) - 2011 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Anyone who loves Dr. Seuss or is interested in philosophy will find this book to be intriguing and enlightening.
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  31. The Failure of Political Islam.Jacob M. Landau - 1996 - History of European Ideas 22 (2):185-186.
  32.  13
    Medical School: The Wrong Applicant Pool?Jacob M. Appel - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (2):6-8.
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  33.  24
    Research Guidelines: Changes Urged.Jacob M. Appel - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (s4):103-104.
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  34.  74
    May Doctors Refuse Infertility Treatments to Gay Patients?Jacob M. Appel - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (4):20-21.
  35.  92
    Pornography as Symptom: Refocusing the Anti-Pornography Debate on Pornification and Sexualization.Jacob M. Held - 2013 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 20 (1):15-27.
    Anti-Porn activists have argued for decades that pom is discrimination, it hamis women as a class. The Pro-porn response has been to dismiss these concems, laud the First Amendment, or argue that pornography is a valuable contribution to society. The debate has progressed little beyond this stage. In this article, I argue that it is time to frame the pomography debate as a discussion on sexualized media in general. Recent research indicates that the negative results often attributed to hard-core pornography, (...)
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  36.  14
    Research Guidelines: Changes Urged.Jacob M. Appel - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (4_suppl):103-104.
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  37.  1
    Roald Dahl and Philosophy: A Little Nonsense Now and Then.Jacob M. Held (ed.) - 2014 - Rowman and Littlefield.
    SpanFor generations the elements of humor, poignancy, fantasy, and unfettered morality found within acclaimed children's author Roald Dahl's most famous tales have captivated both children and adults. Editor Jacob M. Held has collected the insights of today's leading philosophers into the significances, messages, and greater truths at which Dahl's rhythmic writing winks, revealing a whole new way to appreciate the creation of a man and mind to which readers of all ages are still drawn. /span...
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  38.  3
    Divided Loyalties: Fire and ICE.Jacob M. Appel - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (6):4-5.
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  39.  19
    Ethics: English High Court Orders Separation of Conjoined Twins.Jacob M. Appel - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (3):312-313.
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  40.  41
    Toward an Ethical Eugenics.Jacob M. Appel - 2012 - Jona’s Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 14 (1):7-13.
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  41.  27
    Ethics: English High Court Orders Separation of Conjoined Twins.Jacob M. Appel - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (3):312-318.
  42.  37
    Castration Anxiety: Physicians, “Do No Harm,” and Chemical Sterilization Laws.Jacob M. Appel - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):85-91.
    Chemical castration laws, such as one recently adopted in the U.S. State of Louisiana, raise challenging ethical concerns for physicians. Even if such interventions were to prove efficacious, which is far from certain, they would still raise troubling concerns regarding the degree of medical risk that may be imposed upon prisoners in the name of public safety as well as the appropriate role for physicians and other health care professionals in the administration of pharmaceuticals to competent prisoners over the inmates’ (...)
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  43.  6
    If It Ducks Like a Quack: Balancing Physician Freedom of Expression and the Public Interest.Jacob M. Appel - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2021-107256.
    Physicians expressing opinions on medical matters that run contrary to the consensus of experts pose a challenge to licensing bodies and regulatory authorities. While the right to express contrarian views feeds a robust marketplace of ideas that is essential for scientific progress, physicians advocating ineffective or dangerous cures, or actively opposing public health measures, pose a grave threat to societal welfare. Increasingly, a distinction has been made between professional speech that occurs during the physician-patient encounter and public speech that transpires (...)
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  44.  11
    Upscaling Lithology and Porosity-Type Fractions From the Micro- to the Core-Scale with Thin-Section Petrography, Dual-Energy Computed Tomography, and Rock Typing: Creation of Diagenesis and Porosity-Type Logs.Jacob M. Proctor, André W. Droxler, Naum Derzhi, Heath H. Hopson, Paul Harris, Pankaj Khanna & Daniel J. Lehrmann - 2019 - Interpretation 7 (1):B9-B32.
    We have developed and validated a new approach to upscale lithology and porosity-type fractions from thin sections to cores using dual energy and multiscale computed tomography. A new rock-typing approach is proposed to upscale ⇋diagenetic mineral and diagenetic pore-type fractions, from thin sections to the core domain, eventually to create a diagenesis and porosity types logs. An extensive set of short cores from Mason County provides a representative sample set of Late Cambrian microbial buildups and their interbuildup sediments to test (...)
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  45.  4
    Main Trends of Turkish Nationalism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.Jacob M. Landau - 1992 - History of European Ideas 15 (4-6):567-569.
  46.  7
    Review of Bioethics in Action Baylis, Francoise and Dreger, Alice, Eds. Bioethics in Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. Vii + 177 Pp. $29.00. [REVIEW]Jacob M. Appel - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):W1-W2.
    Practitioners of bioethics engage in a wide range of endeavors from hospital-based clinical consultation to commentary in both academic and broader public forums. “Impact ethics” is either an orien...
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  47.  36
    Patriotic Correctness: Academic Freedom and Its Enemies. [REVIEW]Jacob M. Held - 2009 - Teaching Philosophy 32 (3):322-325.
  48.  15
    What is History? The George Macaulay Trevelyan Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, January-March 1961.Jacob M. Price & Edward Hallett Carr - 1963 - History and Theory 3 (1):136.
  49. L'Islam: Politique et croyance.Jacob M. Landau - 1994 - History of European Ideas 18 (4):609-609.
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  50. Organ Solicitation on the Internet: Every Man for Himself: Commentary.Jacob M. Appel - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (3):14-15.
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