The action-reaction principle (AR) is examined in three contexts: (1) the inertial-gravitational interaction between a particle and space-time geometry, (2) protective observation of an extended wave function of a single particle, and (3) the causal-stochastic or Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. A new criterion of reality is formulated using the AR principle. This criterion implies that the wave function of a single particle is real and justifies in the Bohm interpretation the dual ontology of the particle and its associated wave (...) function. But it is concluded that the Bohm theory is not dynamically complete because the particle and its associated wave function do not satisfy the AR principle. (shrink)
Protective measurement, which we have introduced recently, allows one to observe properties of the state of a single quantum system and even the Schrödinger wave itself. These measurements require a protection, sometimes due to an additional procedure and sometimes due to the potential of the system itself The analysis of the protective measurements is presented and it is argued, contrary to recent claims, that they observe the quantum state and not the protective potential. Some other misunderstandings concerning our proposal are (...) also clarified. (shrink)
It is argued that quantum mechanics is fundamentally a geometric theory. This is illustrated by means of the connection and symplectic structures associated with the projective Hilbert space, using which the geometric phase can be understood. A prescription is given for obtaining the geometric phase from the motion of a time dependent invariant along a closed curve in a parameter space, which may be finite dimensional even for nonadiabatic cyclic evolutions in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Using the natural metric (...) on the projective space, we reformulate Schrödinger's equation for an isolated system. This metric is generalized to the space of all density matrices, and a physical meaning is proposed. (shrink)
The relationship between physics and geometry is examined in classical and quantum physics based on the view that the symmetry group of physics and the automorphism group of the geometry are the same. Examination of quantum phenomena reveals that the space-time manifold is not appropriate for quantum theory. A different conception of geometry for quantum theory on the group manifold, which may be an arbitrary Lie group, is proposed. This provides a unified description of gravity and gauge fields as well (...) as generalizations of these fields. A correspondence principle which relates the geometry of quantum physics and the geometry of classical physics is formulated. (shrink)
The nature of a physical law is examined, and it is suggested that there may not be any fundamental dynamical laws. This explains the intrinsic indeterminism of quantum theory. The probabilities for transition from a given initial state to a final state then depends on the quantum geometry that is determined by symmetries, which may exist as relations between states in the absence of dynamical laws. This enables the experimentally well-confirmed quantum probabilities to be derived from the geometry of Hilbert (...) space and gives rise to effective probabilistic laws. An arrow of time which is consistent with the one given by the second law of thermodynamics, regarded as an effective law, is obtained. Symmetries are used as the basis for a new proposed paradigm of physics. This naturally gives rise to the gravitational and gauge fields from the symmetry group of the standard model and a general procedure for obtaining interactions from any symmetry group. (shrink)
The quantum measurement problem and various unsuccessful attempts to resolve it are reviewed. A suggestion by Diosi and Penrose for the half-life of the quantum superposition of two Newtonian gravitational fields is generalized to an arbitrary quantum superposition of relativistic, but weak, gravitational fields. The nature of the “collapse” process of the wave function is examined.