Comité Hoene-Wronski.--Avertissement.--Discours de J. Lukasiewicz, ambassadeur de Pologne.--Discours de Ed. Bloud, maire de la ville de Neuilly.--Discours de P. Hazard, professeur au Collège de France.--Warrain, F. Hoene-Wronski : l'homme, le philosophe.--Zaleski, Z. L. Une vue sur la vie et l'oeuvre de Wronski.
Grzegorczyk, A. O pewnych formalnych konsekwencjach reizmu.--Hiż, H. O rzeczach.--Kołakowski, L. Determinizm i odpowiedzialność.--Kotarbińska, J. Tak zwana definicja dejktyczna.--Ossowska, M. Norma prawna i norma moralna u Petrażyckiego.--Ossowski, S. Od "Kodeksu natury" do "Sprzysiężenia równych."--Lazari-Pawłowska, I. Tworzenie pojęć nauk humanistycznych według koncepcji Leona Petrażyckiego.--Pawłowski, T. Klasyfikacja sztuczna a klasyfikacja naturalna w biologii.--Pelc, J. Szkic analizy znaczeniowej terminu "ideologia dzieła literackiego."--Poznański, E. Operacjonalizm po trzydziestu latach.--Przełęcki, M. Postulat empiryczności terminów przyrodniczych.--Pszczołowski, T. Prakseologiczne pojęcie pracy.--Stonert, H. Analiza logiczna teorii atomistycznej w klasycznej chemii.--Szaniawski, (...) K. O indukcji eliminacyjnej.--Wallis, M. Koncepcje biologiczne w humanistyce. (shrink)
This paper examines and critiques the ethical issues in postmortem sperm retrieval and the use of postmortem sperm to create new life. The article was occasioned by the recent request of the parents of a West Point cadet who died in a skiing accident at the Academy to retrieve and use his sperm to honor his memory and perpetuate the family name. The request occasioned national media attention. A trial court judge in New York in a two-page order authorized both (...) the retrieval and use of the postmortem sperm. (shrink)
Building on a well-developed philosophy of language, Shibles proposes a theory of metaphor. Whereas one philosophy of language may regard metaphor as an inadequate or fallacious form of reasoning, another may consider it to be the very foundation of language. Shibles’ views lie in the latter direction, and he employs Wilbur Urban’s philosophy of language, presented in his Language and Reality, to develop his theory. Urban’s importance lies in his avoidance of reducing the philosophy of language to symbolic logic and (...) recognition of the importance of metaphor, symbol, and analogy. Also significant for a theory of metaphor is the fact that Urban saw a "high evaluation" of language as being more adequate than a "low evaluation" of language. (shrink)
An extremely lucid, important work. The author surveys major ethical theories, giving a hearing not so much to proponents of theories as to the theories themselves: their assumptions and implications. His criticisms are acute and convincing. In the end he presents his "Social Adjustment Theory"--an empirical ethics which explains values as indigenous to the selective systems of human organisms.--J. E. M.
The naturalistic fallacy, properly understood, and the nature of ethical disagreement render classical ethical naturalism untenable. Emotive naturalism, furthermore, overlooks the "semantic dimension" of moral judgments, while logical naturalism fails "genuinely" to produce suppressed imperative premises or to explain away the apparently cognitive nature of the desires and attitudes which present imperatives. Hence, the author has been led by his critical study of naturalism to affirm nonnaturalism in ethics. An interesting final chapter in this resourceful work considers the metaphysical implications (...) of naturalism vis-a-vis nonnaturalism.--J. E. M. (shrink)
Winch identifies the central problem of sociology, "that of giving an account of the nature of social phenomena," with philosophy, particularly epistemology. In his attempt to undermine the "underlabourer" conception of philosophy, he draws support from Wittgenstein by reinterpreting the latter's assertion that "What has to be accepted, the given, is--so one could say--forms of life." The social character of language and meaningful behavior is treated as the starting point for a new conception of philosophy, as well as of sociology.--J. (...) E. M. (shrink)
According to the author, philosophical anthropology offers the key to better relations among nations, inasmuch as its objective, scientific view of men seen in their cultural contexts eliminates guesswork in the solution of problems arising among conflicting cultures. Brilliantly imaginative yet realistic, Prof. Northrop's theory takes note of the dependency of cultural institutions upon the epistemological orientation of a people towards the facts of physical science. His primary value being world peace, he advocates understanding other peoples through understanding their epistemology. (...) A rare combination of both social science and philosophy, this challenging work includes several reprinted essays.--J. E. M. (shrink)
Addressed to the non-mathematician, this mainly historical work attempts to bring out the basic philosophical issues in the face of which mathematics exhibits that it has "'no corner on the market' of truth." The author's discussion of theory of numbers is quite good; the chapter on the infinite, however, with its concern for the infinity of God, is perhaps less mathematical or strictly philosophical than one has a right to expect.--J. E. M.
A fine symposium comprising the Proceedings of the second annual NYU Institute of Philosophy, this volume is divided into four parts: Psychoanalysis and Scientific Method; Psychoanalysis and Society; Psychoanalysis and Philosophy; Discussion, Criticism, and Contributions by other Participants.--J. E. M.
Remarkable for its array of distinguished contributors, the volume begins with a modest autobiography, followed by some twenty-one essays which delve into various aspects of Broad's philosophy. Broad displays a tenacity for the main outlines of his philosophy in his "Reply to My Critics," and concludes by noting that his philosophy is antiquated "without having yet acquired the interest of a collector's piece." This handsome volume is a fine rebuttal.--J. E. M.
This amazing book treats of such diverse topics as verbal analysis, free will, taxation and military service. Its chief concern is to demonstrate the author's conviction that there is "some fundamental ineptness in the way that all of us handle our minds," especially in the sphere of human relations. While the insights which Bridgman wishes to communicate are arresting, one hardly knows whether they are ridiculous or sublime, as, e.g. when he proposes techniques for making consciousness public. On the whole, (...) imagination and information in this book are inversely proportional. The chapter, "On the Fringes of Psychology" convincingly argues against the behaviorists and for the method of introspection.--J. E. M. (shrink)
Subtitled An Introductory Text in Metaphysics this work provides a basic indoctrination in Thomism, giving credit to the theses borrowed from Aristotle. Non-Thomistic answers to the mysteries of being are, for the most part, dismissed as irrelevant.--J. E. M.
Thirteen studies provide a good introduction to some of the leading theorists of the period in question. Despite multiple authorship this book is even in its style and penetration of subject-matter. While the historical authors are frequently allowed to speak for themselves, the present authors have not failed to generalize and evaluate in the interest of clarity. There are 58 pages of notes. --J. E. M.
According to the author, most of history is a record of mankind's persistent sacrifice of children. He insists that he has found support for the hypothesis that human nature is formed by a union of the libidinal and destructive instincts. Patriotism and matriotism--devotion to the mother earth--also receive extensive analysis in Freudian terms. The author has an agreeable style.--J. E. M.
A useful source book, which includes introductory notes and supplementary bibliography. Part Eight of this volume is entirely new, while some of the other parts contain new selections. Parts Five and Seven are more complete than others, but inevitably omissions are notable.--J. E. M.
These essays, most of which have been previously published, survey various types of legal theory along with their ethical counterparts. Definitive statements are given of sociological jurisprudence and of philosophical anthropology. The new material constitutes a major contribution to the analyses of legal obligation and international law. A fascinating book which, unfortunately, is not always as clear as one would like.--J. E. M.
Malcolm spends a good part of this short essay discussing what it could possibly mean if someone were to say, "I know that I am asleep." He concludes that such an utterance is not meaningful, that no assertions or judgments can be made in dreams, but that reports of dreams may be accepted without attempted verification. Aristotle's and Descartes views on dreaming are briefly examined.-J. E. M.
Brief though it is, this book deals with the central issues of a philosophy of art. Some startling theses are advanced, e.g., that "beauty" is a predicate and that the arts create their own spaces and exhibit becoming. The role of the artist is sympathetically contrasted with the roles of scientists, philosophers, religionists and politicians. To accept this theory in its entirety is to commit oneself to the arguments advanced here and elsewhere for the four modes of being, their functions (...) and interrelationships. But whether or not these arguments are accepted, the reader will be illuminatingly struck by the author's insight into the spirit and concerns of art throughout the ages, and by his masterful integration of these in a systematic philosophic treatment.--J. E. M. (shrink)