35 found
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  1. Experimental Philosophical Bioethics and Normative Inference.Brian D. Earp, Jonathan Lewis, Vilius Dranseika & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (3-4):91-111.
    This paper explores an emerging sub-field of both empirical bioethics and experimental philosophy, which has been called “experimental philosophical bioethics” (bioxphi). As an empirical discipline, bioxphi adopts the methods of experimental moral psychology and cognitive science; it does so to make sense of the eliciting factors and underlying cognitive processes that shape people’s moral judgments, particularly about real-world matters of bioethical concern. Yet, as a normative discipline situated within the broader field of bioethics, it also aims to contribute to substantive (...)
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  2. The Folk Concept of Law: Law Is Intrinsically Moral.Brian Flanagan & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (1):165-179.
    ABSTRACT Most theorists agree that our social order includes a distinctive legal dimension. A fundamental question is that of whether reference to specific legal phenomena always involves a commitment to a particular moral view. Whereas many philosophers advance the ‘positivist’ claim that any correspondence between morality and the law is just a function of political circumstance, natural law theorists insist that law is intrinsically moral. Each school claims the crucial advantage of consistency with our folk concept. Drawing on the notion (...)
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  3. For Whom Does Determinism Undermine Moral Responsibility? Surveying the Conditions for Free Will Across Cultures.Ivar R. Hannikainen, Edouard Machery, David Rose, Stephen Stich, Christopher Y. Olivola, Paulo Sousa, Florian Cova, Emma E. Buchtel, Mario Alai, Adriano Angelucci, Renatas Berniûnas, Amita Chatterjee, Hyundeuk Cheon, In-Rae Cho, Daniel Cohnitz, Vilius Dranseika, Ángeles Eraña Lagos, Laleh Ghadakpour, Maurice Grinberg, Takaaki Hashimoto, Amir Horowitz, Evgeniya Hristova, Yasmina Jraissati, Veselina Kadreva, Kaori Karasawa, Hackjin Kim, Yeonjeong Kim, Minwoo Lee, Carlos Mauro, Masaharu Mizumoto, Sebastiano Moruzzi, Jorge Ornelas, Barbara Osimani, Carlos Romero, Alejandro Rosas López, Massimo Sangoi, Andrea Sereni, Sarah Songhorian, Noel Struchiner, Vera Tripodi, Naoki Usui, Alejandro Vázquez del Mercado, Hrag A. Vosgerichian, Xueyi Zhang & Jing Zhu - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    Philosophers have long debated whether, if determinism is true, we should hold people morally responsible for their actions since in a deterministic universe, people are arguably not the ultimate source of their actions nor could they have done otherwise if initial conditions and the laws of nature are held fixed. To reveal how non-philosophers ordinarily reason about the conditions for free will, we conducted a cross-cultural and cross-linguistic survey (N = 5,268) spanning twenty countries and sixteen languages. Overall, participants tended (...)
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  4. Are There Cross-Cultural Legal Principles? Modal Reasoning Uncovers Procedural Constraints on Law.Ivar R. Hannikainen, Kevin P. Tobia, Guilherme da F. C. F. de Almeida, Raff Donelson, Vilius Dranseika, Markus Kneer, Niek Strohmaier, Piotr Bystranowski, Kristina Dolinina, Bartosz Janik, Sothie Keo, Eglė Lauraitytė, Alice Liefgreen, Maciej Próchnicki, Alejandro Rosas & Noel Struchiner - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (8):e13024.
    Despite pervasive variation in the content of laws, legal theorists and anthropologists have argued that laws share certain abstract features and even speculated that law may be a human universal. In the present report, we evaluate this thesis through an experiment administered in 11 different countries. Are there cross‐cultural principles of law? In a between‐subjects design, participants (N = 3,054) were asked whether there could be laws that violate certain procedural principles (e.g., laws applied retrospectively or unintelligible laws), and also (...)
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  5. Trolleys, triage and Covid-19: the role of psychological realism in sacrificial dilemmas.Markus Https://Orcidorg Kneer & Ivar R. Https://orcidorg357X Hannikainen - 2022 - Cognition and Emotion 36 (1):137-153.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward the triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies did not (...)
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  6. Fuller and the Folk: The Inner Morality of Law Revisited.Raff Donelson & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2020 - In Tania Lombrozo, Shaun Nichols & Joshua Knobe (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy Volume 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 6-28.
    The experimental turn in philosophy has reached several sub-fields including ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. This paper is among the first to apply experimental techniques to questions in the philosophy of law. Specifically, we examine Lon Fuller's procedural natural law theory. Fuller famously claimed that legal systems necessarily observe eight principles he called "the inner morality of law." We evaluate Fuller's claim by surveying both ordinary people and legal experts about their intuitions about legal systems. We conclude that, at best, we (...)
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  7. The Typicality Effect in Basic Needs.Thomas Pölzler & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-26.
    According to the so-called Classical Theory, concepts are mentally represented by individually necessary and jointly sufficient application conditions. One of the principal empirical objections against this view stems from evidence that people judge some instances of a concept to be more typical than others. In this paper we present and discuss four empirical studies that investigate the extent to which this ‘typicality effect’ holds for the concept of basic needs. Through multiple operationalizations of typicality, our studies yielded evidence for a (...)
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  8.  74
    How pills undermine skills: Moralization of cognitive enhancement and causal selection.Emilian Mihailov, Blanca Rodríguez López, Florian Cova & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2021 - Consciousness and Cognition 91 (C):103120.
    Despite the promise to boost human potential and wellbeing, enhancement drugs face recurring ethical scrutiny. The present studies examined attitudes toward cognitive enhancement in order to learn more about these ethical concerns, who has them, and the circumstances in which they arise. Fairness-based concerns underlay opposition to competitive use—even though enhancement drugs were described as legal, accessible and affordable. Moral values also influenced how subsequent rewards were causally explained: Opposition to competitive use reduced the causal contribution of the enhanced winner’s (...)
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  9.  63
    Advancing Methods in Empirical Bioethics: Bioxphi Meets Digital Technologies.Brian D. Earp, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Emilian Mihailov - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (6):53-56.
    Historically, empirical research in bioethics has drawn on methods developed within the social sciences, including qualitative interviews, focus groups, ethnographic studies, and opinion surveys, t...
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  10.  95
    Is utilitarian sacrifice becoming more morally permissible?Ivar R. Hannikainen, Edouard Machery & Fiery A. Cushman - 2018 - Cognition 170 (C):95-101.
    A central tenet of contemporary moral psychology is that people typically reject active forms of utilitarian sacrifice. Yet, evidence for secularization and declining empathic concern in recent decades suggests the possibility of systematic change in this attitude. In the present study, we employ hypothetical dilemmas to investigate whether judgments of utilitarian sacrifice are becoming more permissive over time. In a cross-sectional design, age negatively predicted utilitarian moral judgment (Study 1). To examine whether this pattern reflected processes of maturation, we asked (...)
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  11.  43
    Advance Medical Decision-Making Differs Across First- and Third-Person Perspectives.James Toomey, Jonathan Lewis, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Brian D. Earp - 2024 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics:1-9.
    Background Advance healthcare decision-making presumes that a prior treatment preference expressed with sufficient mental capacity (“T1 preference”) should trump a contrary preference expressed after significant cognitive decline (“T2 preference”). This assumption is much debated in normative bioethics, but little is known about lay judgments in this domain. This study investigated participants’ judgments about which preference should be followed, and whether these judgments differed depending on a first-person (deciding for one’s future self) versus third-person (deciding for a friend or stranger) perspective. (...)
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  12.  29
    Coordination and expertise foster legal textualism.Ivar R. Hannikainen, Kevin P. Tobia, Guilherme da F. C. F. de Almeida, N. Struchiner, Markus Kneer, P. Bystranowski, V. Dranseika, N. Strohmaier, S. Bensinger, K. Dolinina, B. Janik, Egle Lauraityte, M. Laakasuo, A. Liefgreen, I. Neiders, M. Prochnicki, A. Rosas, J. Sundvall & Tomasz Zuradzki - 2022 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 119 (44):e2206531119.
    A cross-cultural survey experiment revealed a dominant tendency to rely on a rule’s letter over its spirit when deciding which behaviors violate the rule. This tendency varied markedly across (k = 15) countries, owing to variation in the impact of moral appraisals on judgments of rule violation. Compared with laypeople, legal experts were more inclined to disregard their moral evaluations of the acts altogether and consequently exhibited stronger textualist tendencies. Finally, we evaluated a plausible mechanism for the emergence of textualism: (...)
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  13.  35
    The Brain Death Criterion in Light of Value-Based Disagreement Versus Biomedical Uncertainty.Ivar R. Hannikainen, Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho & Daniel Martin - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (1):123-126.
    Since the introduction of a new criterion for determining death (i.e., the brain death criterion) in 1968, the research community has been embroiled in debates about whether this criterion should b...
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  14.  65
    How do people use ‘killing’, ‘letting die’ and related bioethical concepts? Contrasting descriptive and normative hypotheses.David Rodríguez-Arias, Blanca Rodríguez López, Anibal Monasterio-Astobiza & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (5):509-518.
    Bioethicists involved in end‐of‐life debates routinely distinguish between ‘killing’ and ‘letting die’. Meanwhile, previous work in cognitive science has revealed that when people characterize behaviour as either actively ‘doing’ or passively ‘allowing’, they do so not purely on descriptive grounds, but also as a function of the behaviour’s perceived morality. In the present report, we extend this line of research by examining how medical students and professionals (N = 184) and laypeople (N = 122) describe physicians’ behaviour in end‐of‐life scenarios. (...)
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  15.  67
    Legal decision-making and the abstract/concrete paradox.Noel Struchiner, Guilherme da F. C. F. De Almeida & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2020 - Cognition 205 (C):104421.
    Higher courts sometimes assess the constitutionality of law by working through a concrete case, other times by reasoning about the underlying question in a more abstract way. Prior research has found that the degree of concreteness or abstraction with which an issue is formulated can influence people's prescriptive views: For instance, people often endorse punishment for concrete misdeeds that they would oppose if the circumstances were described abstractly. We sought to understand whether the so-called ‘abstract/concrete paradox’ also jeopardizes the consistency (...)
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  16.  66
    Absolutely Right and Relatively Good: Consequentialists See Bioethical Disagreement in a Relativist Light.Hugo Viciana, Ivar R. Hannikainen & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2021 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 12 (3):190-205.
    Background Contemporary societies are rife with moral disagreement, resulting in recalcitrant disputes on matters of public policy. In the context of ongoing bioethical controversies, are uncompromising attitudes rooted in beliefs about the nature of moral truth?Methods To answer this question, we conducted both exploratory and confirmatory studies, with both a convenience and a nationally representative sample (total N = 1501), investigating the link between people’s beliefs about moral truth (their metaethics) and their beliefs about moral value (their normative ethics).Results Across (...)
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  17.  29
    Broad, subjective, relative: the surprising folk concept of basic needs.Thomas Pölzler, Tobu Tomabechi & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2024 - Philosophical Studies 181 (1):319-347.
    Some normative theorists appeal to the concept of basic needs. They argue that when it comes to issues such as global justice, intergenerational justice, human rights or sustainable development our first priority should be that everybody is able to meet these needs. But what are basic needs? We attempt to inform discussions about this question by gathering evidence of ordinary English speakers’ intuitions on the concept of basic needs. First, we defend our empirical approach to analyzing this concept and identify (...)
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  18.  35
    Rule is a dual character concept.Guilherme da Franca Couto Fernandes de Almeida, Noel Struchiner & Ivar Rodriguez Hannikainen - 2023 - Cognition 230 (C):105259.
  19. Governance quality indicators for organ procurement policies.David Rodríguez-Arias, Alberto Molina-Pérez, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Janet Delgado, Benjamin Söchtig, Sabine Wöhlke & Silke Schicktanz - 2021 - PLoS ONE 16 (6):e0252686.
    Background Consent policies for post-mortem organ procurement (OP) vary throughout Europe, and yet no studies have empirically evaluated the ethical implications of contrasting consent models. To fill this gap, we introduce a novel indicator of governance quality based on the ideal of informed support, and examine national differences on this measure through a quantitative survey of OP policy informedness and preferences in seven European countries. -/- Methods Between 2017–2019, we conducted a convenience sample survey of students (n = 2006) in (...)
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  20.  39
    New Findings on Unconsented Intimate Exams Suggest Racial Bias and Gender Parity.Lori Bruce, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Brian D. Earp - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (2):7-9.
    Hastings Center Report, Volume 52, Issue 2, Page 7-9, March‐April 2022.
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  21.  49
    Act Versus Impact: Conservatives and Liberals Exhibit Different Structural Emphases in Moral Judgment.Ivar R. Hannikainen, Ryan M. Miller & Fiery A. Cushman - 2017 - Ratio 30 (4):462-493.
    Conservatives and liberals disagree sharply on matters of morality and public policy. We propose a novel account of the psychological basis of these differences. Specifically, we find that conservatives tend to emphasize the intrinsic value of actions during moral judgment, in part by mentally simulating themselves performing those actions, while liberals instead emphasize the value of the expected outcomes of the action. We then demonstrate that a structural emphasis on actions is linked to the condemnation of victimless crimes, a distinctive (...)
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  22.  26
    Examining Public Trust in Categorical versus Comprehensive Triage Criteria.Jon Rueda, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona & David Rodriguez-Arias - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):106-109.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 106-109.
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  23. Trolleys, Triage and Covid-19: The Role of Psychological Realism in Sacrificial Dilemmas.Markus Https://Orcidorg Kneer & Ivar R. Https://orcidorg357X Hannikainen - 2021 - Cognition and Emotion 8.
    At the height of the Covid-19 pandemic, frontline medical professionals at intensive care units around the world faced gruesome decisions about how to ration life-saving medical resources. These events provided a unique lens through which to understand how the public reasons about real-world dilemmas involving trade-offs between human lives. In three studies (total N = 2298), we examined people’s moral attitudes toward triage of acute coronavirus patients, and found elevated support for utilitarian triage policies. These utilitarian tendencies did not stem (...)
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  24.  23
    Sacrificing objects instead of persons: Order effects without emotional engagement.Emilian Mihailov, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Alex Wiegmann - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology.
    In this paper we develop test cases to adjudicate between dual-process and the causal mapping explanations of order effects. Using dilemmas with minimized emotional force, we explore new conditions for order effects to occur. Overall, the results support causal model theory. We produced novel evidence that order effects extend not only to cases with low emotional engagement, but also to specialized judgments about whether an action violates a rule. However, when objects are sacrificed instead of persons the order effect either (...)
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  25.  34
    Rationalization and Reflection Differentially Modulate Prior Attitudes Toward the Purity Domain.Ivar R. Hannikainen & Alejandro Rosas - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (6):e12747.
    Outside Western, predominantly secular‐liberal environments, norms restricting bodily and sexual conduct are widespread. Moralization in the so‐called purity domain has been treated as evidence that some putative violations are victimless. However, respondents themselves disagree: They often report that private yet indecent acts incur self‐harm, or harm to one's family and the wider community—a result which we replicate in Study 1. We then distinguish two cognitive processes that could generate a link between harmfulness and immorality, and recreate them in Studies 2 (...)
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  26.  22
    Strong Bipartisan Support for Controlled Psilocybin Use as Treatment or Enhancement in a Representative Sample of US Americans: Need for Caution in Public Policy Persists.Julian D. Sandbrink, Kyle Johnson, Maureen Gill, David B. Yaden, Julian Savulescu, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Brian D. Earp - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 15 (2):82-89.
    The psychedelic psilocybin has shown promise both as treatment for psychiatric conditions and as a means of improving well-being in healthy individuals. In some jurisdictions (e.g., Oregon, USA), psilocybin use for both purposes is or will soon be allowed and yet, public attitudes toward this shift are understudied. We asked a nationally representative sample of 795 US Americans to evaluate the moral status of psilocybin use in an appropriately licensed setting for either treatment of a psychiatric condition or well-being enhancement. (...)
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  27.  65
    Normality and the Treatment-Enhancement Distinction.Daniel Martín, Jon Rueda, Brian D. Earp & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (2):1-14.
    There is little debate regarding the acceptability of providing medical care to restore physical or mental health that has deteriorated below what is considered typical due to disease or disorder (i.e., providing “treatment”—for example, administering psychostimulant medication to sustain attention in the case of attention deficit disorder). When asked whether a healthy individual may undergo the same intervention for the purpose of enhancing their capacities (i.e., “enhancement”—for example, use of a psychostimulant as a “study drug”), people often express greater hesitation. (...)
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  28. The dual nature of partisan prejudice: Morality and Identity in a multiparty sistem.Hugo Viciana, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Antonio Gaitán Torres - 2019 - PLoS ONE 14 (e0219509).
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  29.  12
    Experimental Philosophical Bioethics, Advance Directives and the True Self in Dementia.Brian D. Earp, Ivar R. Hannikainen, Samuel Dale & Stephen R. Latham - 2023 - In Kristien Hens & Andreas de Block (eds.), Advances in experimental philosophy of medicine. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 259-284.
    In the present chapter, we seek to better understand how lay people reason about the “true self” of a person with advancing dementia. We are also interested in how such reasoning bears on laypeople’s views about the validity or invalidity of an advance directive (AD) regarding that person’s treatment. Toward that end, we will report the results of two empirical studies we undertook to gain insights into this relationship: namely, between judgments about the true self and whether to follow an (...)
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  30.  19
    Coordination Favors Legal Textualism by Suppressing Moral Valuation.Ivar R. Https://orcidorg357X Hannikainen, Kevin P. Tobia, Guilherme da F. C. F. Almeida, Noel Struchiner, Markus Https://Orcidorg Kneer, Piotr Bystranowski, Vilius Dranseika, Niek Strohmaier, Samantha Bensinger, Kristina Dolinina, Bartosz Janik, Egle Lauraityte, Michael Laakasuo, Alice Liefgreen, Ivars Neiders, Maciej Próchnicki, Alejandro Rosas Martinez, Jukka Sundvall & Tomasz Żuradzki - unknown
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  31.  28
    Purposes in Law and in Life: An Experimental Investigation of Purpose Attribution.Guilherme da Franca Couto Fernandes de Almeida, Joshua Knobe, Noel Struchiner & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2023 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 36 (1):1-36.
    There has been considerable debate in legal philosophy about how to attribute purposes to rules. Separately, within cognitive science, there has been a growing body of research concerned with questions about how people ordinarily attribute purposes. Here, we argue that these two separate fields might be connected by experimental jurisprudence. Across four studies, we find evidence for the claim that people use the same criteria to attribute purposes to physical objects and to rules. In both cases, purpose attributions appear to (...)
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  32.  51
    Rethinking the Role of Experimental Philosophy in Bioethics.Gonzalo Díaz-Cobacho & Ivar R. Hannikainen - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (12):69-72.
    In their target article, titled “The Place of Philosophy in Bioethics Today” (Blumenthal-Barby et al. 2022), Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby and colleagues provide a powerful argument for the role of phi...
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  33.  21
    Justice before Expediency: Robust Intuitive Concern for Rights Protection in Criminalization Decisions.Piotr Bystranowski & Ivar Rodríguez Hannikainen - 2024 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 15 (1):253-275.
    The notion that a false positive (false conviction) is worse than a false negative (false acquittal) is a deep-seated commitment in the theory of criminal law. Its most illustrious formulation, the so-called Blackstone’s ratio, affirms that “it is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer”. Are people’s evaluations of criminal statutes consitent with this tenet of the Western legal tradition? To answer this question, we conducted three experiments (total _N_ = 2492) investigating how people reason about (...)
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  34.  49
    Do Formalist Judges Abide By Their Abstract Principles? A Two-Country Study in Adjudication.Piotr Bystranowski, Bartosz Janik, Maciej Próchnicki, Ivar Rodriguez Hannikainen, Guilherme da Franca Couto Fernandes de Almeida & Noel Struchiner - 2022 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 35 (5):1903-1935.
    Recent literature in experimental philosophy has postulated the existence of the abstract/concrete paradox : the tendency to activate inconsistent intuitions depending on whether a problem to be analyzed is framed in abstract terms or is described as a concrete case. One recent study supports the thesis that this effect influences judicial decision-making, including decision-making by professional judges, in areas such as interpretation of constitutional principles and application of clear-cut rules. Here, following the existing literature in legal theory, we argue that (...)
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  35.  28
    Guilt Without Fault: Accidental Agency in the Era of Autonomous Vehicles.Fernando Aguiar, Ivar R. Hannikainen & Pilar Aguilar - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (2):1-22.
    The control principle implies that people should not feel guilt for outcomes beyond their control. Yet, the so-called ‘agent and observer puzzles’ in philosophy demonstrate that people waver in their commitment to the control principle when reflecting on accidental outcomes. In the context of car accidents involving conventional or autonomous vehicles, Study 1 established that judgments of responsibility are most strongly associated with expressions of guilt–over and above other negative emotions, such as sadness, remorse or anger. Studies 2 and 3 (...)
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