Results for 'Istv��n S. N. Berkeley'

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  1.  19
    The Curious Case of Connectionism.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):190-205.
    Connectionist research first emerged in the 1940s. The first phase of connectionism attracted a certain amount of media attention, but scant philosophical interest. The phase came to an abrupt halt, due to the efforts of Minsky and Papert, when they argued for the intrinsic limitations of the approach. In the mid-1980s connectionism saw a resurgence. This marked the beginning of the second phase of connectionist research. This phase did attract considerable philosophical attention. It was of philosophical interest, as it offered (...)
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  2. What the #$*%! Is a Subsymbol?István S. N. Berkeley - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (1):1-13.
    In 1988, Smolensky proposed that connectionist processing systems should be understood as operating at what he termed the `subsymbolic' level. Subsymbolic systems should be understood by comparing them to symbolic systems, in Smolensky's view. Up until recently, there have been real problems with analyzing and interpreting the operation of connectionist systems which have undergone training. However, recently published work on a network trained on a set of logic problems originally studied by Bechtel and Abrahamsen seems to offer the potential to (...)
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  3.  57
    Moving the Goal Posts: A Reply to Dawson and Piercey. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (4):471-478.
    Berkeley [Minds Machines 10 (2000) 1] described a methodology that showed the subsymbolic nature of an artificial neural network system that had been trained on a logic problem, originally described by Bechtel and Abrahamsen [Connectionism and the mind. Blackwells, Cambridge, MA, 1991]. It was also claimed in the conclusion of this paper that the evidence was suggestive that the network might, in fact, count as a symbolic system. Dawson and Piercey [Minds Machines 11 (2001) 197] took issue with this (...)
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  4.  19
    Some Counter-Examples to Page's Notion of “Localist”.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):470-471.
    In his target article Page proposes a definition of the term “localist.” In this commentary I argue that his definition does not serve to make a principled distinction, as the inclusion of vague terms make it susceptible to some problematic counterexamples.
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  5. Some Myths of Connectionism.István S. N. Berkeley - manuscript
    Since the emergence of what Fodor and Pylyshyn (1988) call 'new connectionism', there can be little doubt that connectionist research has become a significant topic for discussion in the Philosophy of Cognitive Science and the Philosophy of Mind. In addition to the numerous papers on the topic in philosophical journals, almost every recent book in these areas contain at least a brief reference to, or discussion of, the issues raised by connectionist research (see Sterelny 1990, Searle, 1992, and O Nualláin, (...)
     
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  6.  6
    What the #$*%! Is a Subsymbol?István S. N. Berkeley - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (1):1-14.
    In 1988, Smolensky proposed that connectionist processing systems should be understood as operating at what he termed the `subsymbolic' level. Subsymbolic systems should be understood by comparing them to symbolic systems, in Smolensky's view. Up until recently, there have been real problems with analyzing and interpreting the operation of connectionist systems which have undergone training. However, recently published work on a network trained on a set of logic problems originally studied by Bechtel and Abrahamsen seems to offer the potential to (...)
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  7. What the <0.70, 1.17, 0.99, 1.07> is a Symbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘symbol’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that give rise to (...)
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  8.  63
    Peter Novak, Mental Symbols: A Defence of the Classical Theory of Mind. Studies in Cognitive Systems 19, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997, Xxii + 266 Pp., $114.00, ISBN 0-7923-4370-0. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):148-150.
  9. What is Connectionism?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - manuscript
    Connectionism is a style of modeling based upon networks of interconnected simple processing devices. This style of modeling goes by a number of other names too. Connectionist models are also sometimes referred to as 'Parallel Distributed Processing' (or PDP for short) models or networks.1 Connectionist systems are also sometimes referred to as 'neural networks' (abbreviated to NNs) or 'artificial neural networks' (abbreviated to ANNs). Although there may be some rhetorical appeal to this neural nomenclature, it is in fact misleading as (...)
     
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  10.  96
    Connectionism Reconsidered: Minds, Machines and Models.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 1998
    In this paper the issue of drawing inferences about biological cognitive systems on the basis of connectionist simulations is addressed. In particular, the justification of inferences based on connectionist models trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm is examined. First it is noted that a justification commonly found in the philosophical literature is inapplicable. Then some general issues are raised about the relationships between models and biological systems. A way of conceiving the role of hidden units in connectionist networks is then (...)
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  11.  88
    What the is a Symbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘ symbol ’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘ symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that (...)
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  12. A Revisionist History of Connectionism.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 1997
    According to the standard (recent) history of connectionism (see for example the accounts offered by Hecht-Nielsen (1990: pp. 14-19) and Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1988), or Papert's (1988: pp. 3-4) somewhat whimsical description), in the early days of Classical Computational Theory of Mind (CCTM) based AI research, there was also another allegedly distinct approach, one based upon network models. The work on network models seems to fall broadly within the scope of the term 'connectionist' (see Aizawa 1992), although the term had (...)
     
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  13. Peter Baumgartner and Sabine Payr (Eds.), Speaking Minds: Interviews with Twenty Eminent Cognitive Scientists.I. S. N. Berkeley - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6:273-276.
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  14.  19
    Taming Type-2 Tigers: A Nonmonotonic Strategy.István S. N. Berkeley - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):66-67.
    Clark & Thornton are too hasty in their dismissal of uninformed learning; nonmonotonic processing units show considerable promise on type-2 tasks. I describe a simulation which succeeds on a “pure” type-2 problem. Another simulation challenges Clark & Thornton 's claims about the serendipitous nature of solutions to type-2 problems.
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  15.  30
    Uncertainty and Quality in Science for Policy Silvio O. Funtowicz and Jerome R. Ravetz Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, Xii + 229 Pp., US$88.50. [REVIEW]István S. N. Berkeley - 1993 - Dialogue 32 (4):837-.
  16.  38
    PDP Networks Can Provide Models That Are Not Mere Implementations of Classical Theories.Michael R. W. Dawson, David A. Medler & Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 1997 - Philosophical Psychology 10 (1):25-40.
    There is widespread belief that connectionist networks are dramatically different from classical or symbolic models. However, connectionists rarely test this belief by interpreting the internal structure of their nets. A new approach to interpreting networks was recently introduced by Berkeley et al. (1995). The current paper examines two implications of applying this method: (1) that the internal structure of a connectionist network can have a very classical appearance, and (2) that this interpretation can provide a cognitive theory that cannot (...)
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  17.  89
    Wendell Stanley's Dream of a Free-Standing Biochemistry Department at the University of California, Berkeley.Angela N. H. Creager - 1996 - Journal of the History of Biology 29 (3):331-360.
    Scientists and historians have often presumed that the divide between biochemistry and molecular biology is fundamentally epistemological.100 The historiography of molecular biology as promulgated by Max Delbrück's phage disciples similarly emphasizes inherent differences between the archaic tradition of biochemistry and the approach of phage geneticists, the ur molecular biologists. A historical analysis of the development of both disciplines at Berkeley mitigates against accepting predestined differences, and underscores the similarities between the postwar development of biochemistry and the emergence of molecular (...)
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  18.  52
    What Berkeley’s Notions Are.Richard N. Lee - 1990 - Idealistic Studies 20 (1):19-41.
    All that we see, all that we touch, all that we perceive, are naught but ideas. There are trees and rivers, to be sure, but these are simply collections of ideas. Is everything, then, in this world an idea or made up of ideas? No. I, for one, am not an idea. Besides ideas there are spirits. I know that I, an active being, exist. It would seem that to know this and to know God exists, nay even for there (...)
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  19.  20
    Pergamum and Sperlonga N. T. De Grummond, B. S. Ridgway (Edd.): From Pergamon to Sperlonga: Sculpture and Context . Pp. XXIV + 315, Ills. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of Calfornia Press, 2001. Cased, $70. Isbn: 0-520-22327-. [REVIEW]Zahra Newby - 2003 - The Classical Review 53 (01):223-.
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  20.  22
    Berkeley, Reid, and the Mathematization of Mid-Eighteenth-Century Optics.G. N. Cantor - 1977 - Journal of the History of Ideas 38 (3):429.
    Berkeley's "new theory of vision" and, In particular, His sensationalist solution to the problem of judging distance and magnitude were discussed by many eighteenth-Century authors who faced a variety of problem situations. More specifically, Berkeley's theory fed into the debate over whether the phenomena of vision were susceptible to mathematical analysis or were experientially determined. In this paper a variety of responses to berkeley are examined, Concluding with thomas reid's attempt to distinguish physical optics (which can be (...)
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  21.  97
    An Intuitionistic Defence of Berkeley’s Master Argument.Conor McGlynn - 2019 - Analysis 79 (2):236-242.
    Berkeley’s ‘master argument’ for idealism has been the subject of extensive criticism. Two of his strongest critics, A.N. Prior and J.L. Mackie, argue that due to various logical confusions on the part of Berkeley, the master argument fails to establish his idealist conclusion. Prior argues that Berkeley’s argument ‘proves too little’ in its conclusion, while Mackie contends that Berkeley confuses two different kinds of self-refutation in his argument. This paper proposes a defence of the master argument (...)
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  22.  25
    Matthias Dörries (Ed.), Michael Frayn's Copenhagen in Debate: Historical Essays and Documents on the 1941 Meeting Between Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, ISBN 0-9672617-2-4, 2005 (VIII+195pp., $12.00pbk). [REVIEW]N. P. Landsman - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (2):462-464.
  23.  26
    The Athenaion Politeia James Day and Mortimer Chambers: Aristotle's History of Athenian Democracy. (Publications in History, 73.) Pp. Xiii+221. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962. Paper, $5. [REVIEW]N. G. L. Hammond - 1964 - The Classical Review 14 (01):34-37.
  24.  17
    Farm to Institution Programs: Organizing Practices That Enable and Constrain Vermont’s Alternative Food Supply Chains.Sarah N. Heiss, Noelle K. Sevoian, David S. Conner & Linda Berlin - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (1):87-97.
    Farm to institution programs represent alternative supply chains that aim to organize the activities of local producers with institutions that feed the local community. The current study demonstrates the value of structuration theory :75–80, 1983; The constitution of society: outline of the theory of structuration. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1984) for conceptualizing how FTI agents create, maintain, and change organizational structures associated with FTI and traditional supply chains. Based on interviews with supply chain agents participating in FTI programs, (...)
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  25.  5
    Shane Crotty. Ahead of the Curve: David Baltimore’s Life in Science. [Viii] + 271 Pp., Illus., Index. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001, $29.95, £19.95. [REVIEW]Lois N. Magner - 2003 - Isis 94 (1):192-193.
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  26.  64
    Prior, Berkeley, and the Barcan Formula.James Levine - 2016 - Synthese 193 (11):3551-3565.
    This paper presents structural similarities and historical connections between Prior’s rejection of the Barcan formula and his critique of Berkeley’s master argument for idealism in his 1955 paper “Berkeley in Logical Form”. Making use of Mackie’s paper “Self-Refutation—A Formal Analysis”, it concludes with some suggestions concerning what is at stake in the debate between Prior and Berkeley and in structurally similar debates such as whether to accept the Barcan formula.
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  27.  56
    Berkeley on the Act-Object Distinction.Thomas M. Lennon - 2001 - Dialogue 40 (4):651-.
    RÉSUMÉ: Moore attribuait l’idéalisme de Berkeley à sa négligence de la distinction entre l’acte d’appréhension et son objet. Bien que Berkeley ait justement tracé cette distinction dans le premier Dialogue, et l’ait rejetée, peu s’en sont aperçu, et ceux qui l’ont remarqué lui reprochent habituellement de confondre l’acte d’appréhension avec une action. La thèse ici développée est que Berkeley n’est pas coupable de cette confusion et qu’il rejette la distinction, en fait, pour de bonnes raisons à caractère (...)
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  28.  24
    George Berkeley Langage Visuel, Communication Universelle.Denis Forest - 1997 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 187 (4):429 - 446.
    Le motif du langage visuel, qui traverse l'ensemble de l'oeuvre de Berkeley, n'est pas seulement le noyau de sa philosophie de la perception. Il est aussi le préréquisit d'une preuve originale de l'existence de Dieu, une évaluation spécifique de la nature de l'expérience commune et de la portée de l'explication scientifique, et il a des conséquences singulières quant à la doctrine de la création du monde. La première conclusion de l'article est qu'en dépit du rejet berkeleyen du mécanisme, on (...)
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  29.  26
    Berkeley Et L'Imagination.Sébastien Charles - 2010 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 135 (1):97 - 108.
    La place qu'occupe l'imagination dans la philosophie berkeleyenne semble ne pas poser de problème et n'être en rien originale, consistant en une simple reprise de la position lockéenne. Pourtant, en attribuant une spontanéité créatrice à l'imagination, qui en fait une faculté tout à fait particulière, et en insistant sur la puissance et les limites de cette même faculté, Berkeley réintroduit subrepticement un principe de différenciation au plan épistémologique, que l'on peut retrouver mutatis mutandis au plan moral à travers son (...)
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  30.  7
    Berkeley on the Act-Object Distinction.Thomas M. Lennon - 2001 - Dialogue 40 (4):651-668.
    RÉSUMÉ: Moore attribuait l’idéalisme de Berkeley à sa négligence de la distinction entre l’acte d’appréhension et son objet. Bien que Berkeley ait justement tracé cette distinction dans le premier Dialogue, et l’ait rejetée, peu s’en sont aperçu, et ceux qui l’ont remarqué lui reprochent habituellement de confondre l’acte d’appréhension avec une action. La thèse ici développée est que Berkeley n’est pas coupable de cette confusion et qu’il rejette la distinction, en fait, pour de bonnes raisons à caractère (...)
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  31. De wijsbegeerte Van Berkeley : Analytisch, fenomenologisch en metafysisch aspect.C. A. Van Peursen - 1957 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 19 (4):621-665.
    La métaphysique de Berkeley présente une synthèse des méthodes analytique et phénoménologique et sa pensée peut être considérée à cet égard, comme le pont entre la philosophie contemporaine du continent et la philosophie anglo-saxonne. C'est pour cela que des penseurs comme Husserl, Wittgenstein, Wisdom, Ryle et d'autres sont mentionnés dans l'article. La métaphysique procure à Berkeley Ja condition transcendentale de telles méthodes. L'analyse du langage élimine les sentences de la métaphysique spéculative. Quand on dit par exemple qu'un dé (...)
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  32.  50
    Descartes, Leibniz and Berkeley on Whether We Can Dream Marks of the Waking State.Russell Wahl & Jonathan Westphal - 1992 - Studia Leibnitiana 24 (2):177-181.
    Dans la première méditation, Descartes a conclu, en regard des songes, « qu'il n'y a point d'indices concluants, ni de marques assez certaines par où l'on puisse distinguer nettement la veille d'avec la sommeil [...] » . À la fin de la sixième méditation, il a conclu qu'il y a de tels indices, mais qu'on a besoin de la garantie de Dieu pour savoir si ces indices sont réellement des indices de la veille. Cottingham a proposé une objection générale contre (...)
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  33.  28
    S. N. Svoronos—Numismatique de la Crète Ancienne. Part I. . Macon. 1890.W. W. & S. N. Svoronos - 1890 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 11:354-354.
  34.  39
    Self and Will.N. M. L. Nathan - 1997 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 5 (1):81 – 94.
    When do two mental items belong to the same life? We could be content with the answer -just when they have certain volitional qualities in common. An affinity is noted between that theory and Berkeley's early doctrine of the self. Some rivals of the volitional theory invoke a spiritual or physical owner of mental items. They run a risk either of empty formality or of causal superstition. Other rivals postulate a non-transitive and symmetrical relation in the set of mental (...)
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  35.  29
    Courte vue et vision synoptique chez Berkeley.Geneviève Brykman - 2010 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 135 (1):83-95.
    Chez Berkeley, la courte vue correspond, métaphoriquement, à l'inspection minutieuse d'un objet, tandis que la vision synoptique est la contemplation de l'univers d'un point de vue qui serait celui de Dieu. Dès 1707, Berkeley déclare qu'il est « naturellement myope », en ajoutant que ce défaut le conduirait à examiner les choses et les mots de beaucoup plus près qu'il n'est nécessaire pour les autres. Ses écrits sont entièrement soustendus par une dualité entre myopie et vue synoptique mais (...)
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  36.  10
    Berkeley's Thought.George S. Pappas - 2018 - Cornell University Press.
    In this highly original account of Bishop George Berkeley's epistemological and metaphysical theories, George S. Pappas seeks to determine precisely what doctrines the philosopher held and what arguments he put forward to support them. Specifically, Pappas overturns accepted opinions about Berkeley's famous attack on the Lockean doctrine of abstract ideas. Berkeley's criticism of these ideas had been thought relevant only to his views on language and to his nominalism; Pappas persuasively argues that Berkeley's ideas about abstraction (...)
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  37. PETZOLDT, I. -Das Weltproblem Vom Positivistischen Standpunkte Aus. [REVIEW]S. N. S. N. - 1907 - Mind 16:452.
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  38. Bilimde Sınır Çizme Problemi: Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn ve Sonrası.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2018 - Dissertation,
    Bilimin ne olduğunun belirlenmesi ve bu bağlamda bilimin sözde bilim ya da bilimsel olmayan alanlara ilişkin sınırının nasıl çizileceği tartışması, bilim felsefesinde sınır çizme problemi olarak ele alınmaktadır. Çalışmanın ana konusunu oluşturan bu problem, özellikle yirminci yüzyıldan itibaren, bilim felsefecileri tarafından birçok ölçüt ortaya konularak çözümlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu ölçütler genellikle, bilim ile sözde bilim arasındaki sınırı belirlemek amacıyla, bilimi mantık ve mantıksal önermeler üzerinden değerlendirmektedir. Şu ana kadar Viyana Çevresi, Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos gibi filozoflarca ortaya konulan ölçütler, nihai olarak problemi (...)
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  39.  7
    N-Berkeley Cardinals and Weak Extender Models.Raffaella Cutolo - 2020 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 85 (2):809-816.
    For a given inner model N of ZFC, one can consider the relativized version of Berkeley cardinals in the context of ZFC, and ask if there can exist an “N-Berkeley cardinal.” In this article we provide a positive answer to this question. Indeed, under the assumption of a supercompact cardinal $\delta $, we show that there exists a ZFC inner model N such that there is a cardinal which is N-Berkeley, even in a strong sense. Further, the (...)
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  40.  6
    Extinction as a Function of the Order of Partial and Consistent Reinforcement.N. S. Sutherland, N. J. Mackintosh & J. B. Wolfe - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (1):56.
  41. Berkeley's American Sojourn.Benjamin Rand & Berkeley Divinity School - 1932 - Harvard University Press.
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  42.  6
    An Introduction to the Sociology of Law.N. S. Timasheff - 1941 - Philosophical Review 50 (4):447-449.
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  43. S Eeingand Visualizing: I T' S N Otwhaty Ou T Hink.Zenon Pylyshyn - unknown
    6. Seeing With the Mind’s Eye 1: The Puzzle of Mental Imagery .................................................6-1 6.1 What is the puzzle about mental imagery?..............................................................................6-1 6.2 Content, form and substance of representations ......................................................................6-6 6.3 What is responsible for the pattern of results obtained in imagery studies?.................................6-8..
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  44. BANDYOPADHYAYA, N. C. -Development of Hindu Polity and Political Theories. [REVIEW]S. N. Dasgupta - 1929 - Mind 38:119.
     
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  45.  43
    Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Kişisel Ve Aile Özellikleri İle Öğrenim Gördükleri P.Mehmet Gülteki̇n - 2016 - Journal of Turkish Studies 11 (Volume 11 Issue 3):1163-1163.
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  46.  58
    Değer Sınıflaması Üzerine Aksiyonel Bir Deneme.Yusuf Keski̇n - 2016 - Journal of Turkish Studies 11 (Volume 11 Issue 3):1485-1485.
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  47.  18
    The Explanation of Behaviour.N. S. Sutherland - 1965 - Philosophical Quarterly 15 (61):379-381.
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  48.  9
    Öğretmen Adaylarının Akademik Başarılarının Sınıflandırılmasında Lojistik Regresyon Analizi Yaklaşım.Elif Bahadir - 2013 - Journal of Turkish Studies 8 (Volume 8 Issue 8):203-203.
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  49.  8
    Öğretmen Adaylarının Sınıf Yönetimine Yönelik Tutum Ve İnançlarının İncelenmesi (Çukurova Üniversite.Fatma Sadik - 2015 - Journal of Turkish Studies 10 (Volume 10 Issue 15):749-749.
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  50.  25
    "Halk İnancı" Kavramının Sınırları Ve Sınırlılıkları Üzerine Bir İnceleme.Metin Eren - 2013 - Journal of Turkish Studies 8 (Volume 8 Issue 13):857-857.
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