Results for 'Iris van van Rooij'

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  1. Rational analysis, intractability, and the prospects of ‘as if’-explanations.Iris van Rooij, Johan Kwisthout, Todd Wareham & Cory Wright - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):491-510.
    Despite their success in describing and predicting cognitive behavior, the plausibility of so-called ‘rational explanations’ is often contested on the grounds of computational intractability. Several cognitive scientists have argued that such intractability is an orthogonal pseudoproblem, however, since rational explanations account for the ‘why’ of cognition but are agnostic about the ‘how’. Their central premise is that humans do not actually perform the rational calculations posited by their models, but only act as if they do. Whether or not the problem (...)
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  2.  34
    The Tractable Cognition Thesis.Iris Van Rooij - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (6):939-984.
    The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance theTractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational‐level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of “computational tractability” is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial‐time computability, leading to theP‐Cognition thesis. This article (...)
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  3.  14
    Cognition and Intractability: A Guide to Classical and Parameterized Complexity Analysis.Iris van Rooij, Mark Blokpoel, Johan Kwisthout & Todd Wareham - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    Intractability is a growing concern across the cognitive sciences: while many models of cognition can describe and predict human behavior in the lab, it remains unclear how these models can scale to situations of real-world complexity. Cognition and Intractability is the first book to provide an accessible introduction to computational complexity analysis and its application to questions of intractability in cognitive science. Covering both classical and parameterized complexity analysis, it introduces the mathematical concepts and proof techniques that can be used (...)
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  4.  24
    Naturalism, tractability and the adaptive toolbox.Iris van Rooij, Todd Wareham, Marieke Sweers, Maria Otworowska, Ronald de Haan, Mark Blokpoel & Patricia Rich - 2019 - Synthese 198 (6):5749-5784.
    Many compelling examples have recently been provided in which people can achieve impressive epistemic success, e.g. draw highly accurate inferences, by using simple heuristics and very little information. This is possible by taking advantage of the features of the environment. The examples suggest an easy and appealing naturalization of rationality: on the one hand, people clearly can apply simple heuristics, and on the other hand, they intuitively ought do so when this brings them high accuracy at little cost.. The ‘ought-can’ (...)
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  5.  73
    Goals are not implied by actions, but inferred from actions and contexts.Iris van Rooij, Willem Haselager & Harold Bekkering - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):38-39.
    People cannot understand intentions behind observed actions by direct simulation, because goal inference is highly context dependent. Context dependency is a major source of computational intractability in traditional information-processing models. An embodied embedded view of cognition may be able to overcome this problem, but then the problem needs recognition and explication within the context of the new, layered cognitive architecture.
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  6. The Incoherence of Heuristically Explaining Coherence.Iris van Rooij & Cory Wright - 2006 - In Ron Sun (ed.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2622.
    Advancement in cognitive science depends, in part, on doing some occasional ‘theoretical housekeeping’. We highlight some conceptual confusions lurking in an important attempt at explaining the human capacity for rational or coherent thought: Thagard & Verbeurgt’s computational-level model of humans’ capacity for making reasonable and truth-conducive abductive inferences (1998; Thagard, 2000). Thagard & Verbeurgt’s model assumes that humans make such inferences by computing a coherence function (f_coh), which takes as input representation networks and their pair-wise constraints and gives as output (...)
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  7.  39
    Parameterized Complexity of Theory of Mind Reasoning in Dynamic Epistemic Logic.Iris van de Pol, Iris van Rooij & Jakub Szymanik - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 27 (3):255-294.
    Theory of mind refers to the human capacity for reasoning about others’ mental states based on observations of their actions and unfolding events. This type of reasoning is notorious in the cognitive science literature for its presumed computational intractability. A possible reason could be that it may involve higher-order thinking. To investigate this we formalize theory of mind reasoning as updating of beliefs about beliefs using dynamic epistemic logic, as this formalism allows to parameterize ‘order of thinking.’ We prove that (...)
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  8. Identifying sources of intractability in cognitive models: An illustration using analogical structure mapping.Iris van Rooij, Patricia Evans, Moritz Müller, Jason Gedge & Todd Wareham - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
  9.  80
    Bayesian Intractability Is Not an Ailment That Approximation Can Cure.Johan Kwisthout, Todd Wareham & Iris van Rooij - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (5):779-784.
    Bayesian models are often criticized for postulating computations that are computationally intractable (e.g., NP-hard) and therefore implausibly performed by our resource-bounded minds/brains. Our letter is motivated by the observation that Bayesian modelers have been claiming that they can counter this charge of “intractability” by proposing that Bayesian computations can be tractably approximated. We would like to make the cognitive science community aware of the problematic nature of such claims. We cite mathematical proofs from the computer science literature that show intractable (...)
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  10.  18
    Barbara Gorayska and Jacob L. Mey , Cognition and Technology: Co-existence, Convergence and Co-Evolution.Iris van Rooij - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (2):647-655.
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  11. Self-Organization Takes Time Too.Iris van Rooij - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (1):63-71.
    Four articles in this issue of topiCS (volume 4, issue 1) argue against a computational approach in cognitive science in favor of a dynamical approach. I concur that the computational approach faces some considerable explanatory challenges. Yet the dynamicists’ proposal that cognition is self-organized seems to only go so far in addressing these challenges. Take, for instance, the hypothesis that cognitive behavior emerges when brain and body (re-)configure to satisfy task and environmental constraints. It is known that for certain systems (...)
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  12.  96
    What do mirror neurons mirror?Sebo Uithol, Iris van Rooij, Harold Bekkering & Pim Haselager - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (5):607 - 623.
    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data acquired from single cell recordings are generally considered to be robust, several debates have shown that the interpretation of these data is far from straightforward. We will show that research based on single-cell recordings allows for (...)
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  13. Similarity as tractable transformation.Moritz Müller, Iris van Rooij & Todd Wareham - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  14.  15
    When Can Predictive Brains be Truly Bayesian?Mark Blokpoel, Johan Kwisthout & Iris van Rooij - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
  15.  18
    Counter-factual mathematics of counterfactual predictive models.Maria Otworowska, Johan Kwisthout & Iris van Rooij - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  16.  26
    Book reviews. [REVIEW]Iris van Rooij, Christina Behme, Liane Gabora & Dorothée Legrand - 2007 - Philosophical Psychology 20 (5):659 – 680.
    Paul ThagardCambridge, MA: MIT press, 2006313 pages, ISBN: 026220164X (hbk); $36.00Can human beliefs and inferences be understood as a form of coherence maximization? This question underlies much o...
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  17.  41
    One wrong does not justify another: Accepting dual processes by fallacy of false alternatives.Gideon Keren, Iris van Rooij & Yaacov Schul - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):269-270.
    Barbey & Sloman (B&S) advocate a dual-process (two-system) approach by comparing it with an alternative perspective (ecological rationality), claiming that the latter is unwarranted. Rejecting this alternative approach cannot serve as sufficient evidence for the viability of the former.
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  18. How action understanding can be rational, Bayesian and tractable.Mark Blokpoel, Johan Kwisthout, T. P. van der Weide & Iris van Rooij - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
     
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  19.  30
    Higher-level processes in the formation and application of associations during action understanding.Lieke Heil, Stan van Pelt, Johan Kwisthout, Iris van Rooij & Harold Bekkering - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):202-203.
  20.  51
    Computational complexity analysis can help, but first we need a theory.Todd Wareham, Iris van Rooij & Moritz Müller - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):399-400.
    Leech et al. present a connectionist algorithm as a model of (the development) of analogizing, but they do not specify the algorithm's associated computational-level theory, nor its computational complexity. We argue that doing so may be essential for connectionist cognitive models to have full explanatory power and transparency, as well as for assessing their scalability to real-world input domains.
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  21.  12
    Review of Gorayska & Mey (2004): Cognition and Technology: Co-existence, Convergence and Co-Evolution. [REVIEW]Iris van Rooij - 2005 - Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (3):647-655.
  22.  21
    How Intractability Spans the Cognitive and Evolutionary Levels of Explanation.Patricia Rich, Mark Blokpoel, Ronald de Haan & Iris van Rooij - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1382-1402.
    This paper focuses on the cognitive/computational and evolutionary levels. It describes three proposals to make cognition computationally tractable, namely: Resource Rationality, the Adaptive Toolbox and Massive Modularity. While each of these proposals appeals to evolutionary considerations to dissolve the intractability of cognition, Rich, Blokpoel, de Haan, and van Rooij argue that, in each case, the intractability challenge is not resolved, but just relocated to the level of evolution.
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  23.  89
    Connectionist semantic systematicity.Stefan L. Frank, Willem F. G. Haselager & Iris van Rooij - 2009 - Cognition 110 (3):358-379.
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  24.  37
    Demons of Ecological Rationality.Maria Otworowska, Mark Blokpoel, Marieke Sweers, Todd Wareham & Iris van Rooij - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (3):1057-1066.
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  25.  23
    Editorial to the special issue on perspectives on human probabilistic inference and the 'Bayesian brain'.Johan Kwisthout, William A. Phillips, Anil K. Seth, Iris van van Rooij & Andy Clark - 2017 - Brain and Cognition 112:1-2.
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  26.  25
    Introduction to Progress and Puzzles of Cognitive Science.Rick Dale, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Emma Cohen, Ophelia Deroy, Samuel J. Gershman, Janet H. Hsiao, Ping Li, Padraic Monaghan, David C. Noelle, Iris van Rooij, Priti Shah, Michael J. Spivey & Sashank Varma - 2024 - Cognitive Science 48 (7):e13480.
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  27.  26
    How Intractability Spans the Cognitive and Evolutionary Levels of Explanation.Patricia Rich, Mark Blokpoel, Ronald Haan & Iris Rooij - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (4):1382-1402.
    This paper focuses on the cognitive/computational and evolutionary levels. It describes three proposals to make cognition computationally tractable, namely: Resource Rationality, the Adaptive Toolbox and Massive Modularity. While each of these proposals appeals to evolutionary considerations to dissolve the intractability of cognition, Rich, Blokpoel, de Haan, and van Rooij argue that, in each case, the intractability challenge is not resolved, but just relocated to the level of evolution.
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  28.  87
    Exhaustive interpretation of complex sentences.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):491-519.
    In terms of Groenendijk and Stokhofs (1984) formalization of exhaustive interpretation, many conversational implicatures can be accounted for. In this paper we justify and generalize this approach. Our justification proceeds by relating their account via Halpern and Moses (1984) non-monotonic theory of only knowing to the Gricean maxims of Quality and the first sub-maxim of Quantity. The approach of Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984) is generalized such that it can also account for implicatures that are triggered in subclauses not entailed by (...)
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  29. Implicit versus explicit comparatives.Robert Van Rooij - 2011 - In Paul Égré & Nathan Klinedinst (eds.), Vagueness and language use. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
  30.  35
    Optimality-theoretic and game-theoretic approaches to implicature.Robert van Rooij - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  31.  50
    Conditionals, Causality and Conditional Probability.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 28 (1):55-71.
    The appropriateness, or acceptability, of a conditional does not just ‘go with’ the corresponding conditional probability. A condition of dependence is required as well. In this paper a particular notion of dependence is proposed. It is shown that under both a forward causal and a backward evidential reading of the conditional, this appropriateness condition reduces to conditional probability under some natural circumstances. Because this is in particular the case for the so-called diagnostic reading of the conditional, this analysis might help (...)
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  32.  50
    Explaining Quantity Implicatures.Robert van Rooij & Tikitu de Jager - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):461-477.
    We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are game-theoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the speaker is known to have concerning (...)
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  33.  55
    Williamson’s Abductive Case for the Material Conditional Account.Robert van Rooij, Karolina Krzyżanowska & Igor Douven - 2023 - Studia Logica 111 (4):653-685.
    InSuppose and Tell, Williamson makes a new and original attempt to defend the material conditional account of indicative conditionals. His overarching argument is that this account offers the best explanation of the data concerning how people evaluate and use such conditionals. We argue that Williamson overlooks several important alternative explanations, some of which appear to explain the relevant data at least as well as, or even better than, the material conditional account does. Along the way, we also show that Williamson (...)
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  34.  57
    Generics and typicality: a bounded rationality approach.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2020 - Linguistics and Philosophy 43 (1):83-117.
    Cimpian et al. observed that we accept generic statements of the form ‘Gs are f’ on relatively weak evidence, but that if we are unfamiliar with group G and we learn a generic statement about it, we still treat it inferentially in a much stronger way: all Gs are f. This paper makes use of notions like ‘representativeness’, ‘contingency’ and ‘relative difference’ from psychology to provide a uniform semantics of generics that explains why people accept generics based on weak evidence. (...)
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  35.  62
    Revealed preference and satisficing behavior.Robert van Rooij - 2011 - Synthese 179 (S1):1 - 12.
    A much discussed topic in the theory of choice is how a preference order among options can be derived from the assumption that the notion of ' choice' is primitive. Assuming a choice function that selects elements from each finite set of options, Arrow (Económica 26: 121-127,1959) already showed how we can generate a weak ordering by putting constraints on the behavior of such a function such that it reflects utility maximization. Arrow proposed that rational agents can be modeled by (...)
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  36.  42
    A Causal Power Semantics for Generic Sentences.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2019 - Topoi 40 (1):131-146.
    Many generic sentences express stable inductive generalizations. Stable inductive generalizations are typically true for a causal reason. In this paper we investigate to what extent this is also the case for the generalizations expressed by generic sentences. More in particular, we discuss the possibility that many generic sentences of the form ‘ks have feature e’ are true because kind k have the causal power to ‘produce’ feature e. We will argue that such an analysis is quite close to a probabilistic (...)
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  37.  15
    Strengthening conditional presuppositions.Van Rooij Robert - 2007 - Journal of Semantics 24 (3):289-304.
    In this paper it will be shown how conditional presuppositions can be strengthened to unconditional ones if we assume that the antecedent and consequent of a conditional presupposition are independent of one another. Our notion of independence is very weak, and based on Lewis' notion of orthogonality of questions. It will be argued that our way of strengthening these presuppositions does not give rise to some wrong predictions Geurts argued other proposed strengthening accounts do.
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  38.  40
    Gaps and Plugs: TNO, and the Problems of Getting Knowledge out of Laboratories.Arjan van Rooij - 2013 - Minerva 51 (1):25-48.
    This article aims to clarify and improve thinking on normative government laboratories: partly publically funded laboratories that work to improve the functioning of society, particularly through boosting innovation. This article focuses on a case study of TNO, a large Dutch laboratory, and an exemplary case of this type of laboratory. This article argues that TNO is perceived as a plug to fill a gap between knowledge production and use, in a belief that there is a direct and causal link between (...)
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  39.  40
    Towards a uniform analysis of any.Robert van Rooij - 2008 - Natural Language Semantics 16 (4):297-315.
    In this paper, Universal any and Negative Polarity Item any are uniformly analyzed as ‘counterfactual’ donkey sentences (in disguise). Their difference in meaning is reduced here to the distinction between strong and weak readings of donkey sentences. It is shown that this explains the universal and existential character of Universal- and NPI-any, respectively, and the positive and negative contexts in which they are licensed. Our uniform analysis extends to the use of any in command and permission sentences. It predicts that (...)
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  40.  27
    Why Those Biscuits Are Relevant and on the Sideboard.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2021 - Theoria 87 (3):704-712.
    In this paper, we explain why the antecedent of a biscuit conditional is relevant to its consequent by extending Douvenʼs evidential support theory of conditionals making use of utilities. By this extension, we can also explain why a biscuit conditional gives rise to the inference that the consequence is (most likely) true. Finally, we account for the intuition that (indicative) biscuit sentences are false when the antecedent is false and allow for counterfactual biscuits.
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  41. Optimal assertions, and what they implicate. A uniform game theoretic approach.Anton Benz & Robert van Rooij - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):63-78.
    To determine what the speaker in a cooperative dialog meant with his assertion, on top of what he explicitly said, it is crucial that we assume that the assertion he gave was optimal. In determining optimal assertions we assume that dialogs are embedded in decision problems (van Rooij 2003) and use backwards induction for calculating them (Benz 2006). In this paper, we show that in terms of our framework we can account for several types of implicatures in a uniform (...)
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  42.  22
    Conditionals As Representative Inferences.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2021 - Axiomathes 31 (3):437-452.
    According to Adams, the acceptability of an indicative conditional goes with the conditional probability of the consequent given the antecedent. However, some conditionals seem to be inappropriate, although their corresponding conditional probability is high. These are cases with a missing link between antecedent and consequent. Other conditionals are appropriate even though the conditional probability is low. Finally, we have the so-called biscuit conditionals. In this paper we will generalize analyses of Douven and others to account for the appropriateness of conditionals (...)
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  43.  28
    Notes.Robert van Rooij - unknown
    Definition 1. A Strict partial order is a structure X, P , with P a binary relation on X that is irreflexive (IR) and Transitive (TR): (IR) ∀x : ¬P (x, x). (TR) ∀x, y, v, w : (P (x, y) ∧ P (y, z)) → P (x, z).
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  44.  71
    Vagueness and the sorites.Robert van Rooij - unknown
    The principle of stability now says that if sentence ϕ is true/false in a model M, then ϕ has to stay true/false if M is getting more precise. Formally, let M = D, I be a refinement of M = D, I . Then it has to be the case that for all ϕ: (i) If VM(ϕ) = 1, then VM (ϕ) = 1. (ii) If VM(ϕ) = 0, then VM (ϕ) = 0.
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  45. The propositional and relational syllogistic.Robert Van Rooij - 2012 - Logique Et Analyse 55 (217):85.
  46.  55
    The path of ambivalence: tracing the pull of opposing evaluations using mouse trajectories.Iris K. Schneider, Frenk van Harreveld, Mark Rotteveel, Sascha Topolinski, Joop van der Pligt, Norbert Schwarz & Sander L. Koole - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  47.  29
    Modeling the Dynamics of Risky Choice.Marieke M. J. W. van Rooij, Luis H. Favela, MaryLauren Malone & Michael J. Richardson - 2013 - Ecological Psychology 25:293-303.
    Individuals make decisions under uncertainty every day. Decisions are based on in- complete information concerning the potential outcome or the predicted likelihood with which events occur. In addition, individuals’ choices often deviate from the rational or mathematically objective solution. Accordingly, the dynamics of human decision making are difficult to capture using conventional, linear mathematical models. Here, we present data from a 2-choice task with variable risk between sure loss and risky loss to illustrate how a simple nonlinear dynamical system can (...)
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  48.  45
    Natural kinds and dispositions: a causal analysis.Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 12):3059-3084.
    Objects have dispositions. Dispositions are normally analyzed by providing a meaning to disposition ascriptions like ‘This piece of salt is soluble’. Philosophers like Carnap, Goodman, Quine, Lewis and many others have proposed analyses of such disposition ascriptions. In this paper we will argue with Quine that the proper analysis of ascriptions of the form ‘x is disposed to m ’, where ‘x’ denotes an object, ‘m’ a manifestation, and ‘C’ a condition, goes like this: ‘x is of natural kind k’, (...)
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  49.  48
    Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation.Katrin Schulz & Robert van Rooij - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205 - 250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984). We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy's (1980, 1986) predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals (see for instance Lewis (1973)). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of (...)
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  50.  8
    Game-Theoretic Pragmatics Under Conflicting and Common Interests.Robert van Rooij & Kris De Jaegher - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (Suppl 4):769-820.
    This paper combines a survey of existing literature in game-theoretic pragmatics with new models that fill some voids in that literature. We start with an overview of signaling games with a conflict of interest between sender and receiver, and show that the literature on such games can be classified into models with direct, costly, noisy and imprecise signals. We then argue that this same subdivision can be used to classify signaling games with common interests, where we fill some voids in (...)
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