Results for 'Ioana Petre'

855 found
Order:
  1.  42
    Future Generations and the Justifiability of Germline Engineering.Ioana Petre - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (3):328-341.
    The possibility of performing germline modifications on currently living individuals targets future generations’ health and well-being by reducing the diversity of the human gene pool. This can have two negative repercussions: reduction of heterozygosity, the latter being associated with a health or performance advantage; uniformization of the genes involved in reproductive recombination, which may lead to the health risks involved in asexual reproduction. I argue that germline interventions aimed at modifying the genomes of future people cannot be ethically justifiable if (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  2.  14
    “All the Old Illusions”: On Guessing at Being in Crisis.Ioana Sendroiu - forthcoming - Sociological Theory:073527512211130.
    Models of culture and action argue that crises can be generative of change, with changing contexts setting off reflexivity—a view of crisis as self-evident that is echoed in comparative historical work. Looking to the beginning of the Cold War in Romania and France, this article elaborates two instances when crises did not produce reflexive recognition. This echoes performative approaches that highlight actors needing to interpret crises into being yet underscores that crisis claims nonetheless take place in contexts potentially marked by (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3.  11
    Malicious deceivers: thinking machines and performative objects.Ioana B. Jucan - 2023 - Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
    In Malicious Deceivers, Ioana B. Jucan traces a genealogy of post-truth intimately tied to globalizing modernity and connects the production of repeatable fakeness with capitalism and Cartesian metaphysics. Through case studies that cross times and geographies, the book unpacks the notion of fakeness through the related logics of dissimulation (deception) and simulation (performativity) as seen with software/AI, television, plastics, and the internet. Specifically, Jucan shows how these (dis)simulation machines and performative objects construct impoverished pictures of the world, ensuring a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  1
    De Iudeis.Ioana Curuţ - 2023 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 90 (1):111-172.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  5
    Dimitrie Cantemir, salvation of the sage and ruin of the sinful world.Ioana Feodorov - 2016 - Boston: Brill. Edited by Virgil Cândea & Dimitrie Cantemir.
    This is a thoroughly revised and expanded version of the first edition of the Arabic version of Dimitrie Cantemir s "The Divan or the Sage s Dispute with the World," achieved in 1705 by Athanasios Dabb s, Patriarch of the Antiochian Church.".
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6.  26
    Conflict of interest from a Romanian geneticist’s perspective.Ioana Ispas - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):363-381.
    This paper examines Romanian bioethics regulations for biomedical sciences, looking in particular at the genetics area as a source for conflict of interest. The analysis is focused on the organizational level, national regulations, the sources for generating conflicts of interest, and management of conflicts. Modern biotechnology and gene technology are among the key technologies of the twenty-first century. The application of gene technology for medical and pharmaceutical purposes is widely accepted by society, but the same cannot be said of the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  33
    From Ethical to Equitable Social Media Technologies: Amplifying Underrepresented Youth Voices in Digital Technology Design.Ioana Literat & Melissa Brough - 2019 - Journal of Media Ethics 34 (3):132-145.
    ABSTRACTAlthough youth of color, youth from lower socioeconomic brackets, and young women are among the heaviest users of social media technologies, their voices are almost entirely absent from cur...
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  11
    Dynamics of Religion in a Broader Europe.Ioana Repciuc - 2014 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 13 (39):263-274.
    Review of Detlef Pollack, Olaf Müller, Gert Pickel , The Social Significance of Religion in the Enlarged Europe. Secularization, Individualization and Pluralization ,.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Generaţia James Dean a prozatorilor timişoreni.Ioana Spătaru - 2004 - In Cornel Haranguș, Gilda Vălcan & Ciprian Vălcan (eds.), Paradigma Ereticului. "Augusta". pp. 186.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  3
    Who Purchases From the Informal Economy and Why?Ioana Alexandra Horodnic, Claudia Ioana Ciobanu, Adriana Zaiț & Colin C. Williams - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    In recent decades scholars have acknowledged that transactions in the informal economy have not vanished with modernization and industrialization as expected but rather remain an important contemporary aspect of overall production and consumption across the world, in both developing and developed countries. Yet little is known about the profile of the consumers in this realm or what drives them to purchase from the informal economy. A systematic review of the literature investigating consumption in the informal economy reveals a severely underdeveloped (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11. Philosophy and logic: selected writings of Petre Botezatu.Petre Botezatu - 1987 - Iaṣi: "Al. I. Cuza" University of Iaṣi, Department of Philosophy.
  12. Visual Arguments and Moral Causes in Charity Advertising: Ethical Considerations.Ioana Grancea - 2015 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 2 (2):167-185.
    Social advertising often employs persuasive imagery in support of a morally laden cause. These visual arguments can take the form of veridical representations of the given situation or the form of purposeful visual blends. Both visual routes to persuasion have serious ethical issues to confront. In what concerns the purportedly veridical images, controversies about picture retouching and framing have cast many doubts on their success in offering unmediated access to a given reality. Editorial interests have proven far too influential on (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  13.  30
    Factors Predicting the Intent to Engage in Arguments in Close Relationships: A Revised Model.Ioana A. Cionea, Adam S. Richards & Sara K. Straub - 2017 - Argumentation 31 (1):121-163.
    This manuscript examines argument engagement in close relationships. Two pilot studies were conducted to identify what factors naïve actors report matter to them when considering whether to engage in an interpersonal argument, and to develop and pre-test measurement scales for these factors. The main study examined which of these factors predicted participants’ behavioral intent to engage in an argument about different topics and with different partners. Results indicated intent to engage was predicted by five factors: one’s orientation to the topic, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  14.  19
    The Realism and Evolutionary Personalism of N.O. Lossky.Petr Abramov & Andrei Ivanov - 2018 - Sophia 59 (4):767-778.
    The paper is devoted to Nikolay Lossky who was one of the leading Russian philosophers of the first half of the twentieth century. We demonstrate the interrelationship between three aspects of Lossky’s philosophy: realism in the theory of knowledge, hierarchical personalism, and supra-naturalistic concept of evolution. We pay attention to the contemporary relevance of Lossky, and we discuss and critique his ideas in light of those of other philosophers. Lossky acknowledges that the subject interacts with being itself and that knowledge (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  51
    Automatic verification of temporal-epistemic properties of cryptographic protocols.Ioana Boureanu, Mika Cohen & Alessio Lomuscio - 2009 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 19 (4):463-487.
    We present a technique for automatically verifying cryptographic protocols specified in the mainstream specification language CAPSL. We define a translation from CAPSL models into interpreted systems, a popular semantics for temporal-epistemic logic, and rewrite CAPSL goals as temporal-epistemic specifications. We present a compiler that implements this translation. The compiler links to the symbolic model checker MCMAS. We evaluate the technique on protocols in the Clark-Jacobs library and in the SPORE repository against custom secrecy and authentication requirements.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. Despre sentimentalism în trei episoade.Ioana Popescu - 2002 - Dilema 507:8.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. Contraargument.Ioana Pârvulescu - 1999 - Dilema 342.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  25
    Non-commutative Łukasiewicz propositional logic.Ioana Leuştean - 2006 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 45 (2):191-213.
    The non-commutative counterpart of the well-known Łukasiewicz propositional logic is developed, in strong connection with the algebraic theory of psMV-algebras. An extension by a new unary logical connective is also considered and a stronger completeness result is proved for this system.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  19.  3
    321 de vorbe memorabile ale lui Petre Țuțea.Petre Țuțea - 1993 - București: Humanitas. Edited by Gabriel Liiceanu.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Schizophrenia, dissociation, and consciousness.Petr Bob & George A. Mashour - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1042-1049.
    Current thinking suggests that dissociation could be a significant comorbid diagnosis in a proportion of schizophrenic patients with a history of trauma. This potentially may explain the term “schizophrenia” in its original definition by Bleuler, as influenced by his clinical experience and personal view. Additionally, recent findings suggest a partial overlap between dissociative symptoms and the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which could be explained by inhibitory deficits. In this context, the process of dissociation could serve as an important conceptual framework (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  21.  19
    A test of the argument engagement model in Romania.Ioana Cionea, Dale Hample, Fabio Paglieri & Lilian Bermejo-Luque - unknown
    Hample, Paglieri, and Na’s model of argument engagement proposes that people en-gage in arguments when they perceive the benefits of arguing to be greater than the costs of doing so. This paper tests the model in Romania, a different culture than the one in which the model was developed, by using a 2 x 2 design.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  22. Studiile de impact: știință, tehnologie, societate.Ioana Dragomirescu & Ana Maria Sandi (eds.) - 1986 - București: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  24
    Recalling Trauma: Photographs as Links to a Memory Chain for Survivors of Armed Anti-Communist Resistance in Romania.Ioana Hașu - 2015 - History of Communism in Europe 6:163-180.
    Using the concept of postmemory—coined by Mariane Hirsch—this paper explores the role of photographs in recalling past trauma in two families who participated in the anticommunist armed resistance in Romania. Members of these families were executed and the survivors had to endure further persecution. The interviews revealed that some pictures offer the frame for remembering suppressed memories. The images have peculiar meanings for different generations of the same family. For the participants in this study, seeing the photographs equates to reliving (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  22
    Sandu Frunzã, Religious Fundamentalism and the New Conflict of Ideologies.Ioana Roxana Havrici - 2003 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2 (6):200-202.
    Sandu Frunzã, Religious Fundamentalism and the New Conflict of Ideologies Limes, Cluj, 2003.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  49
    Algebra and Probability in Many-Valued Reasoning.Ioana Leuştean & Vincenzo Marra - 2010 - Studia Logica 94 (2):147-150.
  26.  12
    A General View on Normal Form Theorems for Łukasiewicz Logic with Product.Ioana Leuştean & Serafina Lapenta - 2016 - In Peter Schuster & Dieter Probst (eds.), Concepts of Proof in Mathematics, Philosophy, and Computer Science. De Gruyter. pp. 215-228.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  12
    Visual Modes of Ethotic Argumentation: An Exploratory Inquiry.Grancea Ioana - forthcoming - Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences.
    Ioana Grancea ABSTRACT: Ethotic arguments are defined as sequences of claims-and-reasons regarding speaker character, based on which the plausibility of speaker assertions can be questioned. This is an exploratory study concerning the role of visuals in ethotic arguing. In this paper, I bring together contributions from visual argumentation theory and from studies regarding various modes of...
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Visual Modes of Ethotic Argumentation: An Exploratory Inquiry.Ioana Grancea - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (4):375-389.
    Ethotic arguments are defined as sequences of claims-and-reasons regarding speaker character, based on which the plausibility of speaker assertions can be questioned. This is an exploratory study concerning the role of visuals in ethotic arguing. In this paper, I bring together contributions from visual argumentation theory and from studies regarding various modes of construing an ethotic argument, in an attempt to offer an adequate account of the argumentative action of images in ethotic sequences of discourse. In the last section, I (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  21
    The liar paradox and fuzzy logic.Petr Hájek, Jeff Paris & John Shepherdson - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (1):339-346.
    Can one extend crisp Peano arithmetic PA by a possibly many-valued predicate Tr(x) saying “xis true” and satisfying the “dequotation schema”for all sentences φ? This problem is investigated in the frame of Łukasiewicz infinitely valued logic.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  30.  13
    Argumentative Competence in Friend and Stranger Dyadic Exchanges.Ioana A. Cionea, Cameron W. Piercy, Eryn N. Bostwick & Stacie Wilson Mumpower - 2019 - Argumentation 33 (4):465-487.
    This manuscript investigates the role of argumentative competence in interpersonal dyadic exchanges. Specifically, this study examined the two sub-dimensions of competence, argumentative effectiveness and appropriateness, and their connections with argumentative traits, situational features, and argument satisfaction. In addition, self-perceived versus observed argumentative competence were compared. Participants in the study completed measures before and after a face-to-face argumentative discussion with another person about one of two possible topics. Results revealed that argumentation traits had little effect on argumentative competence, but competence was (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  9
    Dedicated to Petr Vopeynka.Bohuslav Balcar & Petr Simon - 2001 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 109 (1):2-15.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. No-Regret Learning Supports Voters’ Competence.Petr Spelda, Vit Stritecky & John Symons - forthcoming - Social Epistemology:1-17.
    Procedural justifications of democracy emphasize inclusiveness and respect and by doing so come into conflict with instrumental justifications that depend on voters’ competence. This conflict raises questions about jury theorems and makes their standing in democratic theory contested. We show that a type of no-regret learning called meta-induction can help to satisfy the competence assumption without excluding voters or diverse opinion leaders on an a priori basis. Meta-induction assigns weights to opinion leaders based on their past predictive performance to determine (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  6
    Logic and Implication: An Introduction to the General Algebraic Study of Non-Classical Logics.Petr Cintula & Carles Noguera - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This monograph presents a general theory of weakly implicative logics, a family covering a vast number of non-classical logics studied in the literature, concentrating mainly on the abstract study of the relationship between logics and their algebraic semantics. It can also serve as an introduction to algebraic logic, both propositional and first-order, with special attention paid to the role of implication, lattice and residuated connectives, and generalized disjunctions. Based on their recent work, the authors develop a powerful uniform framework for (...)
    No categories
  34.  3
    Filosofia valorii.Petre Andrei - 1997 - Iași: Fundația Academică "P. Andrei".
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35.  3
    Jurnal, memorialistică, corespondență.Petre Andrei - 1993 - Iași: Editura Graphix. Edited by Petru P. Andrei, Valeriu Florin Dobrinescu & Doru Tompea.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  17
    Woes of a Philosopher.Ioana Grasu - 2009 - Questions 9:3-3.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  17
    Woes of a Philosopher.Ioana Grasu - 2009 - Questions: Philosophy for Young People 9:3-3.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38.  13
    Woes of a Philosopher.Ioana Grasu - 2009 - Questions 9:3-3.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  13
    New Mathematical and Theoretical Foundation in Human Brain Research. An interdisciplinarity approach in a transdisciplinary world.Ioana Grecu, Lucian Negură, Irina Crumpe, Maricel Agop, Alina Gavriluț & Gabriel Crumpei - 2014 - Human and Social Studies 3 (1):45-58.
    From the theoretical discussions, transdisciplinarity starts to have practical consequences in the development of programs that include consortia of universities, bringing together a large variety of professionnals who set ambitious goals, such as the Human Genome Project in the past decade, and also the Human Brain Project for this decade. We intend to present an approach in the spirit of the new paradigms of knowledge in the Human Brain Project generous program started earlier this year in Europe. A possible transdisciplinary (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40.  1
    Plato and Europe.Petr Lom (ed.) - 2002 - Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
    The Czech philosopher Jan Patocka, who studied with Husserl and Heidegger, is widely recognized as the most influential thinker to come from postwar Eastern Europe. Refusing to join the Communist party after World War II, he was banned from academia and publication for the rest of his life, except for a brief time following the liberalizations of the Prague spring of 1968. Joining Vaclav Havel and Jiri Hajek as a spokesman for the Chart 77 human-rights declaration of 1977, Patocka was (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41.  2
    We Live Under the Permanent Conviviality of Norms and Chance--Understanding It Is Key to Building More Resilient Complex Systems.Petre Roman - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophy 10 (4):147.
    People have always tried to make predictions; they are necessary and useful, but very often they commit obvious errors, which have negative consequences on decision-making. Prediction errors are in some cases, not few, unavoidable, because the world itself is unpredictable, subject to chance (or randomness in mathematics). Chance is a property of nature. The causes of random events are physically determined, but so numerous and complex that they (the events) are unpredictable. Science is not about certainty. Human knowledge itself is (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42.  18
    Politics of Gymnastics: Mass Gymnastic Displays Under Communism in Central and Eastern Europe.Petr Roubal - 2003 - Body and Society 9 (2):1-25.
    Under communism, the symbolic potential of the body was multiplied in the mass gymnastic displays in order to portray the society as disciplined, strong, happy and beautiful and thus to legitimize its leadership. These gymnastic rituals followed the volkisch tradition of 19th-century mass gymnastics, which aimed at mobilization and homogenization of the `imagined community' of the nation. Behind the symbolic play of the mass gymnastics, there was, as Kracauer pointed out, a deeper relationship between modernity with its mode of production (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Modern microcontroller building set for teaching and development of industrial applications.Petr Weissar, Kamil Kosturik & Michal Kubík - 2005 - In Alan F. Blackwell & David MacKay (eds.), Power. Cambridge University Press. pp. 5--15.
  44. The Future of Human-Artificial Intelligence Nexus and its Environmental Costs.Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - 2020 - Futures 117.
    The environmental costs and energy constraints have become emerging issues for the future development of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). So far, the discussion on environmental impacts of ML/AI lacks a perspective reaching beyond quantitative measurements of the energy-related research costs. Building on the foundations laid down by Schwartz et al., 2019 in the GreenAI initiative, our argument considers two interlinked phenomena, the gratuitous generalisation capability and the future where ML/AI performs the majority of quantifiable inductive inferences. The (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  3
    To be Young and Spiritual during Times of Communism - Students and the Burning Bush of Antim.Ioana Ursu - forthcoming - History of Communism in Europe:217-236.
    The “Burning Bush” was the name of a cultural circle in Bucharest in the 1940s, comprised of clergy and intellectuals who met periodically to discuss theology, philosophy, literature and to learn about prayer. Some of the most significant members of this group were arrested during the second repressive wave by the Romanian communist regime (1958); along with twelve elderly monks and intellectuals, four students who kept in touch with them were also arrested. Their names were George Văsâi, Șerban Mironescu, Nicolae (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  90
    Machine Advisors: Integrating Large Language Models into Democratic Assemblies.Petr Špecián - manuscript
    Large language models (LLMs) represent the currently most relevant incarnation of artificial intelligence with respect to the future fate of democratic governance. Considering their potential, this paper seeks to answer a pressing question: Could LLMs outperform humans as expert advisors to democratic assemblies? While bearing the promise of enhanced expertise availability and accessibility, they also present challenges of hallucinations, misalignment, or value imposition. Weighing LLMs’ benefits and drawbacks compared to their human counterparts, I argue for their careful integration to augment (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  7
    The Sentences Commentary of Thomas Ebendorfer : Manuscripts and question lists.Ioana Curuţ - 2022 - Archives d'Histoire Doctrinale et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 88 (1):65-111.
    L’intellectuel aux multiples facettes Thomas Ebendorfer de Haselbach est l’une des figures-clés de la Vienne du xv e siècle. Cet article est une première étape pour retracer le profil académique d’Ebendorfer à travers une lecture complète des diverses rédactions de son commentaire des Sentences conservées à l’Österreichische Nationalbibliothek. Sont analysés le contenu des manuscrits et la relation des différentes rédactions avec d’autres commentaires viennois connus. On trouvera en annexe la liste complète des questions, d’après toutes les rédactions du commentaire des (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  48.  98
    Epistemic norms, closure, and no-Belief hinge epistemology.Mona Ioana Simion, Johanna Schnurr & Emma C. Gordon - 2021 - Synthese 198 (15):3553-3564.
    Recent views in hinge epistemology rely on doxastic normativism to argue that our attitudes towards hinge propositions are not beliefs. This paper has two aims; the first is positive: it discusses the general normative credentials of this move. The second is negative: it delivers two negative results for No-Belief hinge epistemology such construed. The first concerns the motivation for the view: if we’re right, doxastic normativism offers little in the way of theoretical support for the claim that our attitudes towards (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  49.  13
    Dissociative states in dreams and brain chaos: implications for creative awareness.Petr Bob & Olga Louchakova - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:150287.
    This article reviews recent findings indicating some common brain processes during dissociative states and dreaming with the aim to outline a perspective that neural chaotic states during dreaming can be closely related to dissociative states that may manifest in dreams scenery. These data are in agreement with various clinical findings that dissociated states can be projected into the “dream scenery” in REM sleep periods and dreams may represent their specific interactions that may uncover unusual psychological potential of creativity in psychotherapy, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  28
    Fuzzy logic.Petr Hajek - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
1 — 50 / 855