Results for 'Incomparability'

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  1. Value Incomparability and Indeterminacy.Cristian Constantinescu - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (1):57-70.
    Two competing accounts of value incomparability have been put forward in the recent literature. According to the standard account, developed most famously by Joseph Raz, ‘incomparability’ means determinate failure of the three classic value relations ( better than , worse than , and equally good ): two value-bearers are incomparable with respect to a value V if and only if (i) it is false that x is better than y with respect to V , (ii) it is false (...)
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  2. Value Incomparability and Incommensurability.Ruth Chang - 2015 - In Iwao Hirose & Jonas Olson (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Value Theory. Oxford University Press.
    This introductory article describes the phenomena of incommensurability and incomparability, how they are related, and why they are important. Since incomparability is the more significant phenomenon, the paper takes that as its focus. It gives a detailed account of what incomparability is, investigates the relation between the incomparability of values and the incomparability of alternatives for choice, distinguishes incomparability from the related phenomena of parity, indeterminacy, and noncomparability, and, finally, defends a view about practical (...)
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  3. Evidential Incomparability and the Principle of Indifference.Martin Smith - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (3):605-616.
    The _Principle of Indifference_ was once regarded as a linchpin of probabilistic reasoning, but has now fallen into disrepute as a result of the so-called _problem of multiple of partitions_. In ‘Evidential symmetry and mushy credence’ Roger White suggests that we have been too quick to jettison this principle and argues that the problem of multiple partitions rests on a mistake. In this paper I will criticise White’s attempt to revive POI. In so doing, I will argue that what underlies (...)
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  4. Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Practical Reason.Ruth Chang - 1997 - Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard.
    Can quite different values be rationally weighed against one another? Can the value of one thing always be ranked as greater than, equal to, or less than the value of something else? If not, when do we find commensurability and comparability unavailable? What are the moral and legal implications? In this book, philosophers address these questions.
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  5. Parity, Incomparability and Rationally Justified Choice.Martijn Boot - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 146 (1):75 - 92.
    This article discusses the possibility of a rationally justified choice between two options neither of which is better than the other while they are not equally good either (‘3NT’). Joseph Raz regards such options as incomparable and argues that reason cannot guide the choice between them. Ruth Chang, by contrast, tries to show that many cases of putative incomparability are instead cases of parity—a fourth value relation of comparability, in addition to the three standard value relations ‘better than’, ‘worse (...)
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  6. Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Practical Reason.Ruth Chang (ed.) - 1997 - Harvard University Press.
    Can quite different values be rationally weighed against one another? Can the value of one thing always be ranked as greater than, equal to, or less than the value of something else? If the answer to these questions is no, then in what areas do we find commensurability and comparability unavailable? And what are the implications for moral and legal decision making? In this book, some of the sharpest minds in philosophy struggle with these questions.
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  7. Vagueness, Incomparability, and the Collapsing Principle.Erik Carlson - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):449-463.
    John Broome has argued that incomparability and vagueness cannot coexist in a given betterness order. His argument essentially hinges on an assumption he calls the ‘collapsing principle’. In an earlier article I criticized this principle, but Broome has recently expressed doubts about the cogency of my criticism. Moreover, Cristian Constantinescu has defended Broome’s view from my objection. In this paper, I present further arguments against the collapsing principle, and try to show that Constantinescu’s defence of Broome’s position fails.
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  8.  18
    Seeming Incomparability and Rational Choice.Leo Yan - forthcoming - Politics, Philosophy and Economics.
    We sometimes have to choose between options that are seemingly incomparable insofar as they seem to be neither better than, worse than, nor equal to each other. This often happens when the availabl...
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  9.  59
    Is Incomparability a Problem for Anyone?Nien-hê Hsieh - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):65-80.
    The incomparability of alternatives is thought to pose a problem for justified choice, particularly for proponents of comparativism better than,worse than,equally good,roughly equalon a par. namely, rejection of the transitivity of the relation In this paper, I argue that proponents of comparativism need not incur this cost. I defend the possibility of justified choice between incomparable alternatives on grounds that comparativists can accept. The possibility of incomparability has been met with resistance, in part because of the intuitive appeal (...)
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  10. Epistemic Entrenchment with Incomparabilities and Relational Belief Revision.Sten Lindström & Wlodek Rabinowicz - 1991 - In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer. pp. 93--126.
    In earlier papers (Lindström & Rabinowicz, 1989. 1990), we proposed a generalization of the AGM approach to belief revision. Our proposal was to view belief revision as a relation rather thanas a function on theories (or belief sets). The idea was to allow for there being several equally reasonable revisions of a theory with a given proposition. In the present paper, we show that the relational approach is the natural result of generalizing in a certain way an approach to belief (...)
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  11.  28
    Is Incomparability A Problem For Anyone?Nien-hê Hsieh - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):65-80.
    The incomparability of alternatives is thought to pose a problem for justified choice, particularly for proponents of comparativism – the view that comparative facts about alternatives determine what one rationally ought to choose. As a solution, it has been argued that alternatives judged incomparable by one of the three standard comparative relations, “better than,” “worse than,” and “equally good,” are comparable by some fourth relation, such as “roughly equal” or “on a par.” This solution, however, comes at what many (...)
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  12.  84
    On the Treatment of Incomparability in Ordering Semantics and Premise Semantics.Eric Swanson - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (6):693-713.
    In his original semantics for counterfactuals, David Lewis presupposed that the ordering of worlds relevant to the evaluation of a counterfactual admitted no incomparability between worlds. He later came to abandon this assumption. But the approach to incomparability he endorsed makes counterintuitive predictions about a class of examples circumscribed in this paper. The same underlying problem is present in the theories of modals and conditionals developed by Bas van Fraassen, Frank Veltman, and Angelika Kratzer. I show how to (...)
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  13.  98
    Incomparable Numbers.Kenneth Walden - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 10.
    This chapter presents arguments for two slightly different versions of the thesis that the value of persons is incomparable. Both arguments allege an incompatibility between the demands of a certain kind of practical reasoning and the presuppositions of value comparisons. The significance of these claims is assessed in the context of the “Numbers problem”—the question of whether one morally ought to benefit one group of potential aid recipients rather than another simply because they are greater in number. It is argued (...)
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  14. Incommensurability (and Incomparability).Ruth Chang - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell. pp. 2591-2604.
    This encyclopedia entry urges what it takes to be correctives to common (mis)understandings concerning the phenomenon of incommensurability and incomparability and briefly outlines some of their philosophical upshots.
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  15. Moral Dilemmas and Incomparability.Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (4):321 - 329.
    The author defines moral dilemmas as situations where there is a moral requirement for an agent to adopt each of two alternatives, And the agent cannot adopt both, But neither moral requirement overrides the other. The author then argues that moral dilemmas are possible because conflicting moral requirements can be either symmetrical or incomparable in a way that is limited enough to be plausible but still strong enough to yield moral dilemmas.
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  16.  51
    Theories Incomparable with Respect to Relative Interpretability.Richard Montague - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (2):195-211.
  17.  70
    Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Rational World-Choice.Myron Arthur Penner - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 75 (1):13-25.
    Klaas J. Kraay argues that the rational choice model for divine creation—according to which God chooses to actualize one world among possible alternatives based on its axiological properties—cannot succeed given failures of comparability across possible worlds. I argue that failure of comparability across worlds would not undermine the rationality of choosing one world to create among possible alternatives.
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  18.  90
    Incommensurability, Incomparability, and God’s Choice of a World.Klaas J. Kraay - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 69 (2):91 - 102.
    Anselmian theism holds that there necessarily exists a being, God, who is essentially unsurpassable in power, knowledge, goodness, and wisdom. This being is also understood to be the creator and sustainer of all that is. In contemporary analytic philosophy of religion, this role is generally understood as follows: God surveys the array of possible worlds, and in his wisdom selects exactly one for actualization, based on its axiological properties. In this paper, I discuss an under-appreciated challenge for this account of (...)
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  19.  1
    Incomparable Risks, Values and Preferences.Nicolas Espinoza - 2006 - Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
    . Consistent valuation and societal prioritization of risks presupposes comparability among risks, that is, in order to rank risks in order of severity, and allocate risk preventative resources accordingly, we must be able to determine whether one risk is better or worse than another, and by how much. It is often claimed, however, that some risks are not amenable to this kind of comparison because they are incommensurable, which roughly means that they are not comparable with respect to a common (...)
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  20.  94
    Equality, Clumpiness and Incomparability.Nien-hê Hsieh - 2005 - Utilitas 17 (2):180-204.
    The incomparability of two items is thought to pose a problem for making justified choices and for consequentialist theories that rely on comparing states of the world to judge the goodness of a particular course of action. In response, it has been argued that items thought incomparable by one of the three standard relations, ‘better than’, ‘worse than’ and ‘equally good’, are instead comparable by some fourth relation, such as ‘roughly equal’ or ‘on a par’. Against such accounts, this (...)
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  21. Incommensurability, Incomparability, and Practical Reason, Ruth Chang (Ed.), Harvard University Press, 1998, 303 Pages. [REVIEW]Adam Morton - 2000 - Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):147-174.
    review of Ruth Chang's collection in which I argue that the apparent agreements between the authors disguise underlying important differences.
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  22.  4
    Incomparable Values: Analysis, Axiomatics and Applications.John Nolt - 2021 - Routledge.
    People tend to rank values of all kinds linearly from good to bad, but there is little reason to think that this is reasonable or correct. This book argues, to the contrary, that values are often partially ordered and hence frequently incomparable. Proceeding logically from a small set of axioms, John Nolt examines the great variety of partially ordered value structures, exposing fallacies that arise from overlooking them. He reveals various ways in which incomparability is obscured: using linear indices (...)
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  23.  3
    Theories Incomparable with Respect to Relative Interpretability.Richard Montague - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (4):688-688.
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  24.  18
    Reconstructing an incomparable organism: the Chalicothere in nineteenth and early-twentieth century palaeontology.Chris Manias - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):22.
    Palaeontology developed as a field dependent upon comparison. Not only did reconstructing the fragmentary records of fossil organisms and placing them within taxonomic systems and evolutionary lineages require detailed anatomical comparisons with living and fossil animals, but the field also required thinking in terms of behavioural, biological and ecological analogies with modern organisms to understand how prehistoric animals lived and behaved. Yet palaeontological material often worked against making easy linkages, bringing a sense of mystery and doubt. This paper will look (...)
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  25.  36
    Maximization, Incomparability, and Managerial Choice.Nien-hê Hsieh - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (3):497-513.
    According to one prominent view of rationality, for the choice of alternative to be justified, it must be at least as good as other alternatives. Michael Jensen has recently invoked this view to argue that managers should act exclusively to maximize the long-run market value of economic enterprises. According to Jensen, alternative accounts of managerial responsibility, such as stakeholder theory, are to be rejected because they lack a single measure to compare alternatives as better or worse. Against Jensen’s account, this (...)
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  26.  18
    Incommensurability, Incomparability, and God’s Choice of a World.Klaas J. Kraay - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 69 (2):91-102.
    Anselmian theism holds that there necessarily exists a being, God, who is essentially unsurpassable in power, knowledge, goodness, and wisdom. This being is also understood to be the creator and sustainer of all that is. In contemporary analytic philosophy of religion, this role is generally understood as follows: God surveys the array of possible worlds, and in his wisdom selects exactly one for actualization, based on its axiological properties. In this paper, I discuss an under-appreciated challenge for this account of (...)
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  27.  17
    Comparing Incomparability: The Functional Distinction Between Operation and Identity.T. G. K. Meitz - 2012 - Constructivist Foundations 8 (1):76-78.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Making Sense and Meaning: On the Role of Communication and Culture in the Reproduction of Social Systems” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: The author addresses implications arising from socializing observer-dependent heuristics. Above all, Palmaru’s terminology is called into question since its conceptual deficiencies with regard to the relation between an observing system and its environments cause naturalistic fallacy. The author’s reply espouses a concise reanalysis of the complementary relations of fundamentally incomparable domains, namely the observer (...)
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  28.  21
    Incomparable Treeable Equivalence Relations.Benjamin Miller - 2012 - Journal of Mathematical Logic 12 (1):1250004-.
    We establish Hjorth's theorem that there is a family of continuum-many pairwise strongly incomparable free actions of free groups, and therefore a family of continuum-many pairwise incomparable treeable equivalence relations.
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  29.  14
    Incomparable Prime Ideals of Recursively Enumerable Degrees.William C. Calhoun - 1993 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 63 (1):39-56.
    Calhoun, W.C., Incomparable prime ideals of recursively enumerable degrees, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 63 39–56. We show that there is a countably infinite antichain of prime ideals of recursively enumerable degrees. This solves a generalized form of Post's problem.
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  30. Incomparability in Epistemology.Mark Emerson Wunderlich - 2001 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    Epistemologists are interested in what makes beliefs well justified. Even before considering competing theories of epistemic justification, however, we should ask what sort of valuational structure we are trying to explain. If, as far as epistemic justification is concerned, beliefs are like bank accounts, then all beliefs are comparable: just as in any bank account there must be more, less, or as much money as in any other, one belief must be better, worse, or as good as any other. Contemporary (...)
     
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  31. Generic Incomparability of Infinite-Dimensional Entangled States.Christian Wüthrich, Rob Clifton & Brian Hepburn - 2002 - Physics Letters A 303:121-124.
    In support of a recent conjecture by Nielsen (1999), we prove that the phenomena of ‘incomparable entanglement’— whereby, neither member of a pair of pure entangled states can be transformed into the other via local operations and classical communication (LOCC)—is a generic feature when the states at issue live in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space.  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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  32. Generic Incomparability of Infinite-Dimensional Entangled States.P. R. Holland - unknown
    In support of a recent conjecture by Nielsen (1999), we prove that the phenomena of ‘incomparable entanglement’— whereby, neither member of a pair of pure entangled states can be transformed into the other via local operations and classical communication (LOCC)—is a generic feature when the states at issue live in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space.  2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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  33. Are Hard Choices Cases of Incomparability?Ruth Chang - 2012 - Philosophical Issues 22 (1):106-126.
    This paper presents an argument against the widespread view that ‘hard choices’ are hard because of the incomparability of the alternatives. The argument has two parts. First, I argue that any plausible theory of practical reason must be ‘comparativist’ in form, that is, it must hold that a comparative relation between the alternatives with respect to what matters in the choice determines a justified choice in that situation. If comparativist views of practical reason are correct, however, the incomparabilist view (...)
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  34. Psychoanalysis Comparable and Incomparable: The Evolution of a Method to Describe and Compare Psychoanalytic Approaches.David Tuckett - 2008 - Routledge.
    How do we know when what is happening between two people should be called psychoanalysis? What is a psychoanalytic process and how do we know when one is taking place? _Psychoanalysis Comparable and Incomparable_ describes the rationale and ongoing development of a six year programme of highly original meetings conducted by the European Psychoanalytic Federation Working Party on Comparative Clinical Methods. The project comprises over seventy cases discussed by more than five hundred experienced psychoanalysts over the course of sixty workshops. (...)
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  35. Comparing the Incomparable: Trade-Offs and Sacrifices.Steven Lukes - 1997 - In Ruth Chang (ed.), Incommensurability, Incomparability and Practical Reason. Harvard University Press. pp. 184--195.
     
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  36.  7
    Incomparable Ω1 -Like Models of Set Theory.Gunter Fuchs, Victoria Gitman & Joel David Hamkins - 2017 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 63 (1-2):66-76.
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  37.  38
    Incomparable Worth, Steven E. Rhoads. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, 334 + Xi Pages.J. Donald Moon - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (1):133.
  38.  30
    Comparing Incomparable Kleene Degrees.Philip Welch - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (1):55-58.
  39.  3
    Incomparability in local structures of s -degrees and Q -degrees.Irakli Chitaia, Keng Meng Ng, Andrea Sorbi & Yue Yang - 2020 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 59 (7-8):777-791.
    We show that for every intermediate \ s-degree there exists an incomparable \ s-degree. As a consequence, for every intermediate \ Q-degree there exists an incomparable \ Q-degree. We also show how these results can be applied to provide proofs or new proofs of upper density results in local structures of s-degrees and Q-degrees.
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  40.  20
    That Incomparable Poem the 'Ille Ego'?E. J. Kenney - 1970 - The Classical Review 20 (03):290-.
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  41.  27
    Measure-Theoretic Construction of Incomparable Hyperdegrees.Clifford Spector - 1958 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 23 (3):280-288.
  42.  20
    Free Choice, Incomparably Valuable Options, and Incommensurable Categories of Good.J. Boyle - 2002 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 47 (1):123-141.
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  43.  76
    The Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Debate Twenty-Five Years of Incomparable Research.Jennifer J. Griffin & John F. Mahon - 1997 - Business and Society 36 (1):5-31.
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  44.  30
    Value Vagueness, Zones of Incomparability, and Tragedy.George W. Harris - 2001 - American Philosophical Quarterly 38 (2):155 - 176.
  45.  5
    Chapter Four. Comparing the Incomparable: Crossing Intercultural Borders.Bernhard Waldenfels - 2014 - In Ming Xie (ed.), The Agon of Interpretations: Towards a Critical Intercultural Hermeneutics. University of Toronto Press. pp. 83-98.
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  46.  12
    Incommensurables and Incomparables: On the Conceptual Status and the Philosophical Use of Hyperreal Numbers.Michael White - 1999 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (3):420-446.
    After briefly considering the ancient Greek and nineteenth-century history of incommensurables (magnitudes that do not have a common aliquot part) and incomparables (magnitudes such that the larger can never be surpassed by any finite number of additions of the smaller to itself), this paper undertakes two tasks. The first task is to consider whether the numerical accommodation of incommensurables by means of the extension of the ordered field of rational numbers to the field of reals is `similar' or analogous to (...)
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  47. Twenty-Five Years of Incomparable Research.Financial Performance Debate - forthcoming - Business and Society.
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  48.  7
    Analytic Sets Having Incomparable Kleene Degrees.Galen Weitkamp - 1982 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 47 (4):860-868.
  49. Ruth Chang, Ed., Incommensurability, Incomparability and Practical Reason Reviewed By.Matthew D. Adler - 1999 - Philosophy in Review 19 (3):168-171.
     
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  50. Broome's Argument Against Value Incomparability.Erik Carlson - 2004 - Utilitas 16 (2):220-224.
    John Broome has argued that alleged cases of value incomparability are really examples of vagueness in the betterness relation. The main premiss of his argument is ‘the collapsing principle’. I argue that this principle is dubious, and that Broome's argument is therefore unconvincing. Correspondence:c1 [email protected]
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