I proceed from the hypothesis that the difficulties in Kant’s presentation of his plan and, accordingly, the implicit reason for the critical attitude to this plan on the part of many contemporary philosophers stem from the fact that he had no theoretical link at his disposal which would offer a more solid scientific grounding for his entire system. I believe that Darwinism is such a link which bolsters the central but ungrounded thesis of the Critique of Pure Reason on the (...) existence of a priori synthetic judgments. The synthesis of Darwinism and critical philosophy dictates, however, a substantial restructuring of the latter since some of its key elements prove to be weak in the light of modern studies and need to be revised or even reversed. The first reversal explored in this article determines the origin of the categories which are now revealed not “from the top down” where Kant sought them, i. e. not in logical functions in accordance with metaphysical deduction and not in self-consciousness as transcendental deduction claims, but “from the bottom up” if one considers things in the evolutionary dimension, i. e. in the instincts. The second reversal shifts the freedom of will which Kant placed in the same ontological basket with things in themselves at “the top,” to another level of the pyramid of ontologies, by changing dualism to pluralism because dualism is too narrow to accommodate all the autonomous components of critical philosophy. Thus spirit and freedom find a new place separate from the sphere of physical nature; the category of adaptation explains how different ontologies can coexist; while the problem of two interpretations of transcendental idealism finds a solution through their reconciliation. (shrink)
The author discusses Herzen's "liberal socialism" and later adoption of "communal peasant socialism," comparing his views with those of Marx, Engels, and Chernyshevskii. He shows how Herzen and his legacy influenced the evolution and eventual abandonment of populist ideas in Russia.
The paper analyzes philosophy of nature viewing it as this part of philosophy which investigates the foundations of nature and the limits of its existence. The paper concerns the following issues: the historical forms of the philosophy of nature, its modern context and the embracing philosophy of nature in the frame of co-evolution strategy determining that nature is only a moment of interaction between mankind and the world outward. It is shown that “philosophy of nature” is an extremely general notion (...) being filled with various historical, social and cultural senses. Nature is involved into the smithery of human activity and human relations. In cannot be understood beyond these relations, as well as beyond the historical and cultural spheres. Nature becomes the participant of human questioning which grows in certain social and cultural context and carries on itself its signs. Philosophy of nature begins to be built up on the basis of ontology of history, or, in other words, on the basis of the comprehension of ultimate characteristics of historic processes. (shrink)
Collerton et al.'s Perception and Attention Deficit model argues that all recurrent complex visual hallucinations result from maladaptive, deficient sensory and attentional processing. We outline a constructivist-based representation of perception using signal detection theory, in which hallucinations are modeled as false alarms when confirmational perceptual information is lacking. This representation allows for some individuals to have RCVH due to a criterion shift associated with attentional proficiency that results in an increased awareness of the environment.
The focus of this paper is to discuss the semiotic aspects of our findings from a project we conducted in the frame of Emotional Text Analysis paradigm. In the project, we intended to create a computer text classifier capable of effectively classifying texts into emotional categories. We agreed that we would need discrete data samples to input into it. For this, we asked 178 informants to give a verdict on the dominant emotion of 48 sample texts. Prior to their assessment (...) of the texts, the informants responded to a questionnaire used to estimate their empathic tendency. A detailed analysis of the informants’ assessments and personal empathetic tendency scores showed a positive correlation. Subsequently, our interest was piqued by the issue of how emotions could be triggered by conventional signs. Our findings seem to suggest that words are only used as an expression form insofar as they embody another type of semiotic complexity, thus diverging from the traditional Pearcian triad. In order to develop on these findings, it is therefore the main objective of this paper to provide a biosemiotic model of representation/interpretation of emotions, with particular attention paid to the eliciting of emotions as sign types. In this endeavour, we draw upon K. Kull’s concept of emonic semiotic model realization. Our suggestion is that, when one processes a text that elicits an emotional response, two semiotic facets are relevant: indexicality and emonicity. We argue that it is a main empathetic function to enforce the emonic model of semiosis over the indexical in situations where the interpreter has a choice between the two. As such, the hypothesis of the study is that emotions facilitate a particular type of semiotic mechanism, relying on the mimesis principle. (shrink)
The paper relates evidence and justification logics, both philosophically and technically. On the philosophical side, it is suggested that the difference between the approaches to evidence in the two families of logics can be explained as a result of their focusing on two different notions of support provided by evidence. On the technical side, a justification logic with operators pertaining to both kinds of support is shown to be sound and complete with respect to a special class of awareness models. (...) In addition, a realization theorem with respect to K is shown to hold for the logic. (shrink)
In dem ersten Teil dieses Texts wird zuerst eine Analyse von Kants Begriffen des Zweckm??igkeit und Harmonie und ihren Verh?ltnisse miteinander, so wie mit dem Gef?hl der Lust, unternommen werden. Diese Analyse wird mit Bezug auf Shaftesbury Ansicht auf die, heutige sogenannte,?Affektionen zweiter Ordnung? und ihre Bedeutung in der sozialen und politischen Philosophie betrachten werden. Abschlie?end dieser erste Teil besch?ftigt sich mit Kants Konzeption der sensus communis, und versucht einige sei?ner Besonderheiten hinzuweisen, die erm?glichen, sensus communis nicht als eine empirische (...) Tatsache anzunehmen. Im zweiten Teil der Arbeit wird versucht werden, die Position der sensus communis in Kants politische - Philosophie und - Situation hinzuweisen, und einige Auswirkungen, die daraus abgeleitet werden k?nnten. Prvi deo rada sadrzi pokusaj analize Kantovih pojmova svrhovitosti i harmonije i, u izvesnom smislu, njihovog medjusobnog odnosa, kao i odnosa sa osecanjem zadovoljstva. Toj analizi ce se pristupiti uz osvrt na Saftsberijev uvid u, danas tako nazvane,?second order affections?, i njihov znacaj u drustveno-politickoj filozofiji. Zakljucno ce se ovaj prvi deo rada baviti Kantovim shvatanjem sensus communis-a, i pokusati da ukaze na neke njegove specificnosti, koje omogucuju da se o njemu ne govori kao o empirijskom faktu. Drugi deo rada pokusace da ukaze na polozaj sensus communis-a u Kantovoj politickoj filozofiji i situaciji, i neke implikacije koje bi se iz toga mogle izvesti. (shrink)
The propositional μ -calculus is an extension of the modal system K with a least fixpoint operator. Kozen posed a question about completeness of the axiomatisation of the logic which is a small extension of the axiomatisation of the modal system K. It is shown that this axiomatisation is complete.
Povijest je u Hölderlina shvaćena kao usud kroz koji se duh odašilje iz svojega prvotnog sjedinjenja u svoju razdvojenost. Unutar jedinstvenog povijesnog usuda razlikuju se osobito grčki i hesperijski usud, koji su međusobno bitno povezani. Posebni se usud dosuđuje prema određenom zakonu usuda, s obzirom na svrhu povijesti, tj. udaljenost i blizinu određenog povijesnog razdoblja od iskona povijesti. Povijest je u svojim pojedinačnim likovima razvoj samog iskona. Prikazujući se u povijesti, iskon se skriva u svojoj beskonačnosti i neiscrpnosti, sve dok (...) se u povijesnim prevratima ne očituju kao takav, nakon čega se opet oblikuje jedan novi povijesni svijet, novo posebno uzajamno djelovanje prirode i umijeća.Jedinstvo iskona ne obnavlja se kao povratak u neposrednost prvoga stanja. Ono nije puko ponavljanje prvoga jedinstva, nego takvo stanje koje sjedinjuje jedinstvo i razdvajanje. Za razliku od povijesnog posredovanja, u kojem je moguće jedino prolazno tragičko pomirenje, tu se oba suprotna ne vraćaju k sebi tek u krajnjoj suprotstavljenosti, niti u odviše sjedinjenoj zamjeni, nego u takvom pomirenju u kojem se gubi svako prekomjerje i vlada istinska prisnost onog sjedinjenog.Die Geschichte ist bei Hölderlin als das Schicksal verstanden, wodurch der Geist sich aus seiner anfänglichen Vereinigung in seine Trennung schickt. Innerhalb des einheitlichen geschichtlichen Schicksaals unterscheiden sich besonders das griechische und das hesperische Schicksal, die aufeinander wesentlich hingewiesen sind. Das besondere Schicksal wird geschickt nach dem bestimmten Schicksalsgesetz, in Bezug auf den Zweck der Geschichte, d.h. auf die Entfernung und Nähe eines bestimmten Zeitalters von dem Ursprung der Geschichte.Die Geschichte ist in ihren besonderen Gestalten die Entwicklung des Ursprungs selbst. Indem der Ursprung sich in der Geschichte zeigt, verbirgt er sich in seiner Unendlichkeit und Unerschöpflichkeit, bis er in geschichtlichen Umwälzungen sich als solcher offenbart, wenn wieder eine neue geschichtliche Welt, eine neue besondere Wechselwirkung der Natur und Kunst hergestellt wird. Die Einheit wird nicht als die Rückkehr in die Unmittelbarkeit des ersten Zustands erzielt. Sie ist keine bloße Wiederholung der ersten Einheit, sondern ein solcher Zustand, der die Einheit und die Trennung vereinigt. Im Unterschied zu der geschichtlichen Vermittlung, in welcher allein die vorübergehende tragische Versöhnung möglich ist, kehren hier die beiden Gegensätze zu sich selbst, und zwar weder bloß in der äußersten Entgegensetzung, noch in allzu vereinigten Verwechslung, sondern in einer solchen Versöhnung, in der jede Übermäßigkeit verschwindet und die wahrhafte Innigkeit des Vereinigten herrscht. (shrink)
The article deals with the development of sacred art in Galicia at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Masters of Ukrainian icon painting K. Ustinovich, Y. Pankevich, M. Sosenko, P. Kholodny and others. continued the creative process through which the Ukrainian icon for a long historical period of development did not lose its viable direction, did not degenerate into the picture. They have not crossed that limit, when the departure from the fundamental theological foundations of iconoclasm threatens to (...) transform it into a painting of dry religious content. (shrink)
As James Chapman has famously put it in National Identity and the British Historical Film, historical films are “as much about the present in which they are made as they are about [the] past in which they are set.” This article discusses Shekhar Kapur’s aesthetically ground-breaking Elizabeth and its sequel Elizabeth: The Golden Age focusing on two main aspects, namely national identity issues and the representation of the enemy. Kapur’s Elizabeth films will first be placed within the larger context of (...) Elizabeth’s film and television appearances. Informed by Giroux’s critical methodology guidelines, in an attempt to “historize” the films under scrutiny and so foster “sane historical sense,” a semiotic analysis will then be offered. Largely inspired by the tenets of Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis and Kress and Leeuwen’s visual grammar, this will draw a parallel between the verbal and visual discourses in both films. Data will finally be discussed and the contention will be made that England’s religious heritage has left indelible traces which remain latent in the English imagination, for which historical evidence will be presented. The article’s ultimate aim will be to provide evidence suggesting that, in the English case, religious and national discourses merged from the late 16th century onwards, clearly influencing not only the perception that the English had of themselves but also and crucially the image they may still have of “Other” nations. (shrink)
The article analyzes the historical experience of creation and development of military medical aircraft in Ukraine from the 1920s. to the present. In particular, reviewed the activity of Design Bureaus of K. Kalinin and O. Antonov. Special attention is paid to the creation of military medical aircraft after Ukraine gained independence in 1991 and their application to evacuate the wounded during Armed conflict in the east of Ukraine in 2014-2016. The first attempt of creation a sanitary aircraft were made (...) in Ukraine back in the 1920s under the leadership of Konstantin Kalinin. In a qualitatively new level was realized military medical aircraft designed by bureau Oleg Antonov, created in the second half of 1970s aircraft emergency resuscitative-surgical care An-26M "Spasatel'" Accumulated experience allowed at the beginning of 2000s a similar purpose for the An-26 "Vita" for the Air Force of Ukraine. Over a longer time, he reminded to be the only one military medical aircraft in Ukraine. Plans of creating mixed air-transport unit air ambulance were not implemented. Successful use of the An-26 "Vita" to evacuate the wounded during repel of Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine helped to intensify work in the field of military medical aircraft.In2015 inmedical version were rebuilt two more An-26. One of them joined the Air Force, and the second - Natinal Service of Emergencies in Ukraine. All three aircrafts are different composition of medical equipment and ability to provide medical care. Their purpose is evacuation of the wounded from the airfield vicinity of the battle area to military medical institutions. (shrink)
Conditionals are sentences of the form 'If A, then B', and they play a central role in scientific, logical, and everyday reasoning. They have been in the philosophical limelight for centuries, and more recently, they have been receiving attention from psychologists, linguists, and computer scientists. In spite of this, many key questions concerning conditionals remain unanswered. While most of the work on conditionals has addressed semantical questions - questions about the truth conditions of conditionals - this book focuses on the (...) main epistemological questions that conditionals give rise to, such as: what are the probabilities of conditionals? When is a conditional acceptable or assertable? What do we learn when we receive new conditional information? In answering these questions, this book combines the formal tools of logic and probability theory with the experimental approach of cognitive psychology. It will be of interest to students and researchers in logic, epistemology, and psychology of reasoning. (shrink)
Conceptual spaces have become an increasingly popular modeling tool in cognitive psychology. The core idea of the conceptual spaces approach is that concepts can be represented as regions in similarity spaces. While it is generally acknowledged that not every region in such a space represents a natural concept, it is still an open question what distinguishes those regions that represent natural concepts from those that do not. The central claim of this paper is that natural concepts are represented by the (...) cells of an optimally designed similarity space. (shrink)
This paper aims to contribute to our understanding of the notion of coherence by explicating in probabilistic terms, step by step, what seem to be our most basic intuitions about that notion, to wit, that coherence is a matter of hanging or fitting together, and that coherence is a matter of degree. A qualitative theory of coherence will serve as a stepping stone to formulate a set of quantitative measures of coherence, each of which seems to capture well the aforementioned (...) intuitions. Subsequently it will be argued that one of those measures does better than the others in light of some more specific intuitions about coherence. This measure will be defended against two seemingly obvious objections. (shrink)
This paper is concerned with formal solutions to the lottery paradox on which high probability defeasibly warrants acceptance. It considers some recently proposed solutions of this type and presents an argument showing that these solutions are trivial in that they boil down to the claim that perfect probability is sufficient for rational acceptability. The argument is then generalized, showing that a broad class of similar solutions faces the same problem. An argument against some formal solutions to the lottery paradox The (...) argument generalized Some variations Adding modalities Anticipated objections. (shrink)
У дослідженні аналізуються характерні складові корейського конфлікту. Обґрунтовано, що вплив ідеологічного модусу спричинив значні відмінності в становленні соціальності Північної та Південної Кореї. Ці відмінності знайшли своє місце у двох сферах формування конфлікту між двома державами: нижній, яка визначає традиції, культуру та цінності, та верхній, що формує політичну, соціальну та економічну особливості.
The paper is devoted to the problem of the linguistic grounds of the semiotic model of history, according to which history is described as a communication process circulating within a society. An analogy of principle between language and culture is the theoretical premise of that semiotic approach. Proceeding on this assumption semiotics regards historical process as the process of text outcome and reading, while at the same time control over communication is provided through the cultural code or in other words (...) — through the grammar of history. But the description of history as just the functioning of a single and unified grammatical code doesn’t make it possible to explain the appearance of new meanings or history par excellence. J. Lotman interpreted the rhetorical mechanism of text outcome as the working of two interplaying semiotic systems. It is the principle of its working that he takes as abasis of his semiotic version of cultural diachrony. And at the very point semiotics finds itself in front of the choice: either to stop at the decomposition the rhetorical machine on separate cultural codes and at the description their separate grammars, or to conceptualize a historical event as un-grammatism, grammatical error, “wrong text”. The analytical way leads to an extremely reduced theoretical construction; the synthetic way undermines status of the semiotic model of history as a positivistic scientific project. (shrink)
According to what is now commonly referred to as “the Equation” in the literature on indicative conditionals, the probability of any indicative conditional equals the probability of its consequent of the conditional given the antecedent of the conditional. Philosophers widely agree in their assessment that the triviality arguments of Lewis and others have conclusively shown the Equation to be tenable only at the expense of the view that indicative conditionals express propositions. This study challenges the correctness of that assessment by (...) presenting data that cast doubt on an assumption underlying all triviality arguments. (shrink)
This article compares inference to the best explanation with Bayes’s rule in a social setting, specifically, in the context of a variant of the Hegselmann–Krause model in which agents not only update their belief states on the basis of evidence they receive directly from the world, but also take into account the belief states of their fellow agents. So far, the update rules mentioned have been studied only in an individualistic setting, and it is known that in such a setting (...) both have their strengths as well as their weaknesses. It is shown here that in a social setting, inference to the best explanation outperforms Bayes’s rule according to every desirable criterion. 1 What Is Inference to the Best Explanation?2 Judging the Rules—By Which Lights?3 From an Individualistic to a Social Perspective 3.1 The Hegselmann–Krause model 3.2 A probabilistic extension of the Hegselmann–Krause model 3.3 Simulations4 Results and Discussion5 Interpretation6 Conclusion. (shrink)
The conceptual spaces approach has recently emerged as a novel account of concepts. Its guiding idea is that concepts can be represented geometrically, by means of metrical spaces. While it is generally recognized that many of our concepts are vague, the question of how to model vagueness in the conceptual spaces approach has not been addressed so far, even though the answer is far from straightforward. The present paper aims to fill this lacuna.
Various authors have recently argued that you cannot rationally stick to your belief in the face of known disagreement with an epistemic peer, that is, a person you take to have the same evidence and judgmental skills as you do. For, they claim, because there is but one rational response to any body of evidence, a disagreement with an epistemic peer indicates that at least one of you is not responding rationally to the evidence. Given that you take your peer (...) to have the same judgmental skills as you do, and thus regard her to be equally good at assessing the evidence as you are, you will have as much reason for thinking that it is you who is not responding rationally to the evidence as for thinking that it is her. You thus have reason for thinking that your belief on the disputed matter is not a rational response to the evidence. Hence, you cannot rationally stick to your belief. (shrink)
Proceeding from materials relating to the “Time of Troubles”, this article examines the phenomenon of imposture as one of the symbols of Russian political history from the early 17th to the mid-19th century. The duration of the “impostor epidemic” coincides exactly with that of serfdom, and imposture itself can be described as a social reaction to a form of authority founded on total personal dependence. The article aims to develop further Boris Uspenskij’s argument that reveals in sacralization of the Tsar’s (...) power in medieval Russia the main reason of imposture. René Girard’s conception of mimetic desire serves as the theoretical perspective for such a development. (shrink)