The particularities of Chinese union practices in the private sector and their impacts on the labor relations climate have raised much controversy. This paper presents the findings of a study that analyzed data from 926 enterprises in Chongqing, China, through the lens of institutional trust. The study was designed to examine the influence of union practices on the labor relations climate at the enterprise level. Particular attention was paid to the possible moderator effect that both employee and management trust in (...) unions had on the labor relations climate. We found that employee–union trust positively moderated the impact of union practice on the labor relations climate. However, if management–union trust exceeded employee–union trust, management–union trust weakened the moderator effect of employee–union trust. In other words, management–union trust negatively moderated employee–union trust. This article is organized as follows. In section “Introduction,” we introduce the institutions Chinese unions operate in, especially regarding disputes over the effects on the labor relations climate. In section ‘Theory and hypotheses,” we review the literature and develop the hypotheses. In section “Materials and methods”, we describe the data and method, and in section “Results,” we present the results of the model. Finally, in section “Discussion,” we discuss the implications for China’s union development and note the limitations of the study. (shrink)
On the basis of analyzing the complexity of railway flatcar loading optimization problem, according to the characteristics of railway flatcar loading, based on the situation of railway transport loading unit of multiple railway flatcars, this study puts forward the optimal loading optimization method of multimodel railway flatcars based on improved genetic algorithm, constructs the linear programming model of railway flatcar loading optimization problem, and combines with the improved genetic algorithm to solve the problem. The study also analyzes the structural characteristics (...) of the optimal loading materials of multimodel railway flatcars, selects the optimal materials and inputs the relevant data into the computer, and uses MATLAB to program the optimal loading algorithm of multimodel railway flatcars. Through the analysis of the calculation example, the study discusses its scope of application. The experimental results show that the average general utilization rate of the proposed method is 73%, which has higher universality, more effective application, and fully meets the research requirements. It is verified that the proposed method has a statistically significant impact on the optimal loading of multi-type railway flatcars. (shrink)
On December 3 last year, Comrade Zhao Fusan of the Research Institute of Religion of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences wrote a letter to Comrade Hu Qiaomu outlining his personal reflections on the Party Center's Document 19 .
In 1845, while developing a new world view, Marx introduced practice as the criterion of truth: "The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. Man must prove the truth, i.e., the reality and power, the this-worldliness of his thinking in practice. The dispute over the reality or non-reality of thinking which is isolated from practice is a purely scholastic question."1 Whether a theory correctly reflects the objectively (...) existing objects with which it concerns itself, and whether it is the truth, cannot be determined within the sphere of thinking, or by means of theoretical argument, but only on the basis of testing in social practice. This is a basic principle and characteristic feature of Marxist philosophy. (shrink)
Hu Shi frequently gave lectures on the history of Chinese philosophy, especially the history of ancient Chinese philosophy, from the year 1919 to 1937. A large number of papers and dissertations published during this period are related to his research on this topic. In his opinion, there are three characteristics of the history of ancient Chinese philosophy: "religionalization of thought," "Indianization of philosophy," and "conflict between Chinese thought and Indian thought." In this paper, I explore Hu Shi's deep insight into (...) the religionalization of Confucianism in Han dynasty and into the thought of Taoism in the medieval times. (shrink)
University students having high entrepreneurial intention while not transferring into actual entrepreneurial behavior is a contradictory issue in need of in-depth research. To explore the successive development mechanism of the entrepreneurial process, this study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine whether entrepreneurial commitment from three dimensions mediated the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and behavior, and whether this mediating process was moderated by family support. A survey was conducted among university students from six major universities in south China using the (...) snowball sampling approach. A total of 469 valid responses were obtained. Structural equation modeling was adopted for data analysis. According to the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that entrepreneurial intention had both direct and indirect positive effects on entrepreneurial behavior, while entrepreneurial commitment worked as the mediator, and family support moderated the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and behavior. Results indicated that entrepreneurial commitment bridged the path from entrepreneurial intention to behavior, and family support created the boundary effect. This finding highlights the importance of guiding students through entrepreneurial commitment toward entrepreneurial behavior, and pays special attention to the crucial role of family support under the national strategy. (shrink)
pSarah A. Mattice’s emExploring the Heart Sutra/em is an ambitiously creative, well researched, clearly explained, and richly transdisciplinary work. Mattice’s use of music sampling is inspired, and her survey of translation theories and contextualization of the philosophical traditions in Chinese cultures lay out the reasons for her own translation and line commentary on the Heart Sūtra that privileges its Chinese cultural heritage. It would be a fine book even if without the two long chapters in the middle, whose connections with (...) the emHeart Sūtra/em are tenuous./p. (shrink)
Science, the proud son of the era and the crystallization of man's wisdom, is inlaid in the crown of our times like a lustrous and brilliant pearl. Social science discloses to mankind the general law governing the development of society and leads it in marching forward to the higher stages of social system - socialist society and communist society. Natural science creates for mankind tremendous productive forces like miracles, enabling the human race to live a life in fairyland. Who is (...) there who does not praise the power of science and refuses to admit that science is the great force pushing history forward? Who is there that dares openly to set up forbidden zones in science, thus serving as an executioner to strangle science? In our times, people who dare openly to do this, perhaps, are increasingly few. However, this does not mean that science can completely extricate itself from disaster. Science has to pay dearly for every step of exploration and has to undergo a stern struggle for it. Science is an undertaking that is most creative and filled with the spirit of innovation. It openly declares that it will wage an irreconcilable struggle against all the old stuff which is reactionary, dark, ignorant and superstitious. Because of this, it is bound to suffer bans and buffets from the reactionary forces. Science has no forbidden zone! This is a call of reason; but there are forbidden zones in science, and that is what we see in the picture of history and reality. What are the forbidden zones? And how should we destroy the forbidden zones and set science free? For many years Lin Biao and the "gang of four" brought terrible disasters to science. In consequence, the aforementioned question is sharply raised before us, requiring us to deal with it strictly and try to resolve it correctly. (shrink)