Leading Harvard philosophy professor William Ernest Hocking (1873-1966), author of 17 books and in his day second only to John Dewey in the breadth of his thinking, is now largely forgotten, and his once-influential writings are out of print. This volume, which combines a rich selection of Hocking’s work with incisive essays by distinguished scholars, seeks to recover Hocking’s valuable contributions to philosophical thought.
The Guan Zhong school of thought was formed by the people of the state of Qi during the Warring States period in inheriting and developing the legacy of Guan Zhong's ideas. This school, on the basis of the concrete conditions and the cultural tradition of the state of Qi, and in summing up the experience of social reform in that state, provided the feudal rulers with a complete system of political philosophy. It was distinctly apart from the Meng-Xun (...) school, which had historic connections with the civilization of the state of Lu and the Shang -Han school, which originated in the three Jin states . Generally speaking, the primary distinctions between the three schools reside in their different attitudes toward the patriarchal rule system. The Lu school, i.e., the Confucian school, adopted the attitude of wholesale acceptance of the patriarchal rule system. It advocated the establishment of a feudalists hierarchical system of patriarchal government molded after the rule-by-rites order of the Zhou dynasty. The Three Jins school, i.e., the Legalist school, stood on the exact opposite end to this and adopted the attitude of totally rejecting the rule-by-patriarchal system, but advocating the establishment of a monarchical regime which was absolutely despotic. It believed that the code of morality based on patriarchal rule was disadvantageous to the monarchical regime, that standards of good and bad ought to be replaced by standards of merit, and that law should replace morals. The Qi school, i.e., the Guan Zhong school, stood in between the other two. It adopted an attitude of accepting the patriarchal system in part while also rejecting it in part. It advocated that the patriarchal rule system and the system of centralized authority must be organically integrated, that rule by rites and rule by law must also be integrated. In this way it emphasized strengthening the monarchical power through the means of law while at the same time it also emphasized using the patriarchal and clan-oriented morals to consolidate feudalistic government. Thus, on the premise of their different attitudes toward the patriarchal system, each of these three schools created and established a completed system of social-political and philosophical thought. They engaged each other in polemics, and each propagandized its ideas broadly and played very major roles on the stage of the contention of the hundred schools of scholarship and thought during the Warring States period. (shrink)
The term "political philosophy" refers to the abstract, fundamental, and guiding principles and basic theorems for observing, handling, and dealing with political problems and political struggles. Its meaning is analogous to, say, "military philosophy." Naturally, these theorems are connected to and integrated with specific political viewpoints, just as "military philosophy" is connected to and integrated with specific military strategies and military tactics. This kind of integration does not hinder in any way our study of political philosophies in history, just as (...) it does not hinder our study of any particular "military philosophy.". (shrink)
Included with this letter, please find a list of corrections to the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy." The Jilin People's Publishing House did not show us the page proofs of the book Lao Zi Tong prior to publication, and as a consequence it contains a large number of typos. In the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy" alone there are 63 errors and deletions, some of which are serious and may make an accurate English translation difficult. For instance, "si hu" has (...) been typeset as "xiong [vicious beast] hu" throughout. "Si" means rhinoceros, and "si hu" thus means rhinoceros and tiger. Compare the passage "the rhinoceros finds no place to cast its horn; the tiger finds no place to put its claws." We hope that the translation can be checked against the list of corrections. (shrink)
Leading Harvard philosophy professor William Ernest Hocking , author of 17 books and in his day second only to John Dewey in the breadth of his thinking, is now largely forgotten, and his once-influential writings are out of print. This volume, which combines a rich selection of Hocking's work with incisive essays by distinguished scholars, seeks to recover Hocking's valuable contributions to philosophical thought.
Social desirability bias (SDB) is one of the main concerns in self-reported studies that measures explicit attitudes such as ethics research. Although SDB was introduced since the early 1950s, little effort has been made to understand the necessity of including an SDB scale in studies of sensitive topics such as ethics. The purpose of this paper was to (1) identify whether current ethics-related studies considered SDB when conducting their research and (2) ascertain whether SDB was a significant variable in such (...) studies. This investigation takes the form of a systematic review of articles published within the last 20 years in well-known business ethics journals (2000–2019). We found that (a) only 13.67% of ethics research measured SDB; (b) although the majority of the reviewed articles were from the West, researchers in Asia have also made significant progress in recent years in measuring SDB in their studies; (c) SDB was used mainly as a control variable and as such researchers preferred scales with fewer items; and (d) SDB was unavoidable even when using online surveys. Based on our findings, we attempt to provide an overview of SDB in ethics research and encourage ethics researchers who adopt self-reported surveys to include an SDB measurement in their studies to control SDB. (shrink)
William Ernest Hocking was an American philosopher as comfortable with the categories of fact and experience as with those of reason and idea; one optimistic and self-reliant as his Midwest background suggests who also both in travel and spirit was at home in India and the East. In fact, he believed that an adequate metaphysics or theory of knowledge would be one that contained, as did his own, elements of Eastern mysticism and Western realism. His conception of the self also (...) contains elements of both traditions. Because of this combination of elements and also because of the manner in which he combined them, his position deserves more consideration than it is generally accorded. In various of his writings Hocking described three different but interrelated conceptions of the self. In his own terminology, the self is a “field of fields,” a “reflective-excursive system,” and a “will to reality.” The aim of this paper, then, will be to summarize and relate these conceptions, with a view also to making visible certain realistic and mystic, certain Western and Eastern, elements in these conceptions. (shrink)
This book explores the relevance of virtue theory to law from a variety of perspectives. The concept of virtue is central in both contemporary ethics and epistemology. In contrast, in law, there has not been a comparable trend toward explaining normativity on the model of virtue theory. In the last few years, however, there has been an increasing interest in virtue theory among legal scholars. 'Virtue jurisprudence' has emerged as a serious candidate for a theory of law and adjudication. Advocates (...) of virtue jurisprudence put primary emphasis on aretaic concepts rather than on duties or consequences. Aretaic concepts are, on this view, crucial for explaining law and adjudication. This book is a collection of essays examining the role of virtue in general jurisprudence as well as in specific areas of the law. Part I puts together a number of papers discussing various philosophical aspects of an approach to law and adjudication based on the virtues. Part II discusses the relationship between law, virtue and character development, with some of the essays selected analysing this relationship by combining both eastern perspectives on virtue and character with western approaches. Parts III and IV examine problems of substantive areas of law, more specifically, criminal law and evidence law, from within a virtue-based framework. Last, Part V discusses the relevance of empathy to our understanding of justice and legal morality. (shrink)
BackgroundThe concept of career identity is integral to nursing practices and forms the basis of the nursing professions. Positive career identity is essential for providing high-quality care, optimizing patient outcomes, and enhancing the retention of health professionals. Therefore, there is a need to explore potential influencing variables, thereby developing effective interventions to improve career identity.ObjectivesTo investigate the relationship between moral distress, moral courage, and career identity, and explore the mediating role of moral courage between moral distress and career identity among (...) nurses.DesignA quantitative, cross-sectional study.MethodsA convenient sample of 800 nurses was recruited from two tertiary care hospitals between February and March 2022. Participants were assessed using the Moral Distress Scale-revised, Nurses’ Moral Courage Scale, and Nursing Career Identity Scale. This study was described in accordance with the STROBE statement.Ethical considerationResearch ethics approval was obtained from the researcher’s university and hospital where this study was conducted prior to data collection.FindingsMoral distress is negatively associated while moral courage is positively associated with career identity among nurses. Moral courage partially mediates the relationship between moral distress and career identity ( β = −0.230 to −0.163, p < 0.01).DiscussionThe findings reveal a relationship between moral distress, moral courage, and career identity among nurses.ConclusionBy paying attention to nurses’ moral distress and courage, healthcare providers can contribute to the development of effective interventions to improve career identity, and subsequently performance, among nurses. (shrink)
The rapid development of information science and technology today, its impact on culture and society, and how we should respond to this new phenomenon in our cultural undertakings is something that is probably of concern to many people. I would like to approach this question from the macro level, from the interrelationship between cultural exchange and the culture industry, linking it to the current state of international cultural exchange.