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Greg Bognar
Stockholm University
  1.  27
    The Ethics of Health Care Rationing: An Introduction.Greg Bognar & Iwao Hirose - 2014 - Routledge.
    Should organ transplants be given to patients who have waited the longest, or need it most urgently, or those whose survival prospects are the best? The rationing of health care is universal and inevitable, taking place in poor and affluent countries, in publicly funded and private health care systems. Someone must budget for as well as dispense health care whilst aging populations severely stretch the availability of resources. The Ethics of Health Care Rationing is a clear and much-needed introduction to (...)
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  2.  59
    Fair Innings.Greg Bognar - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):251-261.
    In many societies, the aging of the population is becoming a major problem. This raises difficult issues for ethics and public policy. On what is known as the fair innings view, it is not impermissible to give lower priority to policies that primarily benefit the elderly. Philosophers have tried to justify this view on various grounds. In this article, I look at a consequentialist, a fairness-based, and a contractarian justification. I argue that all of them have implausible implications and fail (...)
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  3.  62
    Complete Lives in the Balance.Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):37 – 45.
    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their “complete lives system” incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority (...)
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  4. Is Disability Mere Difference?Greg Bognar - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):46-49.
    Some philosophers and disability advocates argue that disability is not bad for you. Rather than treated as a harm, it should be considered and even celebrated as just another manifestation of human diversity. Disability is mere difference. To most of us, these are extraordinary claims. Can they be defended?
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  5.  74
    Age-Weighting.Greg Bognar - 2008 - Economics and Philosophy 24 (2):167-189.
    Some empirical findings seem to show that people value health benefits differently depending on the age of the beneficiary. Health economists and philosophers have offered justifications for these preferences on grounds of both efficiency and equity. In this paper, I examine the most prominent examples of both sorts of justification: the defence of age-weighting in the WHO's global burden of disease studies and the fair innings argument. I argue that neither sort of justification has been worked out in satisfactory form: (...)
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  6.  29
    The Value of Longevity.Greg Bognar - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 19 (3):229-247.
    Longevity is valuable. Most of us would agree that it’s bad to die when you could go on living, and death’s badness has to do with the value your life would have if it continued. Most of us would also agree that it’s bad if life expectancy in a country is low, it’s bad if there is high infant mortality and it’s bad if there is a wide mortality gap between different groups in a population. But how can we make (...)
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  7.  97
    Can the Maximin Principle Serve as a Basis for Climate Change Policy?Greg Bognar - 2011 - The Monist 94 (3):329-348.
    The precautionary approach has been widely considered reasonable for many issues in environmental policy, including climate change. It has also been recognized, however, that standard formulations of the precautionary principle suffer from many difficulties. An influential strategy to avoid these difficulties is to formulate a narrow version of the principle on the basis of the maximin rule. Rawls proposed that following the maximin rule can be rational under certain conditions. Defenders of this strategy argue that these conditions are approximated when (...)
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  8.  9
    Age-Weighting: 10.1017/S026626710800179X.Greg Bognar - 2008 - Economics and Philosophy 24 (2):167-189.
    Some empirical findings seem to show that people value health benefits differently depending on the age of the beneficiary. Health economists and philosophers have offered justifications for these preferences on grounds of both efficiency and equity. In this paper, I examine the most prominent examples of both sorts of justification: the defence of age-weighting in the WHO's global burden of disease studies and the fair innings argument. I argue that neither sort of justification has been worked out in satisfactory form: (...)
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  9.  80
    Empirical and Armchair Ethics.Greg Bognar - 2012 - Utilitas 24 (4):467-482.
    In a recent paper, Michael Otsuka and Alex Voorhoeve present a novel argument against prioritarianism. The argument takes its starting point from empirical surveys on people's preferences in health care resource allocation problems. In this article, I first question whether the empirical findings support their argument, and then I make some general points about the use of ‘empirical ethics’ in ethical theory.
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  10.  48
    Overpopulation and Procreative Liberty.Greg Bognar - 2019 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (3):319-330.
    A few decades ago, there was a lively debate on the problem of overpopulation. Various proposals to limit population growth and to control fertility were made and debated both in academia and in th...
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  11. Does Cost Effectiveness Analysis Unfairly Discriminate Against People with Disabilities?Greg Bognar - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (4):394-408.
    Cost effectiveness analysis is a tool for evaluating the aggregate benefits of medical treatments, health care services, and public health programs. Its opponents often claim that its use leads to unfair discrimination against people with disabilities. My aim in this paper is to clarify the conditions under which this might be so. I present some ways in which the use of cost effectiveness analysis can lead to discrimination and suggest why these forms of discrimination may be unfair. I also discuss (...)
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  12.  64
    Impartiality and Disability Discrimination.Greg Bognar - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (1):1-23.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis is the standard analytical tool for evaluating the aggregate health benefits of treatments, interventions, or health programs. It works by comparing the ratio of costs and benefits of different alternatives. The lower the ratio, the more effective the treatment, intervention, or program. The use of cost-effectiveness analysis can ensure that scarce health care resources are allocated in a way that maximizes the satisfaction of health needs. According to a common objection, however, the use of cost-effectiveness analysis for setting (...)
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  13. The Concept of Quality of Life.Greg Bognar - 2005 - Social Theory and Practice 31 (4):561-580.
    Quality of life research aims to develop and apply indices for the measurement of human welfare. It is an increasingly important field within the social sciences and its results are an important resource for policy making and evaluation. This paper explores the conceptual background of quality of life research. It focuses on its single most important issue: the controversy between the use of ``objective social indicators'' and the use of people's ``subjective evaluations'' as proxies for welfare. Most quality of life (...)
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  14. Saving Lives and Respecting Persons.Greg Bognar & Samuel J. Kerstein - 2010 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (2):1-21.
    In the distribution of resources, persons must be respected, or so many philosophers contend. Unfortunately, they often leave it unclear why a certain allocation would respect persons, while another would not. In this paper, we explore what it means to respect persons in the distribution of scarce, life-saving resources. We begin by presenting two kinds of cases. In different age cases, we have a drug that we must use either to save a young person who would live for many more (...)
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  15. Enhancement and Equality.Greg Bognar - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (1):11-32.
    Opponents of genetic enhancement technologies often argue that the pursuit of these technologies will lead to self-defeating collective outcomes, massive social inequalities, or other forms of collective harm. They assume that these harms will outweigh individual benefits. Defenders of genetic enhancement technologies counter that individual benefits will outweigh collective harms and there will be no conflict between individual and collective interests. The present contribution tries to advance the debate by providing a more detailed discussion of the conditions under which individual (...)
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  16.  20
    Health Governance Utopia.Greg Bognar - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):46 - 47.
    Jennifer Prah Ruger (2011) rightly points out that social cooperation is essential for achieving health justice. But she is unhappy with the approach to cooperation that social scientists and philosophers have taken. Her main objection is that their models are based on narrow self-interest. Her own proposal, which she calls "shared health governance", is based on public moral norms instead. If individuals and institutions internalized and followed such norms, justice in health could be achieved. -/- In this commentary, I show (...)
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  17.  37
    Well-Being and Health.Greg Bognar - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (2):97-113.
    One way of evaluating health is in terms of its impact on well-being. It has been shown, however, that evaluating health this way runs into difficulties, since health and other aspects of well-being are not separable. At the same time, the practical implications of the inseparability problem remain unclear. This paper assesses these implications by considering the relations between theories, components, and indicators of well-being.
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  18. Authentic Happiness.Greg Bognar - 2010 - Utilitas 22 (3):272-284.
    This article discusses L. W. Sumner's theory of well-being as authentic happiness. I distinguish between extreme and moderate versions of subjectivism and argue that Sumner's characterization of the conditions of authenticity leads him to an extreme subjective theory. More generally, I also criticize Sumner's argument for the subjectivity of welfare. I conclude by addressing some of the implications of my arguments for theories of well-being in philosophy and welfare measurement in the social sciences.
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  19.  70
    Respect for Nature.Greg Bognar - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):147 - 149.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 147-149, June 2011.
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  20.  42
    When Philosophers Shoot Themselves in the Leg.Greg Bognar - 2012 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (2):222 - 224.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 15, Issue 2, Page 222-224, June 2012.
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  21.  24
    Fairness and the Puzzle of Disability.Greg Bognar - 2018 - Theoria 84 (4):337-355.
    Consider two cases. In Case 1, you must decide whether you save the life of a disabled person or you save the life of a person with no disability. In Case 2, you must decide whether you save the life of a disabled person who would remain disabled, or you save the life of another disabled person who, in contrast, would also be cured as a result of your intervention. It seems that most people agree that you should give equal (...)
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  22. Ageing Without Ageism: Conceptual Puzzles and Policy Proposals (Working Title).Greg Bognar & Axel Gosseries (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  23. Dan Egonsson, Preference and Information. [REVIEW]Greg Bognar - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (6):405-407.
     
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  24. Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle. [REVIEW]Greg Bognar - 2007 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 10.
     
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  25. Overall Quality of Life Measurement: Problems and Prospects in the Case of People with Disabilities.Greg Bognar & Ian Hunt - 2007 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 9 (1).
     
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  26.  8
    Rethinking Patient Involvement in Healthcare Priority Setting.Lars Sandman, Bjorn Hofmann & Greg Bognar - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):403-411.
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  27.  23
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Complete Lives in the Balance”.Samuel J. Kerstein & Greg Bognar - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):W3 – W5.
    The allocation of scarce health care resources such as flu treatment or organs for transplant presents stark problems of distributive justice. Persad, Wertheimer, and Emanuel have recently proposed a novel system for such allocation. Their “complete lives system” incorporates several principles, including ones that prescribe saving the most lives, preserving the most life-years, and giving priority to persons between 15 and 40 years old. This paper argues that the system lacks adequate moral foundations. Persad and colleagues' defense of giving priority (...)
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  28.  6
    Roger Crisp (Ed.) Griffin on Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.Greg Bognar - 2015 - Ethical Perspectives 22 (3):474-478.
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  29.  1
    Cass R. Sunstein: Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN: 0-521-61512-7; £15.99, EUR 24,60 (Paperback); 226 Pages. [REVIEW]Greg Bognar - 2007 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 10 (1):217-220.
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