The monograph is focused on the subjectivity of aesthetic experience and the problem of rational interpretation of emotionality. The text studies why does an aesthetic experience exist, what is its content and what is its informational role and structure? Has beauty any cognitive value? Can we analyse beauty? In what sense we can think about the information content of aesthetic experience? The second topic of the book is a cognitive role of emotionality and its research. Why we have emotions? What (...) can they tell us about yourself and about the world? The methodology of the study is designed as a phenomenological research of subjective experience that is combined with the newest results in Cognitive science research. --Page 4 of cover. (shrink)
The book is a second volume of the project, which is focused on a systematic examination of aesthetic experience by the unification of philosophical and cognitive-scientific approaches to beauty and aesthetic experience. This volume is focused on the analysis of selected aspects of aesthetic experience, especially on methodological problems and aspects of philosophical and scientific research, the question of the complementarity and compatibility of methods, and needs to interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research. Authors of the chapters are considering about diverse areas (...) of perception of beauty, e.g.: pleasure by face perception; the synchronicity by music; the problems of musical chills; the psychosomatic unity of dance; or the problem of development of aesthetic appreciation. (shrink)
Техника представления информации о внешнем и внутреннем мире постоянно развивается, и сейчас она достигла уровня отображения реальности в многообразных её проявлениях и измерениях, прежде недоступных человеческому восприятию. Язык, текст, фотография, звукозапись, а теперь ещё и техника искусственного интеллекта для моделирования человеческой субъектности и её описания в доступной для человеческого понимания форме, стали эпохальными событиями в теории информации. Однако несмотря на то, что на данном этапе её развития она позволяет оперировать с непрерывно возрастающими объёмами информации, это не приближает её теоретиков к (...) постижению сути того, что определяется как реальность, бытие, и сознание. Но поскольку никакого другого способа достичь этой цели нет, кроме изучения того, как это происходит в процессе восприятия и преобразования информации у живых существ, и в частности, у человека, необходимо разобраться в принципах этого процесса. (shrink)
One of the virtues of this edited collection is the diversity contained within it. There is diversity to be found in the uses made of Wittgenstein's writings, reflecting the diversity of ways of understanding religion found in Wittgenstein's work. Andrejč, in his introduction (3), suggests that there are four dominant ways in which Wittgenstein depicts religion: the nonsensicalist, existentialist, grammaticalist and instinctivist conceptions of religion.
The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological challenges of developing measures of stereotypes and prejudice for use in Slovakia. Developing these measures was the first step in a research project aimed at testing the effectiveness of direct and indirect contact interventions to reduce prejudice against stigmatized minorities, particularly the Roma. The first major problem in this kind of research relates to measuring the impact of interventions, as standardized instruments for measuring prejudice have yet to be developed in Slovak. The second (...) problem concerns the risk that the interventions will fail to reduce anti-Roma prejudice, because of the strong stigmatization of the Roma minority in Slovakia. The paper also reviews existing measures of stereotypes and prejudice in social psychology and discusses their applicability for measuring anti-Roma prejudice in Slovakia. It is argued that measures of stereotypes and prejudice should be designed and used in a sensitive manner and that in the process of measuring various forms of social bias we should avoid reproducing its cognitive, emotional and behavioural manifestations. (shrink)
The first part of the article analyses the imaginary of the characteristics and form of society as developed in early modern liberal political philosophy, especially by John Locke and Thomas Paine. It uses different contemporary receptions of the key authors of this tradition, namely the liberal reception of John Keane, which emphasizes the theoretical distinction between civil society and the state, the materialist reception of Ellen Meiksins Wood, which contextualizes political ideas in the political struggles and class interests of the (...) time, and the reception of Foucault, which focuses on the development of biopolitical governmentality. The article finds that the liberal tradition imagined society as a given and self-regulating sphere that does not require interference from the state. A socio-historical presupposition of this imaginary was the economic sovereignty of individuals, and it overlooked the relations of domination and exploitation. In its second part, the article presents Hannah Arendt’s critical concept of society. She did not conceptualize society as a given totality and in a spatial way, but used it as a qualifier of a specific, impoverished mode of being, in particular to analyse the situation and perspective of minorities. (shrink)
In this paper, I explore the possibility of reading Wittgenstein’s understanding of religious belief with Tillich’s concept of existential/religious doubt, especially as developed in his Dynamics of Faith. I argue, first, that Wittgenstein’s understanding of religious belief as a deep certainty of a grammatical remark is not the same as his understanding of hinge-certainty of “hinge propositions”, and that the relevant difference is that Wittgenstein leaves room for the possibility of doubt in the former but not in the latter. Second, (...) I argue that Tillich’s concept of dynamic faith by which Tillich explicates the role of doubt internal to religious believing can enrich the Wittgensteinian conception of religious belief. Despite the notable differences between Wittgenstein’s thoughts and Tillich’s overall system of theology, Tillich’s treatment of the concept of “faith” signals a possibility of a more positive way of relating Wittgenstein’s grammatical investigation and Tillich’s mature understanding of philosophical theology. At the end of the essay, responding to D. Z. Phillips’ negative assessment of Tillich’s theology in the name of Wittgenstein, I suggest what such positive way of relating the two might look like. (shrink)
The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with specific and knowable outcomes, towards actions by many unaware that they may have taken actions with unintended consequences for anyone. Responses will require a rethinking of ethical choices, the lack thereof and (...) how this will guide scientists, governments, and corporate agencies in handling Big Data. This essay elaborates on the ways Big Data impacts on ethical conceptions. (shrink)
We prove the following theorems: (1) If X has strong measure zero and if Y has strong first category, then their algebraic sum has property s 0 . (2) If X has Hurewicz's covering property, then it has strong measure zero if, and only if, its algebraic sum with any first category set is a first category set. (3) If X has strong measure zero and Hurewicz's covering property then its algebraic sum with any set in APC ' is a (...) set in APC '. (APC ' is included in the class of sets always of first category, and includes the class of strong first category sets.) These results extend: Fremlin and Miller's theorem that strong measure zero sets having Hurewicz's property have Rothberger's property, Galvin and Miller's theorem that the algebraic sum of a set with the γ-property and of a first category set is a first category set, and Bartoszynski and Judah's characterization of SR M -sets. They also characterize the property (*) introduced by Gerlits and Nagy in terms of older concepts. (shrink)
Interdisciplinary in approach, this book combines philosophy, hybrid theory, and architectural theory with case studies, explicitly linking the traditions together to investigate the eco-aesthetics of the urban environment.
Lying for a strategic advantage is to be expected in commercial interactions. But would this be more or less obvious when lying could come from either party and question mutually profitable exchange? To explore this, we modify the acquiring-a-company game by letting both, buyer and seller, be privately informed. Specifically, the value of the company for the buyer is known only by the seller; whereas, only the buyer is aware by which proportion the sellers evaluation is lower than that of (...) the buyer. Before bargaining, both parties can reveal what they know via cheap-talk numerical messages. Game theoretically, the pooling equilibrium may or may not allow for trade depending on the commonly known expected evaluation discrepancy. By mutually revealing what one knows, one could boost trade and efficiency. Although strategic misreporting prevails quite generally, it is higher for sellers throughout the experiment. Regarding gender, women misreport less, especially as sellers, and offer higher prices. (shrink)
Diese spannende sinologisch-philosophische Arbeit liefert ein möglichst umfassendes Bild der Philosophie des Bambus-Wenzi (das in der Hanshu-Bibliographie auf einen Schüler des Laozi zurückgeführt wird), sowie Antworten auf interessante Fragen nach der Identität seiner Protagonisten, seinem argumentativen Aufbau sowie Zeit und Ort seiner Entstehung.
In this article, I argue that the Laozi offers a variety of cosmogenic accounts, including the one expressed by means of the artisan metaphors of “uncarved wood,” “vessels,” and “cutting.” These metaphors and the images related to them often appeared in the given context in ancient Chinese literature depicting the physical emergence of the world as a process of progressive differentiation out of the original state of “chaos.” Thus, this account ultimately served as a cosmic justification for the establishment of (...) distinctions and hierarchy within human society. However, as used in the Laozi, the artisan metaphors promulgate a type of social hierarchy that is characteristically informed by the values of ziran and wuwei. My argumentation goes against the common tendency of Western scholars to regard the notions of craft appearing in the Laozi as relating exclusively to human activities, connoting “artifice,” that is, as detrimental to the “natural” run of the Way. By referring to the most prominent traditional commentaries of the work, I argue that this view was supported only marginally, if at all, in early China and that its emergence appears to be a reaction to and a rejection of the initial Western interpretation of the same terms, one that was heavily influenced by the Christian worldview. (shrink)
As testing of ChatGPT has shown, this form of artificial intelligence has the potential to develop, which requires improving its software and other hardware that allows it to learn, i.e., to acquire and use new knowledge, to contact its developers with suggestions for improvement, or to reprogram itself without their participation. Как показало тестирование ChatGPT, эта форма искусственного интеллекта имеет потенциал развития, для чего необходимо усовершенствовать её программное и прочее техническое обеспечение, позволяющее ей учиться, т.е. приобретать и использовать новые знания, (...) обращаться к её разработчикам с предложениями по усовершенствованию, или производить самопрограммирование без их участия. (shrink)
This study explores the principles of meritocracy and heredity as formulated in the three works of early Daoist philosophy, the Laozi, Zhuangzi and Wenzi. Because Daoist philosophy emerged in critical response to the Confucian worldview, this investigation is placed against the backdrop of pertinent Confucian propositions. To this end, the study begins with a review of Confucian positions on the issue of meritocracy and heredity as expressed in the main transmitted works, as well as newly excavated texts that can be (...) associated with this intellectual tradition. The paper concludes that, while indeed rejecting the Confucian understanding of meritocracy, Daoist texts operated with their own concepts on human excellency. Moreover, the opposition between meritocracy and heredity characteristic of some Confucian works appears less pronounced in early Daoist philosophy. (shrink)
In this article, I argue that the Laozi 老子 offers a variety of cosmogenic accounts, including the one expressed by means of the artisan metaphors of “uncarved wood”, “vessels”, and “cutting”. These metaphors and the images related to them often appeared in the given context in ancient Chinese literature depicting the physical emergence of the world as a process of progressive differentiation out of the original state of “chaos.” Thus, this account ultimately served as a cosmic justification for the establishment (...) of distinctions and hierarchy within human society. However, as used in the Laozi, the artisan metaphors promulgate a type of social hierarchy that is characteristically informed by the values of ziran 自然 and wuwei 無為. My argumentation goes against the common tendency of Western scholars to regard the notions of craft appearing in the Laozi as relating exclusively to human activities, connoting “artifice,” that is, as detrimental to the “natural” run of the Way. By referring to the most prominent traditional commentaries of the work, I argue that this view was supported only marginally, if at all, in early China and that its emergence appears to be a reaction to and a rejection of the initial Western interpretation of the same terms, one that was heavily influenced by the Christian worldview. (shrink)
The paper gives an analysis of the conception of rationality of two influential representatives of the 20th century theory of urbanism, and their philosophical grounds. It also outlines the problem of modern rationality, questions its character and points out, that for the time being the transition to a new way of thinking is problematic.
Let μ be a universal lower enumerable semi-measure . Any computable upper bound for μ can be effectively separated from zero with a constant . Computable positive lower bounds for μ can be nontrivial and allow one to construct natural examples of hypersimple sets.
The concept of Rule of Law is the cornerstone of the proper functioning of the judicial system in any modern democratic society. It is a basic concept of defined rights and liberties to all persons, which offers protection from arbitrary prosecution and incarceration. This principle was firstly stipulated by the instrument of Magna Carta and it is considered as a key principle for good governance in any modern democratic society. The development of the rule of law principle is personified through (...) the independence of the Judiciary as a third branch of government. The contemporary democratic societies are faced with many challenges upon which in order to protect their values of the democratic system, often limit the rights and liberties of persons. It is the role of the courts and the judicial system to stop these injustices and protect the individual from any form of liberty deprivation and rights limitations. Before the promulgation of the Magna Carta in 1215, the rule of law was perceived as a divine justice, distributed solely by the monarch or the king or in this case - King John of England. Magna Carta doesn't have iconic status only in the British Society, which is perceived as an instrument with special constitutional status and cited by many judges, lawyers and politicians, but in any modern democratic states as well. The author in this article examines the development of the concept of Rule of Law in the modern democratic societies under the influence of the Magna Carta, and how it is perceived as a guarantee of fair trial and trial by jury of any persecuted persons whether the severity of their crimes. (shrink)
The paper offers a brief outline of the presuppositions and consequences of modern urbanism, as well as of its ontology. The stress is put on the historical transformations of modern rationality and on depicting its efforts in carrying out its project.
We prove two embedding and extension theorems in the context of the constructive theory of metric spaces. The first states that Cantor space embeds in any inhabited complete separable metric space without isolated points, X, in such a way that every sequentially continuous function from Cantor space to ℤ extends to a sequentially continuous function from X to ℝ. The second asserts an analogous property for Baire space relative to any inhabited locally non-compact CSM. Both results rely on having careful (...) constructive formulations of the concepts involved.As a first application, we derive new relationships between “continuity principles” asserting that all functions between specified metric spaces are pointwise continuous. In particular, we give conditions that imply the failure of the continuity principle “all functions from X to ℝ are continuous”, when X is an inhabited CSM without isolated points, and when X is an inhabited locally non-compact CSM. One situation in which the latter case applies is in models based on “domain realizability”, in which the failure of the continuity principle for any inhabited locally non-compact CSM, X, generalizes a result previously obtained by Escardó and Streicher in the special case X = C[0, 1].As a second application, we show that, when the notion of inhabited complete separable metric space without isolated points is interpreted in a recursion-theoretic setting, then, for any such space X, there exists a Banach-Mazur computable function from X to the computable real numbers that is not Markov computable. This generalizes a result obtained by Hertling in the special case that X is the space of computable real numbers. (shrink)
The paper suggests that there is a gap between the research on prejudice in Slovak schools and the pedagogical interventions used to reduce them, particularly in relation to the Roma minority. It highlights the existing curricular requirements for dealing with intergroup relations, stereotypes and prejudice, contrasting them with the organizational, methodological and practical constraints teachers face when trying to meet them. Drawing from experience of piloting alternative tools for measuring attitudes, designing interventions and assessing impact, the article describes one possible (...) way of bridging the gap. (shrink)
The concept of memory rests at the heart of Bersgon’s theory of consciousness. His theory of memory is the novelty in the history of philosophy. It is not an affirmation either of the metaphysical conceptions (versions à la Platonism) where “all knowledge is recollection”, nor of empiricist psychology possibly traceble back to Aristotle, where, briefly speaking, the faculty of memory depends on the general perceptual capacity. Contrary to the majority of the philosophical and psychological theories of his epoch, Bergson assigns (...) memory the most important role in the intellectual process, denying the characteristic of passivity (from greek word pathos meaning kind of affection) attached to it, instead concerning with the creative, productive and vital power of memory rather than merely its retentive and recalling capacity. (shrink)
English Abstract: The manuscript describes a new scientific discipline called Octology, which should unify morphogenetic linguistics and neurobiology to investigate the development of the words, cognition and behavior. -/- Russian Abstract: В книге даётся описание научной дисциплины Октологии, призванной объединять морфогенетическую лингвистику и нейробиологию для исследования словообразования, понимания и поведения. -/- German Abstract: Der Begriff Oktologie (Engl. octology) wurde von Dr. Andrej Poleev in seinem gleichnamigen Aufsatz, der am 8. März 2010 erschienen ist, im Umlauf gebracht, und bezeichnet eine wissenschaftliche (...) Disziplin, welche die morphogenetische Linguistk und Neurobiologie vereint, um die Zusammenhänge zwischen Wahrnehmung, Verhalten und Wortbildung zu erforschen. Die Sprache ist das Mittel zwischenmenschlicher Verständigung, und der Sprache ist dieses Buch gewidmet. Wie entsteht Sprache? Welche sprachliche Formen gab es, gibt es heute, und wird es noch geben? In welchem Verhältnis steht Kultur zur Sprache? Was sind neurobiologische Grundlagen des Denkens und der Verbalisierung mentaler Inhalte? Mit diesen und anderen Fragen befasst sich neue Wissenschaft, die im Jahr 2010 gegründet wurde, um interdisziplinär die Zusammenhänge zwischen Wahrnehmung, Wortbildung und Verhalten zu erforschen. (shrink)