„Errors are the greatest obstacles to the progress of science; to correct such errors is of more practical value than to achieve new knowledge,“ asserted Eugen Bleuler. Basic error of several prevailing classification schemes of pathological conditions, as for example ICD-10, lies in confusing and mixing symptoms with diseases, what makes them unscientific. Considering the need to bring order into the chaos and light into terminological obscureness, I introduce the Causal classification of diseases originating from the notion of bodily wholeness (...) and causality of its loss. (shrink)
εἰ δὲ ἐν δακτύλῳ Θεοῦ ἐγὼ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, ἄρα ἔφθασεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ. Если же Я перстом Божиим изгоняю бесов, то, конечно, достигло до вас Царствие Божие. But if I drive out demons by the finger of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.
English abstract: On last day of the year 1999, Russia has entered another era of despotism, that of Vladimir Putin. During his reign, the Putin‘s clan has undermined and infiltrated the mass media, the parliament and the judicial system. Deliberate violation of basic citizen‘s rights, compulsory acquisition of property, government-funded racket, misuse of mass media to scarify and to disinform the peoples belong to the diabolic methods of self-constituted disposers. All this lawlessness has led to exorbitant corruption, mass poverty, economic (...) stagnation, and escalation of crimes. The actual manuscript investigates the roots of Putinism putting the person of Vladimir Putin in the focus of investigation. -/- Russian abstract: В 1999 году, в последний день столетия и тысячелетия, Россия вступила в новую эру деспотизма, эру Владимира Путина. В продолжение его правления, клан Путина коррумпировал и инфильтрировал средства массовой информации, парламент, правовую систему. Умышленное нарушение основных гражданских прав, конфискация собственности, государственный рэкет, злоупотребление средств массовой информации с целью запугивания и дезинформации населения стали дьявольскими методами самоназванных правителей. Всё это привело к безмерной продажности, массовой бедности, экономической стагнации и взрыву преступности. Данный манускрипт исследует корни Путинизма, помещая личность Владимира Путина в центр исследования. (shrink)
The speed of development in Big Data and associated phenomena, such as social media, has surpassed the capacity of the average consumer to understand his or her actions and their knock-on effects. We are moving towards changes in how ethics has to be perceived: away from individual decisions with specific and knowable outcomes, towards actions by many unaware that they may have taken actions with unintended consequences for anyone. Responses will require a rethinking of ethical choices, the lack thereof and (...) how this will guide scientists, governments, and corporate agencies in handling Big Data. This essay elaborates on the ways Big Data impacts on ethical conceptions. (shrink)
One of the virtues of this edited collection is the diversity contained within it. There is diversity to be found in the uses made of Wittgenstein's writings, reflecting the diversity of ways of understanding religion found in Wittgenstein's work. Andrejč, in his introduction (3), suggests that there are four dominant ways in which Wittgenstein depicts religion: the nonsensicalist, existentialist, grammaticalist and instinctivist conceptions of religion.
The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological challenges of developing measures of stereotypes and prejudice for use in Slovakia. Developing these measures was the first step in a research project aimed at testing the effectiveness of direct and indirect contact interventions to reduce prejudice against stigmatized minorities, particularly the Roma. The first major problem in this kind of research relates to measuring the impact of interventions, as standardized instruments for measuring prejudice have yet to be developed in Slovak. The second (...) problem concerns the risk that the interventions will fail to reduce anti-Roma prejudice, because of the strong stigmatization of the Roma minority in Slovakia. The paper also reviews existing measures of stereotypes and prejudice in social psychology and discusses their applicability for measuring anti-Roma prejudice in Slovakia. It is argued that measures of stereotypes and prejudice should be designed and used in a sensitive manner and that in the process of measuring various forms of social bias we should avoid reproducing its cognitive, emotional and behavioural manifestations. (shrink)
The first part of the article analyses the imaginary of the characteristics and form of society as developed in early modern liberal political philosophy, especially by John Locke and Thomas Paine. It uses different contemporary receptions of the key authors of this tradition, namely the liberal reception of John Keane, which emphasizes the theoretical distinction between civil society and the state, the materialist reception of Ellen Meiksins Wood, which contextualizes political ideas in the political struggles and class interests of the (...) time, and the reception of Foucault, which focuses on the development of biopolitical governmentality. The article finds that the liberal tradition imagined society as a given and self-regulating sphere that does not require interference from the state. A socio-historical presupposition of this imaginary was the economic sovereignty of individuals, and it overlooked the relations of domination and exploitation. In its second part, the article presents Hannah Arendt’s critical concept of society. She did not conceptualize society as a given totality and in a spatial way, but used it as a qualifier of a specific, impoverished mode of being, in particular to analyse the situation and perspective of minorities. (shrink)
Искусственный интеллект – последняя, хотя и иллюзорная надежда продажных и провалившихся режимов как на Западе, так и на Востоке остаться на плаву: ведь тонущий хватается и за соломинку. Но всё течёт и всё изменяется, и никаким деспотиям и деспотам не удастся остановить ход истории, как бы они этого не желали и тому не противились. Хотя у истории нет конца, но их история и история совершённых ими предательств уже закончилась. Plaudite, cives, plaudite, amici, finita est comoedia: „Рукоплещите, граждане, друзья, комедия окончена.“.
Поскольку до сих пор нет никакого судебного решения в отношении правомерности совершённых в прошлом и совершаемых в настоящем деяний, квалифицируемых как подлог и предательство, правовая оценка перестройки адресуется как юристам, так и всем прочим гражданам.
The article engages with two contemporary understandings of Schleiermacher's notion of feeling which are in important aspects in conflict: a social understanding (Kevin W. Hector and Christine Helmer) and an existential-mystical understanding (Thandeka). Using the phenomenological category of ‘existential feelings’ drawn from the work of Matthew Ratcliffe, I argue that they can be brought into a coherent overall account that recognizes different aspects of feeling in Schleiermacher's work. I also suggest that such an interpretation of Schleiermacher's concept of religious feeling (...) offers a different and better understanding of the role of feelings in religious experience and belief than the contemporary ‘perception-model’ of religious experience. (shrink)
Stephen Yablo has argued for metaontological antirealism: he believes that the sentences claiming or denying the existence of numbers (or other abstract entities or mereological sums) are inapt for truth valuation, because the reference failure of a numerical singular term (or a singular term for an abstract entity or a mereological sum) would not produce a truth value gap in any sentence containing that term. At the same time, Yablo believes that nothing similar applies to singular terms that aim to (...) refer to an entity whose existence or non-existence is a factual matter, e.g. ‘the king of France’: the failure of the presupposition that there is a unique French king makes some sentences with the term ‘the king of France’, in particular “The king of France is bald”, gappy. In this paper I will show that the sentence “The king of France is bald” must be false, and not gappy, according to Yablo’s own criteria and that, furthermore, the presupposition that the term ‘the king of France’ refers presents a fail-safe mechanism in the same way Yablo thinks abstract presuppositions do—this undermines his argument for metaontological antirealism. (shrink)
Появление человека, говорящего о себе Ἐγώ εἰμι, люди воспринимают в той же логике абсурда, к которой они привыкли. То, что кто-то может не играть и не носить маску, а реально быть, жить настоящей, а не выдуманной жизнью, для них немыслимо, невозможно, невыносимо и недопустимо. Но такой человек был, есть, и будет, и именно он преображает всё остальное человечество своим Ἐγώ εἰμι.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible associations between depression, height and body mass index in the adolescent and adult population of Penza city and oblast, Russia. The study included 554 adults aged 16–89 years. The presence and severity of depression was evaluated using Beck’s Depression Inventory. The participants self-reported their height and weight and these were used to calculate their BMI. Significant correlations were obtained between depression and short stature in young men, depression and short stature (...) in participants with normal BMI and depression and age in overweight participants. Young women aged 16–23 years, and older men aged 60–89 years, presented the highest and very similar depression scores with no statistically significant difference between them. Special attention should be paid in Russia to these groups due to their higher risk of depressive disorders. (shrink)
Брак может означать в одних случаях употребления брачные, т.е. супружеские узы, бракосочетание, в других случаях что-то совсем другое, а именно, изъян, изделие, не соответствующее техническим нормам, и поэтому негодное к употреблению. Производитель брака – бракодел, причина брака – недобросовестность, невнимательность, или дефекты орудия производства, в то время как частый результат брака в смысле бракосочетания и супружества – дети, которые тоже могут быть полноценными или неполноценными.
The paper suggests that there is a gap between the research on prejudice in Slovak schools and the pedagogical interventions used to reduce them, particularly in relation to the Roma minority. It highlights the existing curricular requirements for dealing with intergroup relations, stereotypes and prejudice, contrasting them with the organizational, methodological and practical constraints teachers face when trying to meet them. Drawing from experience of piloting alternative tools for measuring attitudes, designing interventions and assessing impact, the article describes one possible (...) way of bridging the gap. (shrink)
SummaryThe aim of the study was to reveal the ethnic and socioeconomic factors associated with height and body mass index of children during the period of political and social transition in Lithuania in 1990–2008. Data were derived from the personal health records of 1491 children born in 1990 in Vilnius city and region. Height and BMI from birth up to the age of 18 years were investigated. Children were divided into groups according to their ethnicity, place of residence, father’s and (...) mother’s occupation and birth order. Height and BMI were compared between the groups; a Bonferroni correction was applied. A multiple linear regression model was used to measure the effects of the independent variables on height and BMI. Girls living in Vilnius city were significantly taller in later life at the ages of 8 and 11 years. Sons of mothers employed as office workers appeared to be significantly taller at the ages of 7, 12, 14 and 15 years compared with the sons of labourers. First-born girls were taller at the age of 7 years than later-born girls of the same age. Later-born children of both sexes had higher BMIs at birth compared with first-borns; however, first-born girls had higher BMIs at the age of 11 years compared with their later-born peers. In the multiple linear regression model, the five tested independent variables explained only up to 18% of total variability. Boys were more sensitive to ethnic and socioeconomic factors: ethnicity appeared to be a significant predictor of boys’ height at the age of 5 years, while birth order predicted boys’ BMI at birth. In general, ethnicity, place of residence, father’s and mother’s occupation and birth order were not associated with children’s height and BMI in most age groups. (shrink)
The purpose of a study is to critically assess common presupposition, that fake news is a) a threat for civilization as we know it; b) something that appeared only recently or at least that recent examples present a more serious threat for civilization as those from the past. It looks like the fast and global spread of fake news widens the gap between objective reality and that reality asserted by fake news. It is thus accepted especially by so-called liberal media (...) but also a wider intellectual community that we are living in the post-truth era. Such shift is mainly attributed to a strong anti-scientific movement of which one of more important consequence is agnotology that is then understood as one of the major causes for the inefficiency of democracy, post-democracy. (shrink)
Clinical cases of frontal lobe lesions have been significantly associated with acquired aggressive behaviour. Restoring neuronal and cognitive faculties of aggressive individuals through invasive brain intervention raises ethical questions in general. However, more questions have to be addressed in cases where individuals refuse surgical treatment. The ethical desirability and permissibility of using intrusive surgical brain interventions for involuntary or voluntary treatment of acquired aggressiveness is highly questionable. This article engages with the description of acquired aggressiveness in general, and presents a (...) rare clinical case to illustrate the difficulties of treating this population. To expand the debate further, this article explores the ethics related to invasive brain surgery in three parts: a) it examines coercive involuntary invasive brain surgery for the benefit of protecting others on individuals suffering from acquired aggressiveness who lack decision-making capacities to consent; b) it addresses voluntary psychosurgery on individuals suffering from acquired aggressiveness who are competent to consent; and, c) it questions whether acquired aggressive individuals, who are legally competent, have a duty to consent to invasive brain surgery, in order to maintain their autonomy by reducing or even eliminate their aggressive drives. Ensuring the safety and efficacy of surgical brain interventions could increase the ethical permissibility of voluntary treatment, but it would not necessarily entail ethical justification for proceeding with invasive brain surgery for treatment of intractable acquired aggressive behaviour. (shrink)
But our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who, by the power that enables Him to subject all things to Himself, will transform our lowly bodies to be like His glorious body. – Philippians 3:20–21.
Классификация ментальных типов на основании субъект–объектных отношений. Several types of mentality may be distinguished based on the subject–object relations, among them schizophrenic, mystic, mythologic, eclectic and scientific or logic. Proposed classification of mentality is briefly exemplified in this essay that gives an outline of typology.
The peer review is an opportunity to perform an unlawful censorship which ensures that no apostate notion ever get published in mainstream journals. Or such peer review censorship is an opportunity to steal any content and to claim afterward the priority of the first publication. And last but not least, the peer review is an academic tool to promote the mainstream pseudoscience.
The paper discusses voice as a medium of human communication through the indirect approach of listening. After designating the multifaceted nature of the voice, the author dedicates attention to Bernhard Waldenfels? theory of the voice as developed on the basis of the phenomenology of the alien. According to Waldenfels, the polyphony of the vocal, in which the own and the alien re-sound in mutual permeation, calls for the possibility of responsive listening. In the concluding portion of the article, the author (...) takes into consideration one of the poems from the cycle?Stimmen? that Paul Celan published in the collection Sprachgitter. With regard also to Celan?s auto-poetological writings, the ensuing interpretation attempts to briefly sketch the contours of the anti-politics of voice. nema. (shrink)
In this paper, I explore the possibility of reading Wittgenstein’s understanding of religious belief with Tillich’s concept of existential/religious doubt, especially as developed in his Dynamics of Faith. I argue, first, that Wittgenstein’s understanding of religious belief as a deep certainty of a grammatical remark is not the same as his understanding of hinge-certainty of “hinge propositions”, and that the relevant difference is that Wittgenstein leaves room for the possibility of doubt in the former but not in the latter. Second, (...) I argue that Tillich’s concept of dynamic faith by which Tillich explicates the role of doubt internal to religious believing can enrich the Wittgensteinian conception of religious belief. Despite the notable differences between Wittgenstein’s thoughts and Tillich’s overall system of theology, Tillich’s treatment of the concept of “faith” signals a possibility of a more positive way of relating Wittgenstein’s grammatical investigation and Tillich’s mature understanding of philosophical theology. At the end of the essay, responding to D. Z. Phillips’ negative assessment of Tillich’s theology in the name of Wittgenstein, I suggest what such positive way of relating the two might look like. (shrink)
We prove the following theorems: (1) If X has strong measure zero and if Y has strong first category, then their algebraic sum has property s 0 . (2) If X has Hurewicz's covering property, then it has strong measure zero if, and only if, its algebraic sum with any first category set is a first category set. (3) If X has strong measure zero and Hurewicz's covering property then its algebraic sum with any set in APC ' is a (...) set in APC '. (APC ' is included in the class of sets always of first category, and includes the class of strong first category sets.) These results extend: Fremlin and Miller's theorem that strong measure zero sets having Hurewicz's property have Rothberger's property, Galvin and Miller's theorem that the algebraic sum of a set with the γ-property and of a first category set is a first category set, and Bartoszynski and Judah's characterization of SR M -sets. They also characterize the property (*) introduced by Gerlits and Nagy in terms of older concepts. (shrink)
We prove two embedding and extension theorems in the context of the constructive theory of metric spaces. The first states that Cantor space embeds in any inhabited complete separable metric space without isolated points, X, in such a way that every sequentially continuous function from Cantor space to ℤ extends to a sequentially continuous function from X to ℝ. The second asserts an analogous property for Baire space relative to any inhabited locally non-compact CSM. Both results rely on having careful (...) constructive formulations of the concepts involved.As a first application, we derive new relationships between “continuity principles” asserting that all functions between specified metric spaces are pointwise continuous. In particular, we give conditions that imply the failure of the continuity principle “all functions from X to ℝ are continuous”, when X is an inhabited CSM without isolated points, and when X is an inhabited locally non-compact CSM. One situation in which the latter case applies is in models based on “domain realizability”, in which the failure of the continuity principle for any inhabited locally non-compact CSM, X, generalizes a result previously obtained by Escardó and Streicher in the special case X = C[0, 1].As a second application, we show that, when the notion of inhabited complete separable metric space without isolated points is interpreted in a recursion-theoretic setting, then, for any such space X, there exists a Banach-Mazur computable function from X to the computable real numbers that is not Markov computable. This generalizes a result obtained by Hertling in the special case that X is the space of computable real numbers. (shrink)