On the basis of Mackey's axiomatic approach to quantum physics or, equivalently, of a “state-event-probability” (SEVP) structure, using a quite standard “fuzzification” procedure, a set of unsharp events (or “effects”) is constructed and the corresponding “state-effect-probability” (SEFP) structure is introduced. The introduction of some suitable axioms gives rise to a partially ordered structure of quantum Brouwer-Zadeh (BZ) poset; i.e., a poset endowed with two nonusual orthocomplementation mappings, a fuzzy-like orthocomplementation, and an intuitionistic-like orthocomplementation, whose set of sharp elements is an (...) orthomodular complete lattice. As customary, by these orthocomplementations the two modal-like necessity and possibility operators are introduced, and it is shown that Ludwig's and Jauch-Piron's approaches to quantum physics are “interpreted” in complete SEFP. As a marginal result, a standard procedure to construct a lot of unsharp realizations starting from any sharp realization of a fixed observable is given, and the relationship among sharp and corresponding unsharp realizations is studied. (shrink)
The standard Pawlak approach to rough set theory, as an approximation space consisting of a universe U and an equivalence (indiscernibility) relation R U x U, can be equivalently described by the induced preclusivity ("discernibility") relation U x U \ R, which is irreflexive and symmetric.We generalize the notion of approximation space as a pair consisting of a universe U and a discernibility or preclusivity (irreflexive and symmetric) relation, not necessarily induced from an equivalence relation. In this case the "elementary" (...) sets are not mutually disjoint, but all the theory of generalized rough sets can be developed in analogy with the standard Pawlak approach. On the power set of the universe, the algebraic structure of the quasi fuzzy-intuitionistic "classical" (BZ) lattice is introduced and the sets of all "closed" and of all "open" definable sets with the associated complete (in general nondistributive) ortholattice structures are singled out. (shrink)
Fuzzy intuitionistic quantum logics (called also Brouwer-Zadeh logics) represent to non standard version of quantum logic where the connective not is split into two different negation: a fuzzy-like negation that gives rise to a paraconsistent behavior and an intuitionistic-like negation. A completeness theorem for a particular form of Brouwer-Zadeh logic (BZL 3) is proved. A phisical interpretation of these logics can be constructed in the framework of the unsharp approach to quantum theory.
Some algebraic structures determined by the class σ(þ) of all effects of a Hilbert space þ and by some subclasses of σ(þ) are investigated, in particular de Morgan-Brouwer-Zadeh posets [it is proved that σ(þ n )(n<∞) has such a structure], Brouwer-Zadeh * posets (a quite trivial example consisting of suitable effects is given), and Brouwer-Zadeh 3 posets which are both de Morgan and *.It is shown that a nontrivial class of effects of a Hilbert space exists which is a BZ (...) 3 poset. An ɛ-preclusivity relation on the set of all vectors of þ is introduced, and it is shown that it satisfies the regularity condition also for ε∃ [1/2, 1]. (shrink)
We discuss the problem of how a (commutative) generalized observable in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space (communtative effect-valued resolution of the identity) can be considered as an unsharp realization of some standard observable (projection-valued resolution of the identity). In particular, we give a concrete procedure for constructing such a standard observable. Some results about the “uniqueness” of the resulting observable are also examined.
The theoretical scheme proposed by Aerts for describing two separated entities as a whole within a question-state structure is considered. The quoted author claims that two relevant axioms characterizing quantum physics cannot hold for a quantum, nonclassical entity consisting of two quantum separate entities. We suggest that Aerts' theory is not adequate, from the empirical point of view, to describe this situation.
This article presents and compares various algebraic structures that arise in axiomatic unsharp quantum physics. We begin by stating some basic principles that such an algebraic structure should encompass. Following G. Mackey and G. Ludwig, we first consider a minimal state-effect-probability (minimal SEFP) structure. In order to include partial operations of sum and difference, an additional axiom is postulated and a SEFP structure is obtained. It is then shown that a SEFP structure is equivalent to an effect algebra with an (...) order determining set of states. We also consider σ-SEFP structures and show that these structures distinguish Hilbert space from incomplete inner product spaces. Various types of sharpness are discussed and under what conditions a Brouwer complementation can be defined to obtain a BZ-poset is investigated. In this case it is shown that every effect has a best lower and upper sharp approximation and that the set of all Brouwer sharp effects form an orthoalgebra. (shrink)
The notion of coexistence between questions is introduced in the framework of Piron's approach to quantum physics, using Aerts' notion of performable-together questions. Relationships between coexistence of questions and Piron's compatibility of propositions are investigated. In particular, properties generated by coexistent and primitive questions are compatible.
The history of Fuzziness in Italy is varied and scattered among a num- ber of research groups. As a matter of fact, “fuzziness” spread in Italy through a sort of spontaneous diffusion, and, also subsequently, no one felt the need to cre- ate some “national” common structure like an Association or similar things. Since a cohesive retelling would be next to impossible, a few members of the Italian fuzzy community have been asked to recount their experience and express their hopes (...) for the future. (shrink)
The mathematical description of the three distinct fundamental notions of “individual sample” of “preparing procedure,” and of “Piron's state” of a physical entity are precisely introduced in the framework of the Piron's “preparation-question structure” (without specific axioms C, P, A) based on Ludwig's “selection structure.” We compare our realization of the above notions with a similar use of the standard terminology of the “Geneva School” adopted by Pykacz and Santos in a recent paper.