This paper investigates the quantifier "there exist unboundedly many" in the context of first-order arithmetic. An alternative axiomatization is found for Peano arithmetic based on an axiom schema of regularity: The union of boundedly many bounded sets is bounded. We also obtain combinatorial equivalents of certain second-order theories associated with cuts in nonstandard models of arithmetic.
We construct a model of Peano arithmetic in an uncountable language which has no elementary end extension. This answers a question of Gaifman and contrasts with the well-known theorem of MacDowell and Specker which states that every model of Peano arithmetic in a countable language has an elementary end extension. The construction employs forcing in a nonstandard model.