Results for 'General game playing'

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  1. Automated verification of state sequence invariants in general game playing.Sebastian Haufe, Stephan Schiffel & Michael Thielscher - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence 187-188 (C):1-30.
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    Infinite games played on finite graphs.Robert McNaughton - 1993 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 65 (2):149-184.
    The concept of an infinite game played on a finite graph is perhaps novel in the context of an rather extensive recent literature in which infinite games are generally played on an infinite game tree. We claim two advantages for our model, which is admittedly more restrictive. First, our games have a more apparent resemblance to ordinary parlor games in spite of their infinite duration. Second, by distinguishing those nodes of the graph that determine the winning and losing (...)
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  3.  15
    Logical-Epistemic Foundations of General Game Descriptions.Ji Ruan & Michael Thielscher - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (2):321-338.
    A general game player automatically learns to play arbitrary new games solely by being told their rules. For this purpose games are specified in the general Game Description Language (GDL), a variant of Datalog with function symbols that uses a few game-specific keywords. A recent extension of basic GDL allows the description of nondeterministic games with any number of players who may have incomplete, asymmetric information. In this paper, we analyse the epistemic structure and expressiveness (...)
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  4. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.Andrew J. Latham, Lucy L. M. Patston & Lynette J. Tippett - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the (...)
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  5.  44
    Pre-Game Cheating and Playing the Game.Alex Wolf-Root - 2018 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 13 (3-4):334-347.
    There are well-known problems for formalist accounts of game-play with regards to cheating. Such accounts seem to be committed to cheaters being unable to win–or even play–the game, yet it seems that there are instances of cheaters winning games. In this paper, I expand the discussion of such problems by introducing cases of pre-game cheating, and see how a formalist–specifically a Suitsian–account can accommodate such problems. Specifically, I look at two (fictional) examples where the alleged game-players (...)
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  6.  37
    Challenging the Values of Hunting: Fair Chase, Game Playing, and Intrinsic Value.S. P. Morris - 2013 - Environmental Ethics 35 (3):295-311.
    Hunting is typically valued for its instrumentality for food procurement, wildlife management, conservation, heurism, and atavism. More importantly, some hunting is valued intrinsically. A particular form of hunting is a game and game playing, categorically, is often valued intrinsically. This view can be further supported with an application of a concept of caring and an accompanying argument that hunting generally, and fair-chase hunting in particular, is cared about deeply by millions of its practitioners. There are normative grounds (...)
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  7.  5
    Parsing Heuristic and Forward Search in First‐Graders' Game‐Play Behavior.Luciano Paz, Andrea P. Goldin, Carlos Diuk & Mariano Sigman - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):944-971.
    Seventy-three children between 6 and 7 years of age were presented with a problem having ambiguous subgoal ordering. Performance in this task showed reliable fingerprints: a non-monotonic dependence of performance as a function of the distance between the beginning and the end-states of the problem, very high levels of performance when the first move was correct, and states in which accuracy of the first move was significantly below chance. These features are consistent with a non-Markov planning agent, with an inherently (...)
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  8. Does Playing Apart Really Bring Us Together? Investigating the Link Between Perceived Loneliness and the Use of Video Games During a Period of Social Distancing.Steve Nebel & Manuel Ninaus - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries implemented social distancing measures to contain virus transmission. However, these vital safety measures have the potential to impair mental health or wellbeing, for instance, from increased perceived loneliness. Playing social video games may offer a way to continue to socialize while adhering to social distancing measures. To examine this issue further, the present online survey investigated social gaming during the pandemic and its association to perceived loneliness within a German-speaking sample. Results indicated a (...)
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  9. Is it wrong to play violent video games?McCormick Matt - 2001 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (4):277–287.
    Many people have a strong intuition that there is something morally objectionable about playing violent video games, particularly with increases in the number of people who are playing them and the games' alleged contribution to some highly publicized crimes. In this paper,I use the framework of utilitarian, deontological, and virtue ethical theories to analyze the possibility that there might be some philosophical foundation for these intuitions. I raise the broader question of whether or not participating in authentic simulations (...)
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  10.  3
    Video Games and the Cerebral Subject: On Playing Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3.Pasi Väliaho - 2014 - Body and Society 20 (3-4):113-139.
    This article engages with the fabrication of experiences in first-person shooter video games. On one hand, it explores the forms of affective and cognitive engagement this novel type of immersive imagery demands of the player. On the other hand, the article speculates on how video games images resonate and coincide with other key practices and imaginations defining the political reality of life today. What matters most in the politics of life today is a particular locus of mediation – the brain. (...)
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  11.  54
    Maximin play in completely mixed strategic games.Vitaly Pruzhansky - 2013 - Theory and Decision 75 (4):543-561.
    Since the seminal paper of Nash (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 36:48–49, 1950) game theoretic literature has focused mostly on equilibrium and not on maximin (minimax) strategies. In a recent paper of Pruzhansky (Int J Game Theory 40:351–365, 2011) it was shown that under fairy general conditions maximin strategies in completely mixed games can guarantee the same expected payoff as completely mixed Nash equilibrium strategies. Based on this finding, the current paper argues that maximin strategies have important (...)
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  12.  29
    Philosophers Playing Games.Joseph Chandler - 1997 - The Philosophers' Magazine 1:9-11.
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  13.  39
    Children's strategy use when playing strategic games.Maartje E. J. Raijmakers, Dorothy J. Mandell, Sara E. Es & Marian Counihan - 2012 - Synthese (3):1-16.
    Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age “Flobbe et al. J Logic Language Inform 17(4):417–442 (2008)”. We studied children’s (5–12 years of age) individual differences in how they played a strategic game by analyzing the strategies that they applied in a zero, first, (...)
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  14.  16
    Representing and Reasoning about Game Strategies.Dongmo Zhang & Michael Thielscher - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (2):203-236.
    As a contribution to the challenge of building game-playing AI systems, we develop and analyse a formal language for representing and reasoning about strategies. Our logical language builds on the existing general Game Description Language and extends it by a standard modality for linear time along with two dual connectives to express preferences when combining strategies. The semantics of the language is provided by a standard state-transition model. As such, problems that require reasoning about games can (...)
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  15.  13
    Ajax and Achilles playing a game on an olpe in Oxford: (plates IIc-VI).Susan Woodford - 1982 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 102:173-185.
    A charming black-figured olpe in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford shows two warriors playing a game. Between them stands the goddess Athena, an alert figure looking sharply to the left while holding her shield to the right. She holds it rather tactlessly, for the shield entirely obscures the head of the right-hand warrior. Although Cassandra, clinging desperately to the statue of Athena, sometimes has her head obscured in a similar manner behind the goddess's shield, it seems more likely that (...)
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  16. The cosmic cycle, a playing child, and the rules of the game.Aryeh Finkelberg - 2009 - In Enrique Hülsz Piccone (ed.), Nuevos Ensayos Sobre Heráclito: Actas Del Segundo Symposium Heracliteum. Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México. pp. 315–336.
    The very title of the paper indicates my dissent from the view now prevalent in Heraclitean scholarship that Heraclitus put forward the theory of cosmological stability. Since my interpretative argument presupposes Heraclitus’ belief in cosmogony and general conflagration, it seems advisable to address this issue first.
     
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  17.  5
    Children’s strategy use when playing strategic games.Marian Counihan, Sara E. van Es, Dorothy J. Mandell & Maartje E. J. Raijmakers - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3):355-370.
    Strategic games require reasoning about other people’s and one’s own beliefs or intentions. Although they have clear commonalities with psychological tests of theory of mind, they are not clearly related to theory of mind tests for children between 9 and 10 years of age “Flobbe et al. J Logic Language Inform 17:417–442 ”. We studied children’s individual differences in how they played a strategic game by analyzing the strategies that they applied in a zero, first, and second-order reasoning task. (...)
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  18.  35
    Gaarder and Schick Play Games.John Lipczynski & Zhou Li-Yang - 1998 - The Philosophers' Magazine 2 (2):58-58.
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    Effort Games and the Price of Myopia.Yoram Bachrach, Michael Zuckerman & Jeffrey S. Rosenschein - 2009 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 55 (4):377-396.
    We consider Effort Games, a game-theoretic model of cooperation in open environments, which is a variant of the principal-agent problem from economic theory. In our multiagent domain, a common project depends on various tasks; carrying out certain subsets of the tasks completes the project successfully, while carrying out other subsets does not. The probability of carrying out a task is higher when the agent in charge of it exerts effort, at a certain cost for that agent. A central authority, (...)
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  20.  25
    Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.Stuart Oultram - 2013 - Medical Humanities 39 (2):115-118.
    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.
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  21. Universal Game Theory.Kevin Nicholas Thomson - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 34:57-61.
    Universal Game Theory - The theory that all of life is a game played by consciousness’es, (Living Beings). The board is a dream like structure of the universe. The progression is through an active process of intent witnessing, and passive meditation. Which releases the tension in the nerves of the body and leads to selfless actions, moral goodness, and eventually the finish, Enlightenment. Just like a wounded creature only cares about it’s own self. Man in tensionthrough self-centered thought (...)
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  22. Game-theoretic axioms for local rationality and bounded knowledge.Gian Aldo Antonelli & Cristina Bicchieri - 1995 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (2):145-167.
    We present an axiomatic approach for a class of finite, extensive form games of perfect information that makes use of notions like “rationality at a node” and “knowledge at a node.” We distinguish between the game theorist's and the players' own “theory of the game.” The latter is a theory that is sufficient for each player to infer a certain sequence of moves, whereas the former is intended as a justification of such a sequence of moves. While in (...)
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  23.  20
    Polarized games.Olivier Laurent - 2004 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 130 (1-3):79-123.
    We generalize the intuitionistic Hyland–Ong games to a notion of polarized games allowing games with plays starting by proponent moves. The usual constructions on games are adjusted to fit this setting yielding game models for both Intuitionistic Linear Logic and Polarized Linear Logic. We prove a definability result for this polarized model and this gives complete game models for various classical systems: , λμ-calculus, … for both call-by-name and call-by-value evaluations.
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  24. Just how expert are “expert” video-game players? Assessing the experience and expertise of video-game players across “action” video-game genres.Andrew J. Latham, Lucy L. M. Patston & Lynette J. Tippett - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    Video-game play (particularly “action” video-games) holds exciting promise as an activity that may provide generalized enhancement to a wide range of perceptual and cognitive abilities (for review see Latham et al., 2013a). However, in this article we make the case that to assess accurately the effects of video-game play researchers must better characterize video-game experience and expertise. This requires a more precise and objective assessment of an individual's video-game history and skill level, and making finer distinctions (...)
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  25.  3
    Merck and the Vioxx Decision: Playing by the Changing Rules of the Chemical Exposure Game.Jacqueline G. Cohen - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (4):866-869.
    For years, legal scholars and environmental activists have maintained that traditional tort proof requirements create insurmountable obstacles to recovery for most plaintiffs in chemical exposure cases, be they pharmaceutical suits or environmental toxic tort cases. Generally, tort law requires a plaintiff to show that the defendant owed a duty, that the defendant breached that duty, and that the breach of that duty caused the injury that is the subject of the suit. In some cases those requirements can be relaxed, as (...)
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  26. Game-Based Learning for Learners With Disabilities—What Is Next? A Systematic Literature Review From the Activity Theory Perspective.Ahmed Tlili, Mouna Denden, Anqi Duan, Natalia Padilla-Zea, Ronghuai Huang, Tianyue Sun & Daniel Burgos - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The design, implementation, and outcome of game-based learning for learners with disabilities have not been sufficiently examined systematically. Particularly, learner-based and contextual factors, as well as the essential roles played by various stakeholders, have not been addressed when game-based learning applications are used in special education. Therefore, a systematic literature review using the Activity Theory was conducted to analyse studies about game-based learning for learners with disabilities. Content analysis of 96 studies reported relevant information with respect to (...)
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  27. Violent computer games, empathy, and cosmopolitanism.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2007 - Ethics and Information Technology 9 (3):219-231.
    Many philosophical and public discussions of the ethical aspects of violent computer games typically centre on the relation between playing violent videogames and its supposed direct consequences on violent behaviour. But such an approach rests on a controversial empirical claim, is often one-sided in the range of moral theories used, and remains on a general level with its focus on content alone. In response to these problems, I pick up Matt McCormick’s thesis that potential harm from playing (...)
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  28. Game of Thrones and Philosophy: Logic Cuts Deeper Than Swords.William Irwin & Henry Jacoby (eds.) - 2012 - Wiley.
    _An in-depth look at the philosophical issues behind HBO's _Game of Thrones_ television series and the books that inspired it_ George R.R. Martin's _New York Times_ bestselling epic fantasy book series, A Song of Ice and Fire, and the HBO television show adapted from it, have earned critical acclaim and inspired fanatic devotion. This book delves into the many philosophical questions that arise in this complex, character-driven series, including: Is it right for a "good" king to usurp the throne of (...)
     
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  29.  1
    Gambling, Gaming, and Internet Behavior in a Sexual Minority Perspective. A Cross-Sectional Study in Seven European Countries.Niroshani Broman, Fulvia Prever, Ester di Giacomo, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Anna Szczegielniak, Helena Hansson & Anders Håkansson - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    BackgroundAddictive behavior of gambling, gaming and internet activity is partly a new research domain and has not been well investigated with regard to sexual minority populations. Although health disparities between sexual minorities and the general population are well documented, there is a lack of inclusion of sexual minorities in both research and clinic. Among lesbian, gay and bisexual populations certain features could be present that play a role for the development of addictive behaviors, such as social isolation and increased (...)
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  30.  44
    Rules and Games.Bartosz Kaluziński - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (4):1165-1176.
    We have taken a look at the rules of games in order to acquire some knowledge concerning constitutive rules and, probably, institutional phenomena in general. In this paper we tried to elaborate a system account of constitutive rules. We claim that all accounts that put emphasis on the form of rules are vulnerable. It appears that constitutive rules are interconnected and always form a system that can be internally differentiated. Thanks to adopting certain qualitative criterion we were able to (...)
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  31. Game analogy in law reconsidered: is evidence at stake?Maciej Dybowski, Weronika Dzięgielewska & Wojciech Rzepiński - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-29.
    The aim of this paper is to show that the meaning and significance of legal evidence is being constituted throughout the course of a singular instance of legal proceedings. This is to be achieved by describing what legal agents _do_ while appealing to different propositions of fact and inferring from them throughout the course of legal proceedings. The authors claim that the process of applying the law is ultimately rooted in the inferential discursive practices of exchanging reasons on the part (...)
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  32.  36
    The Ethics of Computer Games.Miguel Sicart - 2011 - MIT Press.
    Despite the emergence of computer games as a dominant cultural industry, we know little or nothing about the ethics of computer games. Considerations of the morality of computer games seldom go beyond intermittent portrayals of them in the mass media as training devices for teenage serial killers. In this first scholarly exploration of the subject, Miguel Sicart addresses broader issues about the ethics of games, the ethics of playing the games, and the ethical responsibilities of game designers. He (...)
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  33.  34
    Multistage Game Models and Delay Supergames.Reinhard Selten - 1998 - Theory and Decision 44 (1):1-36.
    The order of stages in a multistage game is often interpreted by looking at earlier stages as involving more long term decisions. For the purpose of making this interpretation precise, the notion of a delay supergame of a bounded multistage game is introduced. A multistage game is bounded if the length of play has an upper bound. A delay supergame is played over many periods. Decisions on all stages are made simultaneously, but with different delays until they (...)
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  34. Chess is Not a Game.Deborah P. Vossen - 2008 - In Benjamin Hale (ed.), Philosophy Looks at Chess. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Press. pp. 191-208.
    As described in Benjamin Hale’s Introduction to “Philosophy Looks at Chess”: -/- “Deb Vossen asks whether chess can rightly be considered a game in the first place. She concludes, much to the surprise of many readers, that chess is not a game. Her evocative claim turns on a distinction between a game and the idea of a game, which evolved out of Bernard Suits’s phenomenally underappreciated work The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia. She advances this position (...)
     
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  35. The Definition of 'Game'.M. W. Rowe - 1992 - Philosophy 67 (262):467 - 479.
    Besides its intrinsic interest, the definition of ‘game’ is important for three reasons. Firstly, in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations ‘game’ is the paradigm family resemblance concept. If he is wrong in thinking that ‘game’ cannot be defined, then the persuasive force of his argument against definition generally will be considerably weakened. This, in its turn, will have important consequences for our understanding of concepts and philosophical method. Secondly, Wittgenstein's later writings are full of analogies drawn from games—chess alone (...)
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  36.  17
    Classical Negation and Game-Theoretical Semantics.Tero Tulenheimo - 2014 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (4):469-498.
    Typical applications of Hintikka’s game-theoretical semantics give rise to semantic attributes—truth, falsity—expressible in the $\Sigma^{1}_{1}$-fragment of second-order logic. Actually a much more general notion of semantic attribute is motivated by strategic considerations. When identifying such a generalization, the notion of classical negation plays a crucial role. We study two languages, $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$, in both of which two negation signs are available: $\rightharpoondown $ and $\sim$. The latter is the usual GTS negation which transposes the players’ roles, while (...)
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  37. The precision of experienced action video-game players: Line bisection reveals reduced leftward response bias.Andrew J. Latham, Lucy L. M. Patston & Lynette J. Tippett - 2014 - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 76 (8):2193-2198.
    Twenty-two experienced action video-game players (AVGPs) and 18 non-VGPs were tested on a pen-and-paper line bisection task that was untimed. Typically, right-handers bisect lines 2 % to the left of true centre, a bias thought to reflect the dominance of the right-hemisphere for visuospatial attention. Expertise may affect this bias, with expert musicians showing no bias in line bisection performance. Our results show that experienced-AVGPs also bisect lines with no bias with their right hand and a significantly reduced bias (...)
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  38.  33
    A Kantian view of Suits’ Utopia: ‘a kingdom of autotelically-motivated game players’.Francisco Javier Lopez Frias - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (1):138-151.
    In this paper, I engage the debate on Suits’ theory of games by providing a Kantian view of Utopia. I argue that although the Kantian aspects of Suits’ approach are often overlooked in comparison to its Socratic-Platonic aspects, Kant’s ideas play a fundamental role in Suits’ proposal. In particular, Kant’s concept of ‘regulative idea’ is the basis of Suits’ Utopia. I regard Utopia as Suits’ regulative idea on game playing. In doing so, I take Utopia to play a (...)
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  39. Ten little treasures of game theory and ten intuitive contradictions.Jacob K. Goeree, Charles A. Holt & Rouss Hall - unknown
    This paper reports laboratory data for games that are played only once. These games span the standard categories: static and dynamic games with complete and incomplete information. For each game, the treasure is a treatment in which behavior conforms nicely to predictions of the Nash equilibrium or relevant refinement. In each case, however, a change in the payoff structure produces a large inconsistency between theoretical predictions and observed behavior. These contradictions are generally consistent with simple intuition based on the (...)
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  40.  2
    Games of Truth in the Age of Transparency: International Organisations and the Construction of Corruption.Roan Alexander Snyman - 2021 - Journal of Business Ethics 181 (1):83-96.
    AbstractCorruption is one of the most intractable problems that the world is faced with and its reported impact is widespread and pervasive. Since the mid-1990s, international efforts to combat this problem expanded significantly, driven by the involvement governments, international financial institutions and non-governmental organisations. The objective of this article is to use Michel Foucault’s work in a critical analysis of the international fight against corruption. This analysis is centred on Foucault’s concept of governmentality, as well as his notions of knowledge, (...)
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  41.  2
    Determinacy of Schmidt’s Game and Other Intersection Games.Logan Crone, Lior Fishman & Stephen Jackson - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-21.
    Schmidt’s game and other similar intersection games have played an important role in recent years in applications to number theory, dynamics, and Diophantine approximation theory. These games are real games, that is, games in which the players make moves from a complete separable metric space. The determinacy of these games trivially follows from the axiom of determinacy for real games, $\mathsf {AD}_{\mathbb R}$, which is a much stronger axiom than that asserting all integer games are determined, $\mathsf {AD}$. One (...)
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  42.  51
    An Ehrenfeucht‐Fraïssé class game.Wafik Boulos Lotfallah - 2004 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (2):179-188.
    This paper introduces a new Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé type game that is played on two classes of models rather than just two models. This game extends and generalizes the known Ajtai-Fagin game to the case when there are several alternating moves played in different models. The game allows Duplicator to delay her choices of the models till the very end of the game, making it easier for her to win. This adds on the toolkit of winning strategies (...)
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  43.  20
    An infinite-game semantics for well-founded negation in logic programming.Chrysida Galanaki, Panos Rondogiannis & William W. Wadge - 2008 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 151 (2-3):70-88.
    We present an infinite-game characterization of the well-founded semantics for function-free logic programs with negation. Our game is a simple generalization of the standard game for negation-less logic programs introduced by van Emden [M.H. van Emden, Quantitative deduction and its fixpoint theory, Journal of Logic Programming 3 37–53] in which two players, the Believer and the Doubter, compete by trying to prove a query. The standard game is equivalent to the minimum Herbrand model semantics of logic (...)
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  44. Reasonable Nash demand games.Shiran Rachmilevitch - 2021 - Theory and Decision 93 (2):319-330.
    In the Nash demand game n players announce utility demands, the demands are implemented if they are jointly feasible, and otherwise no one gets anything. If the utilities set is the simplex, the game is called “divide-the-dollar”. Brams and Taylor studied variants of divide-the-dollar, on which they imposed reasonableness conditions. I explore the implications of these conditions on general NDGs. In any reasonable NDG, the egalitarian demand profile cannot be obtained via iterated elimination of weakly dominated strategies. (...)
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  45.  27
    Kinds of chance in games and sports.Filip Kobiela - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (1):65-76.
    While talking about sports (and games) we use such expressions as ?random victory?, ?winning by accident?, ?skill against luck?, ?chance (fortune) favours the better player?, etc. Unfortunately, chance-related notions that occur in these expressions are not well defined?their meaning is vague and it is not clear whether they refer to one or many different phenomena. Because such phenomena play an important role in sport, from the viewpoint of the philosophy of sport it is necessary to give a systematic account of (...)
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  46.  22
    The Ancient Argumentative Game: τóπoι and loci in Action. [REVIEW]Sara Rubinelli - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (3):253-272.
    In classical logic and rhetoric the strategies of argumentation known as topoi played a crucial role. Yet, topoi refer there to different kinds of strategies that this study intends to explain synoptically. Main focus will be on passages from Aristotle and Cicero. Indeed, these sources contain examples and theoretical considerations, which provide the basis for a general investigation of the complex phenomenon of topoi in the ancient world. Four main types of topoi will be juxtaposed and discusses comparatively as (...)
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  47.  1
    The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia. [REVIEW]K. J. - 1982 - Review of Metaphysics 36 (1):201-202.
    The work under consideration attempts to discover a definition of game such as may serve as a foundation for a philosophical theory of games. It incorporates material from papers earlier published in Philosophy of Science, Ethics and in Osterhoudt's Philosophy of Sport. The exposition consists in the defense of a proposed definition against an array of criticisms until, after considerable exploration, a revised definition is arrived at to which no further objection is made. The author assures unity of form (...)
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  48.  14
    Sages at the Games: Intellectual Displays and Dissemination of Wisdom in Ancient Greece.Håkan Tell - 2007 - Classical Antiquity 26 (2):249-275.
    This paper explores the role the Panhellenic centers played in facilitating the circulation of wisdom in ancient Greece. It argues that there are substantial thematic overlaps among practitioners of wisdom , who are typically understood as belonging to different categories . By focusing on the presence of σοφοί at the Panhellenic centers in general, and Delphi in particular, we can acquire a more accurate picture of the particular expertise they possessed, and of the range of meanings the Greeks attributed (...)
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  49.  16
    Girls Will Be Girls, in a League of Their Own – The Rules for Women’s Sport as a Protected Category in the Olympic Games and the Question of ‘Doping Down’.Angela Schneider - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 14 (4):478-495.
    Recent debate by feminist scholars in philosophy of sport has been focused on the status of women’s sport as a protected category. Positions have varied significantly, from no need for a protected category anymore—to allow women’s sport to flourish and to give them a fair opportunity, given that men’s sport still dominates, just as it has in the past.It will be argued that: i) the concept of a ‘protected category’ is tied logically to the concept of fair play and has (...)
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  50. Evolving to Generalize: Trading Precision for Speed.Cailin O’Connor - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (2).
    Biologists and philosophers of biology have argued that learning rules that do not lead organisms to play evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSes) in games will not be stable and thus not evolutionarily successful. This claim, however, stands at odds with the fact that learning generalization---a behavior that cannot lead to ESSes when modeled in games---is observed throughout the animal kingdom. In this paper, I use learning generalization to illustrate how previous analyses of the evolution of learning have gone wrong. It has (...)
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