Review of: R. Steven Turner, In the Eye's Mind: Vision and the Helmholtz-Hering Controversy. xiv + 338 pp., frontis., illus., figs., tables, bibl., index. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.
While Christian beliefs are presumably much more widely known, especially in the Western world, some adherents to the major non-Christian religions also make claims that some of their historical rabbis, prophets, gurus or ‘messiahs’ rose from the dead. Judging from the relevant religious literature, it appears that such non-Christian claims are often ignored, perhaps because there is little awareness of them. Even if the existence of such beliefs is recognized, almost never is there any in-depth answer to the question of (...) whether such claims could possibly be grounded in supernatural events of history. (shrink)
The purpose of this book is to assist health care professionals in understanding some of the complex contemporary issues that they confront and to provide guidance in making decisions. These issues are described and analyzed in the context of philosophical principles and methods in language that is understandable to the professional who is unfamiliar with the study of philosophy and ethics. -from Preface.
In Microeconomic Laws, Rosenberg defended neoclassical economic theory against the charge that it at best provides ad hoc truisms concerning economic action. This defense was carried out within realist and empiricist confines; Rosenberg rejected attempts to defend microeconomics by either instrumentalist or rationalist analyses. While Microeconomic Laws was optimistic regarding the legitimacy and success of empiricist microeconomics, Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science is the opposite, and is directed at all social science. Empiricist social science, Rosenberg claims, is sterile. (...) It has failed to provide more than ad hoc generalizations, and there is reason to think it will never do better. This is not to suggest rationalist or non-realist analyses of social science; rather, it is grounds to forego traditional social science and take up sociobiology. (shrink)
In providing an English translation of Heinrich Rickert's Die Grenzen der naturwissenschaftlichen Begriffsbildung: Eine logische Einleitung in die historischen Wissenschaften, Guy Oakes has rendered a valuable service to scholars concerned with neo-Kantian thought or the histories of the philosophy of science and the philosophy of history. In this work Rickert --a student of Wilhelm Windelband, member of the Southwest German school of neo-Kantianism, and sometime colleague of Max Weber--analyzes the natural and historical sciences and defends the propriety and ineliminability of (...) a distinctively historical science. In the course of this effort, Rickert's targets range from Comte to Hegel. While the text may at first appear to have only historical interest, a number of Rickert's arguments will interest the contemporary scholar concerned with the philosophy of history and history's putative distinctiveness vis-à-vis natural science. (shrink)
This article reports the findings from a study that investigates the relationship between ethical climates and police whistle-blowing on five forms of misconduct in the State of Georgia. The results indicate that a friendship or team climate generally explains willingness to blow the whistle, but not the actual frequency of blowing the whistle. Instead, supervisory status, a control variable investigated in previous studies, is the most consistent predictor of both willingness to blow the whistle and frequency of blowing the whistle. (...) Contrary to popular belief, the results also generally indicate that police are more inclined than civilian employees to blow the whistle in Georgia - in other words, they are less inclined to maintain a code of silence. (shrink)
Hao Wang, a prolific philosopher and researcher, was known for his close intellectual friendship with Kurt Gödel, his advocacy for the study of logic at Oxford, and for his path-breaking contributions to logic and automated theorem proving. Yet in a memorial volume published sixteen years after Wang’s passing, the editors Charles Parsons and Montgomery Link noted “rather little has been published on Wang’s considerable body of work or on the man’s personality and unusual personal history.” The goal of this article (...) is to see what light Wang’s logical journey in life sheds on Chinese philosophy and the Western analytic tradition. (shrink)
Organizational justice and injustice are widely noted influences on employees' ethical behavior. Corporate ethics programs alsoraise issues of justice; organizations that fail to "follow-through" on their ethics policies may be perceived as violating employees' expectations of procedural and retributive justice. In this empirical study of four large corporations, we considered employees' perceptions of general organizational justice, and their perceptions of ethics program follow-through, in relation to unethical behavior that harms the organization, and to employees' willingness to help the organization by (...) reporting ethical problems and issues to management. Results show that when employees perceive general organizational justice and ethics program follow-through, there is less unethical behavior and greater willingness to report problems. General justice and ethics program follow-through also interact with each other, showing that the impact of ethics initiatives is influenced by the organizational context. (shrink)
Even if there were widespread cross-cultural agreement on the normative issues of business ethics, corporate ethics management initiatives (e.g., codes of conduct, ethics telephone lines, ethics offices) which are appropriate in one cultural setting still could fail to mesh with the management practices and cultural characteristics of a different setting. By uncritically adopting widely promoted American practices for managing corporate ethics, multinational businesses risk failure in pursuing the ostensible goals of corporate ethics initiatives. Pursuing shared ethical goals by means of (...) culturally inappropriate management practices, in short, can undermine the effectiveness of ethics management efforts. This article explicates how several important dimensions of culture can influence the effectiveness of common ethics initiatives, and recommends the development and application of a culture-structure contingency analysis in the task of encouraging ethical behavior in global businesses. (shrink)
Prior research on ethics codes has suggested, but rarely tested, the effects of code design alternatives on the impact of codes. This study considers whether the presence of explanatory rationales and descriptions of sanctions in ethics codes affects recipients'' responses to a code. Theories of organizational justice and persuasive communication support an expectation that rationales and sanctions will be positively related to code recipients'' recall of code content and perceptions of organizational justice. Content recall is an obvious precondition of code (...) compliance; justice perceptions have multiple implications for the attitudes and actions of organizational members. Results show that explanatory rationales are associated with a statistically significant increase in perceptions of organizational procedural justice, but that rationales and sanctions generally show no relationship to distributive justice perceptions and accurate content recall. These results suggest that common prescriptions regarding ethics code design are of uncertain value apart from further research which unearths the relationships among the intended and perceived purposes of codes, the organizational settings in which they are applied, and a wide variety of code designs. (shrink)
This empirical study of Fortune 1000 firms assesses the degree to which those firms have adopted various practices associated with corporate ethics programs. The study examines the following aspects of formalized corporate ethics activity: ethics-oriented policy statements; formalization of management responsibilities for ethics; free-standing ethics offices; ethics and compliance telephone reporting/advice systems; top management and departmental involvement in ethics activities; usage of ethics training and other ethics awareness activities; investigatory functions; and evaluation of ethics program activities. Results show a high (...) degree of corporate adoption of ethics policies, but wide variability in the extent to which these policies are implemented by various supporting structures and managerial activities. In effect, the vast majority of firms have committed to the low cost, possibly symbolic side of ethics management (e.g., adoption of ethics codes and policies, etc.). But firms differ substantially in their efforts to see that those policies or codes actually are put into practice. (shrink)
This paper delineates the normative and empirical approaches to business ethics based upon five categories: 1) academic horne; 2) language; 3) underlying assumptions; 4) theory purpose and scope; 5) theory grounds and evaluation criteria. The goal of the discussion is to increase understanding of the distinctive contributions of each approach and to encourage further dialogue about the potential for integration of the field.
Previous research has identified multiple approaches to the design and implementation of corporate ethics programs. This field survey in a large financial servicescompany investigated the relationships of the values and compliance orientations in an ethics program to a diverse set of outcomes.Employees’ perceptions that the company ethics program is oriented toward affirming ethical values were associated with seven outcomes. Perceptions of a compliance orientation were associated with four of these outcomes. The interaction of values and compliance orientations was associated with (...) employees’ willingness to report misconduct. In general, a values orientation makes a greater unique contribution to the measured outcomes when compared to a compliance orientation. (shrink)
In an article by Margenau and Cohen various correspondence principles were described in connection with Weyl, Born-Jordan, and symmetrized ordering of quantum mechanical operators. In this article we make an interesting comparison between the aforementioned ordering process and our previous prescriptions.
In a recent “Rejoinder” by Landau,(8) he indicates that there is an error in a previous article of mine. In fact, this was corrected in an immediately subsequent article(2) of mine, and the “intriguing problem” to which Landau refers is solved in this subsequent article. In the present paper, I consolidate these and other ideas on the subject. In particular, I show that by discussing generalized coordinates in quantum mechanics one achieves much new insight, both philosophical and physical, in understanding (...) the transition of classical to quantum mechanics. (shrink)
This review article examines the late agnostic New Testament scholar Maurice Casey’s criticisms of the so-called mythicist position, which argues that Jesus did not exist. Casey’s volume Jesus: Evidence and Argument or Mythicist Myths? is viewed along with Bart Ehrman’s critique of similar ideas in his text Did Jesus Exist? We will highlight important objections raised by these agnostic scholars against those in the mythicist movement, including topics such as various idiosyncrasies leading to historically deficient methods, egregiously latedating the canonical (...) Gospels, claiming inspiration from earlier mystery religions, and positing textual interpolations. (shrink)
The operator form of the generalized canonical momenta in quantum mechanics is derived by a new, instructive method and the uniqueness of the operator form is proven. If one wishes to find the correct representation of the generalized momentum operator, he finds the Hermitian part of the operator —iħ ∂/∂q, whereq q is the generalized coordinate. There are interesting philosophical implications involved in this: It is like saying that a physical structure is composed of two parts, one which is real (...) (the measurable quantity) and one which is pure imaginary. However, in order to understand the theoretical generation of the physical structure, one must look at the imaginary part as well as the real part since the sum of these two parts gives the simplified physical theory. That is why we can choose the total generalized momentum operator as simply —iħ ∂/∂q, but in order to arrive at the “measurable” momentum operator, we must choose the real (Hermitian) part, the other part being anti-Hermitian (corresponding to pure imaginary eigenvalues). We also discuss the operator form of the generalized Hamiltonian and show that the primary focus in developing fundamental concepts and prescriptions in quantum mechanics should be on the generalized momenta rather than on the Hamiltonian. (shrink)
In connection with another article by the author, we show how it might be possible to travel faster than the speed of light. We show that for clocks and rods moving faster than the speed of light, we get instead of “time dilation” and “Lorentz contraction,” respectively, “time contraction” and “Lorentz expansion,” respectively. It is shown that this paper is in confirmation with earlier articles dealing with this subject.
The classical Hamiltonian in generalized coordinates is given asH=1/2 Σ i.k p i g ik p k . We show that there is no operator of the formP i= −iA(qi) (∂/∂qi)+Gi(qi) (note that the Hermitian momentum operatorP i H is of this form) such that the quantum Hamiltonian operatorH Q is given asH Q =1/2 Σ i,k P i g ik P k or1/2 Σ i,k g ik P i P k , etc. In order to maintain a direct transition (...) of this sort from classical to quantum theory, using the classical Hamiltonian as a starting point, we must rely on our previous prescriptions, writing the quantum Hamiltonian asH Q =1/2 Σ i,k P i + g ik P k , whereP i + denotes the adjoint of the operatorP i=−ih ∂/∂qi. (shrink)