Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Rolle, die der Fanatismus in der Philosophie und Psychologie Friedrich Nietzsches spielt. Er wirft die These auf, dass Fanatismus mit Ressentiment und Nihilismus verbunden ist und interpretiert den deutschen Denker in folgendem Sinne: Fanatismus ist der Abwehrmechanismus eines Menschen, der Ressentiment empfindet. Durch ein Einsatz dieses Abwehrmechanismus schützt sich der Mensch vor den Konsequenzen der nicht gut durchgeführten Fälschung der Werte auf den Weg seiner ressentimentalen Umwertung- d. h. vor dem Nihilismus.
Educated historians of philosophy reluctantly expose connections between Western esotericism and the mainstream modern philosophy Esotericism is usually associated with intellectual quackery, which leads many of its followers to heresy and exclusion from the Christian world. However, prominent representatives of the European philosophy sometimes drew their inspiration from esoteric knowledge, e.g. G. Bruno and Spinoza from kabbalah or F. W. J. Schelling from F. C. Oetinger’s theosophy. G. W. F. Hegel was probably aware that the esoteric thought played an essential (...) role in the establishing of the modern scientific method. Therefore, in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy he devoted a separate chapter to J. Boehme, who provided the basis for the modern dialectic in his theosophy. The author of this article makes a comparative analysis between the elected elements of Boehme’s and Hegel’s thought and exposes many structural similarities in their works. At the same time, the author suggests that Boehme’s theory could have been an important source of inspiration for Hegel, especially in the early phase of his intellectual development. (shrink)
Author: Kaśkiewicz Kinga Title: IMMANUEL KANT AND FRIEDRICH SCHILLER ON THE BEAUTY OF HUMAN BODY (Immanuel Kant i Fryderyk Schiller o pięknie ludzkiego ciała) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2005, vol:.5, number: 2005/1, pages: 105-123 Keywords: KANT, SCHILLER, BEAUTY OF HUMAN BODY, KANTIAN AESTHETIC Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:The essay deals with the question of the beauty of the bodily form, the notion of perfection of the human species and its (...) moral expression as well as with other problems connected with this aspect of aesthetic experience. In the XVIII century the problems were undertaken particularly by Friedrich Schiller, who on the grounds of Kantian aesthetics tried to show the difference between the free and dependant beauty, and between the natural beauty and fine arts, which led him to establish the notions of grace and of dignity as the aesthetic expression of human spirit. The essay is based chiefly on the following works: Schiller’s On Grace and Dignity and Critic of Judgment and Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime by Kant. (shrink)
The question of professional ethics is one of outstanding significance today „ the author thinks, linking as it does theoretical moral considerations with constructive social didactic practice. Drawing attention to the recently observable efforts to determine moral obligations for various professional groups, the author discerns three controversial problems, namely, – the problem of the sense and nature of moral didactics, the essence of professional ethics, and, the utility of moral codes.
The subject of this article are two fundamental concepts of Hobbes’ political philosophy: “war of all against all” and political power. The analysis of anthropological basis of Hobbes’ political theory is of crucial importance for these considerations. It shows that the state of nature and the political state create dialectical relationship, not an insurmountable opposition. The further exploration leads to the conclusion that the sovereign power is identical with the rights and brutal actions of the individual living in the state (...) of nature. In other words, political state is merely a continuation of conflicts taking place in the “war of all against all”. In order to conceal this fact Hobbes provides the sovereign power with the ideological effect of objectivity. The power based in sheer violence is masked as Leviathan who exists in the minds of its subject, creating an illusion of a cohesive social order devoid of any antagonisms and, therefore, objective. (shrink)
We investigated teachers' and children's experiences of philosophy with children by analysing the content of interviews with primary school teachers and discussions with groups of primary school pupils. The results show that regular philosophy sessions with children can have an impact on teachers’ view of themselves as educators, their approach to teaching and their personal development. From the children’s point of view, the most important and meaningful aspect, aside from the content of philosophical discussion, was the opportunity to think together (...) in an open-ended way. A key component of the collective construction of meaning was uncertainty, which is an integral feature of philosophical discussion. These findings link with the idea of “citizen as agent” in a variety of ways. Philosophising with children leads to a more collaborative and democratic teaching style, giving children the space to bring their own interests and activities to the discussion. This aligns with pupils’ enjoyment of the openness and uncertainty of philosophical issues, their appreciation of the opportunity to engage with different ideas and viewpoints, and their willingness to rise to the challenge of revising their own positions and changing their thinking. (shrink)
The aim of my paper is to represent Zygmunt Bauman's formulation of personal identity and to present its cultural weight today. Bauman defines a post-modern personal identity as opposed to the modern personal identity. These conceptions of identity express views of man and the world held in two different periods—modernity and postmodernity. In modernity man is perceived as a being who in accordance with his "volitions" and "ideas" creates (and controls) the world and himself. In post-modernity man is seen as (...) a being who in the face of the defeat of the modern project refuses to create himself, in other words refuses to create his personal identity. This paper presents the poor structural integration of personal identity in the context of its creation. The author of this paper perceives philosophical considerations relating to personal identity as parallel to philosophical investigations relating to the nature of truth. (shrink)
The article deals with the moral aspect of war. The writer points out the actual danger of total war and its consequences, as well as the reflection of this danger in social consciousness and in the development of the pacifistic movement. Further he emphasizes the importance of the ethical reflection relating to the phenomenon of war. This reflection has a long tradition and may be found both in philosophic and moral literature and in letters. Nowadays the social-political literature and the (...) military one are especially rich in ethic opinions. This requires not only a further development of the mentioned reflection from definite positions, particularly from the Marxist ones, with regard to the scale and the strength of the socialist anti-war movement, but also analyses relating to the essential contents of the mentioned reflection in the course of history and in the present time. (shrink)
In this work, no denying the role, or even more so, the value of rational thinking, it is assumed that it is not the only effective tool for man to achieve his valuable goals. It is conjectured here that sometimes irrational thinking is an equally good means of achieving them. In the light of these assumptions, the goal of my work is to indicate the benefits that may be the result of irrational thinking in the colloquial domain of everyday human (...) practice. The given examples of irrational thinking come from research in the field of cognitive and social psychology and behavioural economics. Their results prove that irrational behaviours are neither accidental nor senseless, and on the contrary systematic and easy to predict, they constitute important arguments for considering the phenomenon of irrational thinking. I also discuss this issue although only to a limited extent. (shrink)
The paper presents fragments of a Byzantine icon discovered in 2015 during regular archaeological excavations carried out in Chełm, eastern Poland. Iconographic analyses allow the nine surviving fragments to be interpreted as belonging to a diptych wing with the Great Feasts cycle. The icon represents archaic iconography of the subject, with the scene of Transfiguration placed after Entry into Jerusalem and before the Crucifixion. The artefact was created in the second half or at the close of the 12th century, and (...) it was made from steatite, which has been confirmed by petrographic analyses. The icon was discovered in the remains of a palace complex of King Daniel Romanovich, the greatest ruler of the Galicia-Volhynia Lands. The results of the archaeological research allow the terminus ante quem for the icon’s arrival in Chełm to be determined as before the middle of the 13th century. Various possible explanations as to how the icon found its way to Chełm are also explored in the paper. (shrink)