FriedrichAugust von Hayek war ein österreichischer Ökonom und Philosoph. In Wien in eine Familie von Akademikern hineingeboren, studierte Hayek zunächst Rechtswissenschaften an der Universität Wien, zeigte aber auch großes Interesse an Psychologie und Volkswirtschaftslehre. So nahm er regelmäßig an Seminaren von Ludwig von Mises Teil und wurde 1921 in Rechtswissenschaften und 1923 in Staatswissenschaften promoviert.
Friedrich von Hayek’s Unfinished Draft of a Sketch of a Biography of Ludwig Wittgenstein was the first attempt at the task of assembling a comprehensible picture of the life of his pre-eminent cousin, Ludwig Wittgenstein. As the title might suggest, von Hayek never finished this task, his efforts being stymied by both Wittgenstein’s literary executors and Wittgenstein’s sister, Margaret Stonborough. Here, and for the first time, Christian Erbacher presents the first real publication of this draft, with accompanying (...) commentary, and an afterword by Allan Janik. Perhaps the best way to describe Erbacher’s work here is as a ‘biography of a biography’. His introduction to von Hayek’s manuscript details the story behind its creation, beginning with an outline of von Hayek’s own relationship with Wittgenstein, and the parallels between their academic careers. In doing so, Erbacher not only also describes the history of von Hayek’s sketch, but also the history of Wittgenstein-biography as a genre in itself. For what emerges from Erbacher’s extensive work in researching the von Hayek sketch is that, despite never coming to fruition itself, the work that von Hayek put into collecting the materials for writing a biography of Wittgenstein was hugely influential in all future endeavours of chronicling Wittgenstein’s life. (shrink)
Using the arguments of Ludwig von Mises and FriedrichAugust von Hayek, I argue that private ownership solves the economic problem of corruption. Since private ownership discourages entrepreneurs from rent-seeking, and privately owned media provide objective and unbiased information to citizens, any legal reform establishing and enforcement of private ownership also solves the corruption problem.
The theory of cultural evolution proposed by economist FriedrichAugust von Hayek is without doubt the most harshly criticized component in his highly prolific intellectual corpus. Hayek depicted the emergence of the market order as the unintended consequence of an evolutionary process in which groups whose rules of behavior led to a comparative increase in population and wealth were favored over others. Key to Hayek’s theory was the claim that the rules of the market, on (...) which modern civilization relies, evolved at the meta-individual level and therefore surpass human reason. Hayek believed that his theory provided scientific explanation for the superiority of the market order over rational planning. In this article, I conduct a selective comparison between Hayek’s and Darwin’s theories of cultural group selection and analyze the role that demographic growth and reason play in their respective accounts. I first present Hayek’s theory of cultural group selection, its sources of inspiration, and its important place in his intellectual legacy. I then compare Hayek’s claims to Darwin’s views and highlight fundamental differences in their evaluation of the role of reason in moral evolution. Finally, I offer some comments concerning the place assigned to demographic growth in Hayek’s theory and his over-reliance on economics in explaining cultural evolution. (shrink)
Parmi nos « contemporains » majeurs , FriedrichAugust von Hayek a formulé une « vision du monde » qui marque notre temps et qui lui vaut l’admiration ou la détestation résumées dans un terme utilisé souvent mal à propos : « ultralibéralisme ». Avec la « crise du..
F.A. Hayek studied at the University of Vienna, where he became both a Doctor of Law and a Doctor of Political Science. After several years in the Austrian civil service, he was made the first diector of the Austrian Institute for Business Cycle Research. In 1931 he was appointed Tooke Professor of Economics and Statistics at the London School of Economics, and in 1950 he went to the University of Chicago as Professor of Social and Moral Sciences. He returned (...) to Europe in 1962, to the chair of Economics at the University of Freiburg, where he became Professor Emeritus in 1967. The holder of numerous honorary doctorates, and a member of the British Academy, Hayek was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 1974. He was created Companion of Honour in 1984. He is the author of some fifteen books, including _Prices and Production, The Pure Theory of Capital, The Road to Serfdom, The Counter-Revolution of Science, The Sensory Order, The Constitution of Liberty, _ _Law, Legislation and Liberty_, and _The Fatal Conceit_. (shrink)
Basing upon FriedrichAugustHayek's concept of spontaneous orders and upon the elaboration of Karl Raimund Popper's concept of open society carried out by George Soros, and also basing upon author's own former work on the explication of the concepts of self-organization and organization, it is demonstrated that this is the self-organization - a spontaneous, i.e., a natural (without the external ordering reason) formation of structures - that puts the limits to the capability of mind in changing (...) the world. For flourishing the spontaneity, certain general rules must exist. The understanding of the self-organizing and evolving reality where we ourselves belong to is imperfect (i.e., it cannot be neutral or objective or complete) and our activity leads to the results we have not intended. (shrink)
Ayn Rand and Friedrich A. Hayek were two of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century in the effort to turn the current of opinion away from collectivism and toward what could be called classical liberalism or libertarianism. The purpose of this pedagogical article is to explain, describe, and compare the essential ideas of these great advocates of liberty in language that permits generally educated readers to understand, recognize, and appreciate their significance. It that sense, it hopes (...) to make the the ideas of Rand and Hayek accessible to a wide range of readers through the use of clear explanations. To aid in this endeavor, the article concludes with the presentation and discussion of a table that summarizes and compares their ideas on a variety of problems in and dimensions of philosophy and social science. The target audience of this essay includes educated laypeople and college students, many of whom may decide to read and study the original works of these prominent theorists of a free society after being exposed to their essential ideas. (shrink)
In spite of the important discoveries made by Adam Smith and later by the economists of the Austrian School, FriedrichHayek remained intellectually challenged by the miracle of the price mechanism. As it turned out there was still some pioneering to do in describing the price mechanism. This became clear when Hayek identified the dispersal of information relevant to exchange transactions as the central issue of economic study. In the context of his distinction between competition as a (...) state of things and as a process the price mechanism manifests itself as a powerful integrator of information which is at first sight hopelessly dispersed in modern society. In 1945 he pointed out another intellectual challenge which the miracle of the price mechanism poses: How could such a marvelous functionality come into existence? “I am convinced that if it [the price mechanism] were the result of deliberate human design, and if the people guided by the price changes understood that their decisions have significance far beyond their immediate aim, this mechanism would have been acclaimed as one of the greatest triumphs of the human mind”. It is precisely because the free determination of prices is obviously not an invention, and because actors on the market in general do not realize that their decisions are at once also signals for the information-processing system that the market is, that in general this market order is not highly estimated. The market order is nevertheless the best illustration of the dual principle that the most beautiful forms of complex functionality are not deliberately created and are not deliberately maintained. (shrink)
La comparación entre el pensamiento político de dos grandes liberales, Judith N. Shklar y Friedrich A. Hayek, además de constituir una empresa intelectual sumamente estimulante, resulta muy útil para comprender la evolución del pensamiento político liberal en el siglo XX. Shklar, cuyo reconocimiento internacional está creciendo sin cesar en los últimos años, escribe que el liberalismo se hace contra el totalitarismo como doctrina política que pone por encima de cualquier otro valor la libertad, principio también fundamental en la (...) obra de F. A. Hayek. Por eso, a pesar de que la profesora de Harvard pensaba que su liberalismo era muy diferente al del economista vienés creemos, sin embargo, que existen más semejanzas de las que se podrían deducir a primera vista. Entre otras cosas porque ambos pensadores experimentaron la fragilidad de la libertad y de la democracia en la época que les tocó vivir y decidieron dedicar su trabajo intelectual a estudiar las condiciones en las que se preserva la libertad personal. En ese sentido, en un mundo en el que la democracia liberal sufre de nuevo duros embates, su obra es también de gran actualidad. (shrink)
: This article discusses the parallels between Friedrich von Hayek and Bruno Leoni’s criticisms of democracy. Both men were leading protagonists of the classical liberal tradition. The thesis contained of this paper is that Hayek, although critical of democratic systems that do not reconcile liberty and equality, still believed in the democratic principle and tried ….
This book poses the question: How can we organize society in such a way that our disagreement about facts and norms works to the benefit of everyone? In response, it makes the argument for polycentric democracy, a political arrangement consisting of various political units that enjoy different degrees of independence. It is argued that to progress towards justice, we first need to change our attitude towards reasonable disagreement. Theorists have always viewed reasonable disagreement as nuisance, if not as a threat. (...) However, this work puts forward that the diversity of perspectives which underlie reasonable disagreement should be viewed as a resource to be harvested rather than a threat to be tamed. Resting on two key arguments, the author proposes the idea of polycentric democracy as the most capable method of making pluralism productive. The book explores what such a political order might look like and concludes that only an institutional system which is capable of profiting from diversity, such as polycentric democracy, might reasonably be expected to generate an overlapping consensus. Continuing in the tradition of Karl Popper and FriedrichAugust von Hayek, this book lies at the intersection of philosophy, political economy and political theory. It will be of great interest to academics and scholars working in philosophy, politics and economics. (shrink)
In this insightful study, Barbara M. Rowland analyses and critiques FriedrichHayek's political philosophy. Beginning with a discussion of Hayek's sceptical epistemology and critical rationalism, the author explores his view of the evolution of civilization, his pessimism about human agency and an accompanying faith in the forces of cultural evolution. She goes on to offer a detailed examination of the inconsistencies in Hayek's philosophy with regard to individual liberty. She then argues for an expanded understanding of (...) liberty and suggests new directions for a philosophy of individual liberty. (shrink)
This article argues that Hayek's Road to Serfdom should be read in the light of his contemporaneous studies in the history of European social and political thought, and traces the affinities between his and Halévy's work on the history of socialism. Both saw Saint-Simonism rather than Marxism as embodying the essence of socialism, and both saw the cult of `organization', rather than the idea of class conflict, as its most characteristic feature. It is tentatively suggested that Halévy's writings exercised (...) a significant influence on the formulation of Hayek's most famous work. (shrink)
Bruce Caldwell has disputed a number of points in my earlier account of the development of the Austrian school of economics from Carl Menger to Ludwig von Mises and F.A. Hayek. The issues in contention regard Friedrich von Wiesers intellectual affiliation with Hayek and his influence on the formation of Hayeks economic thought; Wiesers status as a general equilibrium theorist; and the reason for Hayeks early flirtation with general equilibrium theory. In this article I argue (...) that Hayek was a self-conscious adherent of the Wieserian tradition and remained so even after he received the Nobel Prize in 1974 and that he distinguished between this tradition and the Böhm-Bawerkian tradition followed by Ludwig von Mises. I also contend that Wieser used the construction of a general equilibrium economy subject to a single will as both a normative benchmark by which to appraise the performance of the real-world market economy and as an analytical tool to explain the formation of market prices. Finally, I argue that Hayek concerned himself with the problems of the Wieser-type general equilibrium economy beginning with his earliest writings as a professional economist, years before he began to focus on the theoretical problems of money and the business cycle.Bruce Caldwell a discuté un certain nombre de points de mon article récent sur le développement de lécole autrichienne déconomie de Carl Menger en passant par Ludwig von Mises et F.A. Hayek. Les controverses concernant laffiliation intellectuelle de Hayek vis-à-vis de Friedrich von Wieser et linfluence de ce dernier sur la pensée économique de Hayek, le statut de Wieser en tant que théoricien de léquilibre général, et les raisons pour lesquelles le jeune Hayek flirta avec la théorie de léquilibre général.Dans cet article je défends la thèse selon laquelle Hayek était conscient du fait quil sinscrivait dans la tradition Wieserienne et quil létait toujours même après sa réception du prix Nobel en 1974 et quand il fît la distinction entre cette tradition et la tradition inaugurée par Böhm-Bawerk et poursuivie par Mises. Larticle affirme aussi que Wieser utilisa la construction dune économie en équilibre général sujette à une volonté unique à la fois comme standard normatif pour évaluer les performances des marchés dans le monde réel et comme outil analytique pour expliquer la formation des prix marchands. Enfin, larticle argumente que Hayek sintéressa aux problèmes relevant dune économie en équilibre général à la Wieser dans ses premiers écrits en tant quéconomiste et cela bien avant quil ne se concentrât sur les problèmes théoriques de la monnaie et du cycle des affaires. (shrink)
En la discusión actual sobre la tolerancia, la teoría política liberal predominante sigue muy ligada a los argumentos que ya se esgrimieron en el pasado en la discusión sobre la tolerancia religiosa. Como el desarrollo de la misma fue una de las raíces del liberalismo, muchos autores liberales asumen que la separación Iglesia/Estado proporciona el paradigma para abordar hoy otro tipo de diferencias. De hecho, eso es lo que ocurre en Liberalismo Político de J. Rawls en el que encontramos semejanzas (...) interesantes con el pensamiento de F. A. Hayek, lo que apoyaría la tesis de que Rawls acabó justificando la tolerancia sobre premisas típicas del liberalismo clásico, probablemente porque el liberalismo no está equipado intelectualmente para defender otro tipo de tolerancia. (shrink)
A keen student of theology, AugustFriedrich Gfrörer became professor of history at the University of Freiburg and also sat as a representative in the Frankfurt parliament, agitating for the reunification of Protestantism and Catholicism. His academic work marked the modern period in the Christian study of Judaism, making full use of primary sources without pursuing an obvious apologetic or polemical agenda. This two-volume work, published in 1831, is a critical study of early Christianity and the influence that (...) Judaism had on the New Testament. Volume 1 provides a thorough exposition of Philo of Alexandria's philosophy and theology. Gfrörer also offers a biographical sketch of Philo and gives an informative overview of his writings and his time. (shrink)