El presente artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir en la discusión sobre el incremento del complejo y multifacético fenómeno de recampesinización que acontece en la actual etapa de desarrollo capitalista, analizando uno de sus aspectos menos conocidos que está relacionado al movimiento denominado como “contraculturas espaciales”. Las contraculturas espaciales son experimentos de organización socio-espacial de carácter “alternativo” que se popularizaron principalmente en la década de 1960. A partir de los años 1990, acompañando un nuevo periodo de crisis del capitalismo, se evidencia (...) la renovación y el fortalecimiento de dicho movimiento, con el surgimiento de nuevas experiencias de este tipo, muchas de las cuales están inspiradas por la permacultura, concepto que se refiere al diseño de asentamientos humanos sustentables. Basándose en dos casos, uno en Argentina y otra en Cuba, se discutirá de qué maneras la permacultura puede estar promoviendo, en la actualidad, el surgimiento de “nuevos campesinos”. (shrink)
We present an experiment designed to investigate three different mechanisms to achieve impartiality in distributive justice. We consider a first-person procedure, inspired by the Rawlsian veil of ignorance, and two third-party procedures, an involved spectator and a detached observer. First-person veiled stakeholders and involved spectators are affected by an initially unfair distribution that, in the stakeholders’ case, is to be redressed. We find substantial differences in the redressing task. Detached observers propose significantly fairer redistributions than veiled stakeholders or involved spectators. (...) Risk preferences partly explain why veiled stakeholders propose less egalitarian redistributions. Surprisingly, involved spectators, who are informed about their position in society, tend to favour stakeholders holding the same position as they do after the initial distribution. (shrink)
Why should sovereign states obey international law? What compels them to owe allegiance to a higher set of rules when each country is its own law of the land? What is the basis of their obligations to each other? Conventional wisdom suggests that countries are too different from one another culturally to follow laws out of mere loyalty to each other or a set of shared moral values. Surely, the prevailing view holds, countries act simply out of self-interest, and they (...) eventually consent to norms of international law to regulate matters of common interest.In this groundbreaking book, Fernando Tesón goes against this prevailing thought by arguing, in the Kantian tradition, that a shared respect for individual human rights underpins not just the obligation countries feel to follow international law but also international laws themselves and even the very legitimacy of nations in the eyes of the international community. Tesón, both a lawyer and a philosopher, proposes that an overlapping respect for human rights has created a moral common ground among the countries of the world; and moreover, that such an outlook is the only one that is rationally defensible. It is this common set of values rather than self-interest that ultimately provides legitimacy to international law. Using the tools of moral philosophy, Tesón analyzes the concepts of sovereignty, intervention, and national interest; the contributions of social contact theory, game theory, and feminist theory; and the puzzles of self-determination and group rights.More than simply outlining his theory, Tesón goes on to give detailed examples of international laws, international institutions, and their human rights foundations, putting his ideas to work and addressing legal reforms called for by the theory. He suggests that treaties, for example, should be considered binding if, and only if, the consent to the treaty was given by a genuinely representative government, one that acts out of interest for the human rights of its citizens. Although the theoretical achievement of this book is to challenge received wisdom on the foundation of international law, the practical ambition is a call to reform the international legal system for the post–Cold War era, to substitute for the old order one that gives primacy to human dignity and freedom over state power. (shrink)
Origens : Alex Atala, Fernando e Humberto Campana -- Presente : Fernando e Humberto Campana e Jum Nakao -- Intermezzo : convívio : Jam Nakao e colaboradores -- Destinos : Alex Atala e Jum Nakao -- Entrevistas -- Um pouco de história.
Scholars have debated the meaning of the foreign-relations clauses in the U.S. Constitution. This essay attempts to outline the foreign-relations clauses that an ideal constitution should have. A liberal constitution must enable the government to implement a morally defensible foreign policy. The first priority is the defense of liberty. The constitution must allow the government to effectively defend persons, territory, and liberal institutions themselves. The liberal government should also contribute to the advancement of global freedom, subject to a number of (...) conditions, especially cost. The essay recommends improved methods to incorporate treaties and customary international law into the constitutional structure. Treaties should be approved by the whole legislature and should generally be self-executing. Customary law should be genuine, not fake, and consistent with liberal principles. Finally, based on economic theory and evidence, the essay recommends that liberal constitutions prohibit the government from erecting trade barriers. It concludes by tentatively proposing concrete constitutional language to implement these recommendations. (shrink)
O ponto central deste artigo é explicar como as emoções desempenham um papel fundamental no comportamento moral dos mamíferos sociais. Entendida como um fenômeno natural, a moralidade é caracterizada como um sistema de exigências recíprocas, em que os lobos estão envolvidos desde o nascimento, e o vínculo emocional entre os membros da matilha desempenha um papel fundamental. O argumento é empiricamente informado para apresentar uma possível relação entre emoções e instintos sociais com relação à aptidão dos lobos para comportamentos sociais (...) moralmente qualificados, com base na existência de um sistema social complexo dentro da alcateia. O artigo relaciona pesquisas cognitivas sobre emoções e sistemas psicobiológicos a estudos contemporâneos em etologia de lobos para apoiar, empiricamente, a tese filosófica de que emoções surgem em resposta a uma série de eventos socialmente significativos. Assim, o objetivo é elucidar a natureza das demandas emocionais inerentes à moralidade, bem como sua relação com as características naturais que permitiram aos lobos desenvolver uma vida social complexa. Nesse sentido, o artigo pretende apresentar os elementos necessários para o surgimento de um fenômeno moral inerente aos mamíferos com vida social complexa, o que parece ser um forte argumento a favor de uma teoria que explique a moralidade em bases evolutivas. Palavras-chave: Moral. Emoções. Lobos. Emotivismo. Etologia. (shrink)
In this paper, I assess whether indexical attitudes, e.g. beliefs and desires, have any special properties or present any special challenge to theories of propositional attitudes. I being by investigating the claim that allegedly problematic indexical cases are just instances of the familiar phenomenon of referential opacity. Regardless of endorsing that claim, I provide an argument to the effect that indexical attitudes do have a special property. My argument relies on the fact that one cannot account for what is it (...) to share someone else’s indexical attitudes without rejecting some plausible thesis about propositional attitudes. In the end, I assess Herman Cappelen and Josh Dever’s considerations on intentional action and extract an argument from them that could – if successful – neutralize my own. I finish by arguing that their argument has an important flaw, thus failing to convince us that indexical attitudes are just as ordinary as any other. (shrink)
The Brazilian imaginary, impregnated by an ambiguous relationship between the forces of "good" and "evil", caused some Pentecostal churches that spread here to seek this ambiguity in order to attract believers. Emphasizing the spiritual dispute in the form of a "war" in his speeches, Pentecostalism was able to organize the Brazilian religious imaginary, finding in some portions of society the resonance of its message. This systematization of the religious imaginary, which finds in the "Spiritual War" the way of manifesting itself (...) in the Pentecostal milieu, also brings with it important elements of the cultural-religious milieu. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the repercussion of the adaptation of the Brazilian religious imaginary within what is called the "war against the demons" in the Universal Church Of the Kingdom of God. Pentecostal discourse has adapted to a reality where inequality and social ills are transformed by the "Spiritual Battle" into primary causes of the suffering that affects individuals and prevents them from prospering. (shrink)
This book explores philosophical themes to do with self and subjectivity from the work of the Portuguese writer Fernando Pessoa, best known for the uncategorizable collection of fragmentary writings, published as The Book of Disquiet in 1982, forty-seven years after the author's death.
For centuries pilgrimages are present in Christianity. For Catholics, the importance of devotions and visits to the Marian sanctuaries is indisputable. The number of visitors and pilgrims to these temples make the local economy an important destination of religious tourism. In order to understand the economic determinants of religious tourism, two sanctuaries were studied, namely, Aparecida and Fatima. Given the large collection of statistical information of the Portuguese Sanctuary, it was verified through the Vector Autoregressive model that Gross Domestic Product (...) and Unemployment have a causal unidirectional relation with the pilgrimages. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag model revealed that an increase in Gross Domestic Product and international arrivals in the short term positively impacts the number of pilgrims. Through the Ordinary Least Squares regression, significant statistical relationships between climatic factors and visitors in the Sanctuary of Fatima were found. The Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average forecast method was applied to the number of monthly visitors to the Sanctuary of Aparecida and to the number of pilgrims in the Sanctuary of Fatima, the results show a strong seasonality and that the first and last months of the year are periods of low demand. The results of this study allow a new look at religious tourism in the Marian context, the empirical results allow those responsible for establishing public policies, tourism agents and the administration of the Sanctuaries to direct their actions. Measures planned and executed jointly between the various agents can benefit residents, visitors, pilgrims, the tourism sector, the local economy and the Sanctuaries themselves. (shrink)
This is a critical notice of Mario Gómez-Torrente's novel account of demonstrative reference presented in chapter 2 of the recently published book Roads to Reference. After presenting the main tenets of his view, I go on to critically examine a couple of its features. In section 2, I assess Gómez-Torrente’s assumption that demonstrative thought based on perception is less likely to succumb to indeterminacy than the others. I show that this aspect of his view invites unwelcome consequences regarding the transparency (...) of thought. I do however suggest that this problem could be overcome by individuating perceptual intentions dynamically. In section 3, I express a distinct worry regarding a case, introduced en passant by Gómez-Torrente, that involves successful demonstrative reference regardless of its utterer's conflicting intentions, a result that seems to contradict his general theory. Instead of conceiving the case as exceptional, I use it to motivate the necessity of distinguishing between a subject’s referential intentions and a subject’s merely collateral beliefs about the target of his utterance. (shrink)
For thousands of years, people have used nature to justify their political, moral, and social judgments. Such appeals to the moral authority of nature are still very much with us today, as heated debates over genetically modified organisms and human cloning testify. The Moral Authority of Nature offers a wide-ranging account of how people have used nature to think about what counts as good, beautiful, just, or valuable. The eighteen essays cover a diverse array of topics, including the connection of (...) cosmic and human orders in ancient Greece, medieval notions of sexual disorder, early modern contexts for categorizing individuals and judging acts as "against nature," race and the origin of humans, ecological economics, and radical feminism. The essays also range widely in time and place, from archaic Greece to early twentieth-century China, medieval Europe to contemporary America. Scholars from a wide variety of fields will welcome The Moral Authority of Nature, which provides the first sustained historical survey of its topic. Contributors: Danielle Allen, Joan Cadden, Lorraine Daston, Fa-ti Fan, Eckhardt Fuchs, Valentin Groebner, Abigail J. Lustig, Gregg Mitman, Michelle Murphy, Katharine Park, Matt Price, Robert N. Proctor, Helmut Puff, Robert J. Richards, Londa Schiebinger, Laura Slatkin, Julia Adeney Thomas, Fernando Vidal. (shrink)
La oposición a Hegel mediante la cual con frecuencia la tradición presenta la filosofía schopenhaueriana se ha interpretado en ocasiones como una relación de dependencia, en la medida en que aquella habría surgido como una cierta reacción frente a la de Hegel. El artículo muestra que los documentos disponibles acerca de los comienzos de la relación de Schopenhauer con Hegel hacen insostenible tal supuesto, además de ofrecer un marco y diversas claves para comprender su posterior polémica con el hegelianismo.
Resumo Este artigo defende o ponto de vista de que as bases da ciência cognitiva contemporânea estão em sintonia com o pensamento de Merleau-Ponty, em seus aspectos antiobjetivista e antirrepresentacionalista. A ideia de representação mental é contestada, tanto na CC quanto no pensamento de Merleau-Ponty. A cognição não espelha um mundo exterior independente dos sujeitos incorporados. O mundo é um existencial, como afirmam Merleau-Ponty e a CC. A hipótese da representação mental supõe que o mundo pode ser percebido de forma (...) independente do sujeito que percebe. Isso não é verdade. A percepção depende da forma como o sujeito age em seu mundo percebido. Todas as estimulações que o organismo encontra só são possíveis pelos seus movimentos precedentes que resultam na exposição do órgão receptor às influências externas. Os estímulos sensoriais que o organismo encontra dependem diretamente do seu comportamento motor e a forma como o organismo se move depende diretamente das consequências sensoriais dos seus comportamentos anteriores.This article defends the view that the foundations of contemporary cognitive science are in tune with Merleau-Ponty’s thinking in its anti-objectivist and anti-representationalist aspects. The idea of mental representation is contested both in CC and in Merleau-Ponty’s thinking. Cognition does not mirror an outside world independent of embodied subjects. The world is an existential one as Merleau-Ponty and the CC say. The mental representation hypothesis assumes that the world can be perceived independently of the perceiving subject. This is not true. Perception depends on how the subject acts in his perceived world. All the stimulations that the organism finds are only possible by its previous movements that result in the exposure of the receiving organ to external influences. The sensory stimuli that the organism finds depend directly on its motor behavior and the way the organism moves depends directly on the sensory consequences of its previous behaviors. (shrink)
Resenha: STERN, Fábio Leandro. A Naturologia no Brasil: histórico, contexto, perfil e definições. São Paulo: Entre Lugares, 2017. 447p. ISBN 978-89-7326-343-1 A editora Entre Lugares estreou em 2017 com uma obra de qualidade exemplar: trata-se do livro A Naturologia no Brasil: histórico, contexto, perfil e definições. Seu autor, Fábio Stern, além de graduado na área que é o objeto de seu estudo, usou com maestria instrumentos da outra área em que está se formando em todos os níveis, a Ciência da (...) Religião, ou, como o próprio autor prefere, Ciência das Religiões. (shrink)
A teoria da justiça proposta por John Rawls investiga a estrutura básica da sociedade, tendo como base a justiça política, a justiça pública e a justiça distributiva. Rawls propõe uma teoria que representa uma alternativa ao utilitarismo, pois para o autor os direitos não deverão estar sujeitos à negociações políticas ou sujeitos ao cálculo de interesses sociais. É através do contrato social que Rawls busca apresentar a relação entre justiça, equidade e liberalismo político.: The theory of justice proposed by John (...) Rawls investigates the basic structure of society, based on political justice, public justice and distributive justice. Rawls proposed a theory that is an alternative to utilitarianism, in which rights should not be subject to political negotiations or subject to calculation of social interests. It is through the social contract that Rawls seeks to present the relationship between justice, equity and political liberalism. Keywords : Rawls, liberty, equality, reasonable pluralism, comprehensive doctrines. (shrink)
It seems plausible that successfully communicating with our peers requires entertaining the same thoughts as they do. We argue that this view is incompatible with other, independently plausible principles of thought individuation. Our argument is based on a puzzle inspired by the Kripkean story of Peter and Paderewski: having developed several variations of the original story, we conclude that understanding and communication cannot be modeled as a process of thought transfer between speaker and hearer. While we are not the first (...) to reach this conclusion, the significance of our argument lies in the fact that it only relies on widely accepted premises, without depending on any especially controversial theory of mental and linguistic content. We conclude by drawing out the implications of that conclusion: if communication and understanding do not require thought identity, then one important motivation for the postulation of inter-personally shared thoughts is undercut. (shrink)
Nosso objetivo é tomar o pensamento de Schopenhauer como estudo de caso e ponto de partida para discutir em que medida o “pessimismo” pode ser fundamentado e reinterpretado segundo “razões objetivas”, conceitualmente filosóficas. Para intérpretes como Christopher Janaway e Frederick Beiser, a legitimidade filosófica do pessimismo schopenhaueriano, atribuído à tese de que a vida é um negócio que não cobre os custos do investimento, é garantida pelas implicações inferidas da metafísica da Vontade. Por outro lado, Kuno Fischer, acompanhado dentre outros (...) por Bryan Magee, reinterpreta tal pessimismo a partir de “razões subjetivas”, pautadas em certas disposições de espírito ou preferências, como a relação conflituosa de Schopenhauer com sua mãe, por exemplo. A dificuldade em determinar mais precisamente a fundamentação do pessimismo de Schopenhauer redobra se considerarmos estudos que seguem uma tendência oposta e classificam esse autor como um “otimista”; Heinz Gerd Ingenkamp pode ser apontado como representante dessa vertente interpretativa. Se tal dificuldade se deve, como supomos a princípio, ao inevitável anacronismo que permeia a maior parte das discussões sobre o suposto pessimismo de Schopenhauer acerca do valor da existência, propomos minimizá-lo mediante um procedimento exegético que indicamos aqui ainda em linhas gerais. (shrink)
This article intends to analyze the relations between Nietzsche’s concept of herd animal and Arendt’s concept of mass man. It will be highlighted the parallels between both philosophers concepts in an attempt to answer why Arendt doesn’t mention Nietzsche regarding this specific subject.
Group polarization—roughly, the tendency of groups to incline towards more extreme positions than initially held by their individual members— has been rigorously studied by social psychol- ogists, though in a way that has overlooked important philosophical questions about this phenomenon which remain unexplored. Two such salient questions are metaphysical and epistemological, respectively. From a metaphysical point of view, can group polarization, understood as an epistemic feature of a group, be reduced to epistemic features of its individual members? Relatedly, from an (...) epistemological point of view, is group polarization best understood as a kind of cognitive bias or rather in terms of intellectual vice? This book taxonomizes this possibility space by comparing four models which combine potential answers to the metaphysical and epistemological questions. The models we consider are: group polarization as a collective bias, a summation of individual epistemic vices; a summation of individual biases; and a collective epistemic vice. We defend a collective vice model of group polarization over the competing alternatives. (shrink)
For thousands of years, people have used nature to justify their political, moral, and social judgments. Such appeals to the moral authority of nature are still very much with us today, as heated debates over genetically modified organisms and human cloning testify. _The Moral Authority of Nature_ offers a wide-ranging account of how people have used nature to think about what counts as good, beautiful, just, or valuable. The eighteen essays cover a diverse array of topics, including the connection of (...) cosmic and human orders in ancient Greece, medieval notions of sexual disorder, early modern contexts for categorizing individuals and judging acts as "against nature," race and the origin of humans, ecological economics, and radical feminism. The essays also range widely in time and place, from archaic Greece to early twentieth-century China, medieval Europe to contemporary America. Scholars from a wide variety of fields will welcome _The Moral Authority of Nature_, which provides the first sustained historical survey of its topic. Contributors: Danielle Allen, Joan Cadden, Lorraine Daston, Fa-ti Fan, Eckhardt Fuchs, Valentin Groebner, Abigail J. Lustig, Gregg Mitman, Michelle Murphy, Katharine Park, Matt Price, Robert N. Proctor, Helmut Puff, Robert J. Richards, Londa Schiebinger, Laura Slatkin, Julia Adeney Thomas, Fernando Vidal. (shrink)
Resumo: Esse ensaio buscará sondar as relações entre filosofia e literatura, no pensamento de Gilles Deleuze, a despeito de sua parceria conjunta com Félix Guattari, atentando tanto para as concepções de escrita expressas ao longo de sua obra quanto para o modo como essas concepções teriam influenciado o estilo de seus escritos filosóficos. Partindo da premissa deleuziana de que a escrita possui um acentuado lastro clínico, sendo a responsável pela elaboração de um diagnóstico das forças capazes de aprisionar ou calar (...) a vida, procurar-se-á esmiuçar as ressonâncias desse lastro clínico, na concepção de filosofia como ato criativo, elaborada pelo autor. Como hipótese a ser aqui trabalhada, defende-se que a escrita deleuziana - compreendida como portadora de uma literalidade, conforme sustenta François Zourabchivili, ou como encrustada de uma poética imanentista, tal qual sugere Anita Costa Malufe - procuraria produzir uma zona de vizinhança ou indiscernibilidade entre a escrita filosófica, de caráter mais exegético, e a escrita literária, mais afectiva, de modo a produzir um deslocamento na relação do leitor com o ato de pensar.: In this essay we pretend to study the relationship between philosophy and literature in Gilles Deleuze’s thought, despite of his partnership with Félix Guattari, mapping the conceptions of writing throughout his work and considering the influence of these conceptions to forge a certain style in his philosophical texts. Starting from the deleuzian premise that writing has a strong clinical backing - being responsible for the elaboration of a diagnosis of the forces liable to imprison or silence life -, we will examine the resonances of this clinical backing in his conception of philosophy as a creative act. Our hypothesis is that the deleuzian writing - having a certain literality, as François Zourabchivili argues, or encrusted with an immanentism poetics, as Anita Costa Malufe suggests - would produce a so-called neighborhood zone or zone of indiscernibility between philosophical writing, with a more exegetical character, and literary writing, which is more affective, in order to produce a shift in the reader’s relationship with the act of thinking. (shrink)
Este artigo analisa, aproximando as áreas da Literatura e da Filosofia, a Moral e a Ética sob a perspectiva do filósofo grego Epicuro, na obra italiana _Così parlò Bellavista: Napoli, amore e libertà_, de Luciano de Crescenzo, publicada em 1977. Apesar das ideias de Epicuro terem sido concebidas há séculos do personagem professor de filosofia Gennaro Bellavista, este acredita que os napolitanos se comportam conforme os ensinamentos do mestre grego: pela via do prazer e pela negação das dores físicas e (...) das atribulações mentais. Ainda que a análise de Bellavista seja pautada em Epicuro, o professor acrescenta suas próprias reflexões sobre a vida em Nápoles, contextualizando a filosofia epicurista para esse povo. A partir deste contexto, busca-se analisar também, com base na antinomia utilizada no pensamento filosófico _apolíneo-dionisíaco_, por trechos do romance e pela análise de uma anedota, intitulada “Geraldinho, o kamikaze”, presente no livro estudado, como os napolitanos podem ser observados por esse viés. Observa-se que os napolitanos, pensados pelo professor Bellavista, seguem um comportamento epicurista-napolitano: ética e moral são pautadas nas características do dionisíaco, isto é, preferência pela desordem, desprezo pelas leis e desfrute dos prazeres primários, segundo a classificação dos prazeres de Epicuro. (shrink)
This book, by one of Spain's most eminent philosophers, provides a lively and very accessible introduction to philosophy. Written for those who have no prior knowledge of the field, it reveals how the central problems of philosophy remain highly relevant to everyday contemporary life. Savater addresses the questions that we ourselves must face: what is this 'I' that I take for granted? What does it mean for me to be in the world? In what sense am I free? And how (...) does the idea of death affect my life? In his discussion of concepts such as beauty, time and language, Savater frequently refers to earlier philosophers, yet he does so in a way that brings their ideas to life and shows their enduring relevance. Using quotations from the ancient Greeks through to more recent philosophers such as Wittgenstein and Sartre, Savater illustrates his own arguments, while also sketching a basic history of philosophical ideas. The Questions of Life has already been translated into ten languages and has enjoyed enormous success, selling over 70 000 copies in Spain alone. It is an elegant and straightforward book that abstains from specialised terminology. It constitutes an ideal introductory text for those studying philosophy at A-Level or university, and will also be of great interest to the general reader. (shrink)
Analysis of all the Legal and Moral Issues Surrounding Humanitarian Intervention · The deaths of innocent persons & the Doctrine of Double Effect Governmental legitimacy: The Doctrine of Effective Political Control · UN Charter & evaluation of the Nicaragua ruling · The Morality of not intervening · US-led invasion of Iraq · Humanitarian intervention authorized by the UN Security Council: Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, Rwanda, and Bosnia among highlightsNATO's intervention in Kosovo · The Nicaragua Decision · The precedents of Panama, Liberia (...) & Sierra Leone Features · New framework based on the doctrine of double effect · Basic principles of international ethics · Outline of the moral argument for humanitarian intervention · Explores the morality and legality of military action to end tyranny or anarchy · Arguments in a much more detailed and complete fashion than in previous editions · In-depth examination of philosophy of international law · The relationship between custom & moral theory · New discussion of the question of right authority · Full analysis of recent interventions in Kosovo and Iraq Passionate, lucid, and controversial, this new edition of Tesón's classic book addresses a broad interdisciplinary audience of international lawyers, philosophers, and political scientists. In this new edition the author responds to critics while updating the discussion in the light of the momentous events that took place at the beginning of the new millenium. (shrink)