Zhou Dunyi Zhou Dunyi has long been highly esteemed by Chinese thinkers. He is considered one of the first “Neo-Confucians,” a group of thinkers who draw heavily on Buddhist and Daoist metaphysics to articulate a comprehensive, Confucian religious … Continue reading Dunyi, Zhou →.
The rise of global civil society as a new discourse in the last century, in the new century has been of concern. Western academic circles around the concept of global civil society, global civil society and the emergence and development of global civil society influence on the political realities and trends and other issues had extensive discussions and the formation of a different theoretical framework and research camp. While the Western world made a series of civil society, research results, but (...) still insufficient to demonstrate the normative study, mainly confined to the liberal democratic framework of the inadequacies of the middle. China scholars have been from international relations, political science and political philosophy point of view about global civil society, but in general, the power of research in this area is still relatively weak, insufficient results, further research needs to be made. As a word rising from the late of last century, Global Civil Society is very attractable in the early new century. Western academy has initiated abroad discussion on the concept of GCS, the process of its formation and development, its impact on political realities and its future. In the discussion, theory analysis frames and theory camps have already come into being. Though a great achievements have been gotten, there are still some deficiencies lie in the Western studies, such as lacking of normative studies and main studies are limited in the frames of liberal democracy. In China some scholars have studied about GCS from the views of international relationship, political science and political philosophy. But as a whole, research force in the realm is still weak and the fruits are insufficient, deep discussion is needed. (shrink)
Zhou Fohai helped found the Chinese Communist Party but left the party in 1924 and aligned himself with the Guomindang . He then became one of the GMD's leading theoretical writers and was the editor of the monthly Xin shengming. Zhou had earlier contributed to Xin qingnian, and, in an article published in 1922, voiced the opinion that freedom of speech and association should not be given to the bourgeoisie since they then could use these freedoms to thwart (...) the revolution. Although Zhou in 1922 was a supporter of the CCP, and by 1928, when the article excerpted here was published, a theoretician of the GMD, his opinion on the need to restrict certain people's rights and freedoms did not change. Zhou argued against the idea of natural rights because it implied that all people, by virtue of their being human, would enjoy rights. The idea of "revolutionary people's rights" as advocated by the GMD, on the other hand, ensured that only those loyal to the revolution could exercise political rights. (shrink)
Generally believed that "theory of continuing revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat" is a "Cultural Revolution" guiding ideology, which in ten years the "Cultural Revolution" period has been widely publicized, has written to the Chinese Communists "nine", "Top Ten", "Eleventh large "by the political report and constitution, but also to write the fourth and fifth National People's Congress meeting adopted constitutional changes, the impact is huge. When it was proposed that "the history of Marxism has set a third great (...) milestone," and after more than ten years later, "since the founding of the party on a number of resolutions on the question of history" has made it a completely different assessment that It is the "leftist" errors and this should be "resolutely corrected." In this paper, the editorial "October Socialist Revolution opened up along the path," CPC "nine", Hua Guofeng, the Third Plenum and "since the founding of the party on a number of resolutions on the question of history," as the coordinates of the tracking the fate of its history and study. q "The Theory on Continuing the Revolution under the Leadership of Proletarians" is commonly regarded as the guiding ideology of the Cultural Revolution. Widely publicized during the decade-long Cultural Revolution, it has been incorporated into the Chinese Communist Party's constitution and the People's Republic of China's constitution for numerous times and has exerted a great influence on the state. By the time it was initially proposed in 1967, it was regarded as' the third landmark in the history of Marxism. But it was subject to a completely different fate more than ten years later as it was labeled "pinko" and was required to he "corrected" in Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China. This paper aims to conduct an investigation of the historical fate of "the Theory on Continuing the Revolution under the Dictatorship of Proletarians" with reference to the following texts: Go Ahead Along the Way Inaugurated by October Socialist Revolution, Report of the Ninth National Congress of the CPC, Hua Guofeng's Talkings, Report of the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party since the Founding of the People's Republic of China. (shrink)
If you are interested in accountability and transparency in public decision-making, this book is for you. If you are interested in ways and means of avoiding capture by vested interests when making public policy, this book is for you. If you are interested in a sustainable and efficient agri-food system which meets the needs of consumers, producers and society, this book is for you.Agriculture remains an important industry in many economies. It is also a key sector with an important role (...) to play in determining nations’, societies’ and households’ nutritional and environmental performance and outcomes. Unfortunately, the agri-food sector in many countries suffers from excessive and poorly focused levels and types of intervention, constrained growth, and unsustainable practices.In his book, Developing Successful Agriculture, Professor Zhang-Yue Zhou provides us with a comprehensive and compelling account of how Australia’s agri-food sector has become so successful even though it receive .. (shrink)
Students and fighters of the Revolutionary Rebel Headquarters of Red Guards in the Capital's Institutions of Higher Education:Yesterday I gave a speech at a Red Guard mass rally organized by your headquarters in which I made one rather incomplete remark.
In the Fourth Meditation, Descartes famously treats the indifference of the will (roughly, ambivalence of reasons) as the source of error, which many read as oddly suggesting that the will judges arbitrarily. In his letter to Elisabeth dated 1st September 1645, however, he expressly takes passions to be the source of error, saying that passions move the will to judge erroneously by misrepresenting the value of objects. Although these two accounts focus on different kinds of error – theoretical and practical (...) error, respectively – I argue that Descartes is best understood as extending the second account also to the source of theoretical error. On my reading, the first account does not imply that erroneous judgements are simply arbitrary, but it leaves out an explanation why we judge at the time we do, when we could (and should) continue to inquire insofar as we have not yet gathered sufficient evidence. The second account fills in this lacuna by giving an explanation in terms of passions. I further argue that the schematic nature of the first account is due partly to the structure of the Meditations, but mainly to the fact that Descartes has not yet systematically examined the nature of passions there. (shrink)
Although Canadian consumer magazine advertising still portrayed men more favourably in 1990, its portrayal of women was more positive than before. Advertising faces the dilemma as both a selling tool and a means of social communication. Advertisers have a social responsibility as corporate citizens in ensuring that advertising reflects the continuing improvement of women 's socioeconomic status and power.
Consumption is one of the important components in the social reproduction circle, which also includes production, distribution, and exchange. Consumer activities should be examined in the social context as well as in the context of the production process. Especially important are impacts of social ethics and individual morality on consumer activities. This paper describes a dialectical relation between ethical and economic evaluations of consumption, presents evidence on Chinese attitudes to borrowing, and proposes a reasonable proportionality between consumption and frugality as (...) a general guideline for consumer activities in contemporary China. (shrink)
This paper defends what I call the ‘wellbeing conception of harm’, according to which the relevant criterion for determining whether one has suffered harm is whether they have been made worse off in terms of their wellbeing. Firstly, I explain why it is that one might find the wellbeing conception of harm appealing to begin with. Then, I respond to two sets of concerns that have been levied against the wellbeing conception of harm. The first set of concerns relate to (...) the implausible moral/political consequences that would allegedly follow from adopting the wellbeing conception of harm. The second set of concerns challenge the practical significance of adopting the wellbeing conception of harm. I conclude with some remarks on how the wellbeing conception of harm can help to answer, or at least navigate, some controversial issues related to harm. (shrink)
In 1941, Zhou Jingwen launched a human rights movement in the magazine Shidai piping. Zhou was motivated both by concerns about the human rights violations committed by the Guomindang and by a belief that the protection of human rights would enable people to make greater contributions to the war effort. As Zhang Junmai would be, Zhou was inspired by H.G. Wells's work to draft a new human rights declaration that could serve as an inspiration during World War (...) II and as a manifesto for a future peaceful world. Zhou also attempted to relate the 1941 human rights movement to the May Fourth movement of 1919, in that he intended his human rights movement to awaken and liberate the Chinese. Positive reactions from readers prompted Zhou to publish a special issue on human rights, and some of the articles were also reprinted in book form. Zhou chose to remain on the mainland after 1949, and was severely criticized during the "three-anti" and "five-anti" campaigns in the early 1950s. He fled to Hong Kong in 1957 and there revived Shidai piping. (shrink)