Words are the essence of communication: They are the building blocks of any language. Learning the meaning of words is thus one of the most important aspects of language acquisition: Children must first learn words before they can combine them into complex utterances. Many theories have been developed to explain the impressive efficiency of young children in acquiring the vocabulary of their language, as well as the developmental patterns observed in the course of lexical acquisition. A major source of disagreement (...) among the different theories is whether children are equipped with special mechanisms and biases for word learning, or their general cognitive abilities are adequate for the task. We present a novel computational model of early word learning to shed light on the mechanisms that might be at work in this process. The model learns word meanings as probabilistic associations between words and semantic elements, using an incremental and probabilistic learning mechanism, and drawing only on general cognitive abilities. The results presented here demonstrate that much about word meanings can be learned from naturally occurring child-directed utterances (paired with meaning representations), without using any special biases or constraints, and without any explicit developmental changes in the underlying learning mechanism. Furthermore, our model provides explanations for the occasionally contradictory child experimental data, and offers predictions for the behavior of young word learners in novel situations. (shrink)
Publication date: 16 April 2018 Source: Author: Parto Fazli, Ebrahim Abbasi The objective of the study is to test experimentally the Kuznets curve of energy intensity in selected developing countries with the focus of D-8 countries during 1990-2014. According to the results, and by using the static and dynamic estimators and the Panel- ARDL model, the Kuznets curve was accepted for energy intensity and the per capita income threshold was estimated $3931.25. The urbanization rate and the degree of industrialization (...) have a positive and significant effect on the GDP of consuming energy of D-8 countries in the long term. The most important policy recommendations were discussed for policy-makers and researchers. (shrink)
This study examines the existence, intensity and impacts of intolerance for Press criticism in Pakistani society. It’s generally believed that intolerance for Press criticism leads to professional and psychological complexes for the Press to play its role as a voice for unvoiced and to hold those in power accountable because the Press’s role as the Watchdog compulsively needs high capacities of tolerance in the society to understand the realities and habituate rationalism. As working journalists have to face the direct reaction (...) from masses regarding Press criticism so this paper explores journalist’s perceptions about the presence of intolerance in the societal frame of Pakistan regarding Press’s criticism using survey technique under Likert Scale. The study also incorporates the impacts of intolerance on professionalism in media that induce threats to journalists and compel them to exercise self-censorship which ultimately results in content biases, depriving the citizens of fundamental right of expression. The conclusion provides guidelines for policy making on the subject of Press freedom and social coherence. Also, this study enhances understandings regarding the social sphere of the country and gauges the level of intolerance for media discourses. (shrink)
The Handbook considers the State of Qur'anic Studies; Historical Setting; Textual Transmission and Codification; Structural and Literary Features; Content and Concepts; Applied Discourses; and an Overview of Qur'anic Interpretation.
Pythagorean fuzzy set is one of the successful extensions of the intuitionistic fuzzy set for handling uncertainties in information. Under this environment, in this paper, we introduce the notion of Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein hybrid averaging aggregation operator along with some of its properties, namely idempotency, boundedness, and monotonicity. PFEHA aggregation operator is the generalization of Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging aggregation operator and Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted averaging aggregation operator. The operator proposed in this paper provides more accurate and (...) precise results as compared to the existing operators. Therefore, this method plays a vital role in real-world problems. Finally, we applied the proposed operator and method to multiple-attribute group decision making. (shrink)
Trapezoidal cubic fuzzy numbers are an extraordinary cubic fuzzy set on a real number set. TzCFNs are useful for dealing with well-known quantities in decision data and decision making problems themselves. This paper is about multi-attribute group decision making problems in which the attribute values are stated with TzCFNs, which are solved by developing a new decision method based on power average operators of TzCFNs. The new operation laws for TzCFNs are given. Hereby, the power average operator of real numbers (...) is extended to four kinds of power average operators of TzCFNs, involving the power average operator of TzCFNs, the weighted power average operator of TzCFNs, the power ordered weighted average operator of TzCFNs, and the power hybrid average operator of TzCFNs. In the proposed group decision method, the individual overall evaluation values of alternatives are generated by using the power average operator of TzCFNs. Applying the hybrid average operator of TzCFNs, the specific general evaluation standards of alternatives are then combined into the collective ones, which are used to rank the alternatives. The example analysis shows the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to define some new operation laws for the trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy number and Hamming distance. Furthermore, we define and use the trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy TOPSIS method to solve the multi criteria decision making method. The new ranking method for trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy numbers are used to rank the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify and prove the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method.