Words are the essence of communication: They are the building blocks of any language. Learning the meaning of words is thus one of the most important aspects of language acquisition: Children must first learn words before they can combine them into complex utterances. Many theories have been developed to explain the impressive efficiency of young children in acquiring the vocabulary of their language, as well as the developmental patterns observed in the course of lexical acquisition. A major source of disagreement (...) among the different theories is whether children are equipped with special mechanisms and biases for word learning, or their general cognitive abilities are adequate for the task. We present a novel computational model of early word learning to shed light on the mechanisms that might be at work in this process. The model learns word meanings as probabilistic associations between words and semantic elements, using an incremental and probabilistic learning mechanism, and drawing only on general cognitive abilities. The results presented here demonstrate that much about word meanings can be learned from naturally occurring child-directed utterances (paired with meaning representations), without using any special biases or constraints, and without any explicit developmental changes in the underlying learning mechanism. Furthermore, our model provides explanations for the occasionally contradictory child experimental data, and offers predictions for the behavior of young word learners in novel situations. (shrink)
The fast growing rates of plagiarism among students in higher education has become a serious concern for academics around the world. Collecting data through semi-structured interview, this qualitative study is an attempt to investigate a group of EFL undergraduate students’ viewpoints on plagiarism, the extent to which they are informed about it and the reasons triggering them to plagiarize. Responses revealed shallow understanding of plagiarism in its various forms. The findings indicated a range of contributing factors including: instructors’ ignorance towards (...) plagiarism, limited writing and research skills, peer pressure, pressure to submit high-quality assignments and ease of plagiarizing. The results highlighted the need for practical policies and cohesive framework to raise students’ awareness at initial stages in order to minimize the prevalence of plagiarism at later points. Developing rich writing and referencing skills should be considered seriously by course instructors and the common leniency towards undergraduate students’ instances of plagiarism must be replaced by more serious attitude that encourages innovative and genuine research practice. The implications of findings can help academics to take the required steps in decreasing cases of plagiarism among students. (shrink)
Qur’an states about ‘Adam’s Istifā’ or selection of Adam over all the people of the world, along with Noah, Āl-e-Imrān and Āl-e-Ibrāhim. The commentators have interpreted the ‘Istifā’ as ‘God’s selection’. If Adam is the first human to step into the world, what does God mean from ‘his selection over all the people of the world’? The followers of the evolutionary reading of the text of the Qur’an use this verse and determine that ‘Adam’ is the chosen person amongst human (...) beings in his time, but some commentators have criticised this to accept the other verses that say ‘Adam is the father of all human beings’, and they believe that Adam was created without parents. This study reviewed the collection of verses of human creation, based on three principles: the consistency of the Qur’an, near synonymy and the Qur’anic truth. The conclusions are: The Qur’anic concept of the ‘Adam’s Istifā’ leads to his creation without the affiliation of the previous generations. Such interpretation is confirmed by the system of Qur’anic verses. Based on Qur’anic concepts of the Bashar, Insān and Rūh, Adam is an advanced Bashar which is named Insān, who is gifted the Rūh, and modern humans are all from his generation. (shrink)
This paper aims to explore the relationship between architecture and social movements in general and the indeterminate architecture of ruin and an event of squatter protest in particular. As a speculative project it reflects upon an architectural setting in which a protest took place in 2011 at the University of Sydney in Australia. Examining the architecture of this specific event and the ways architecture allows such turbulent moments to emerge are the focus of this paper. In this examination I combine (...) the Foucauldian notion of dispositif with the emerging notion of studentification in order to understand the role of architecture as a significant element in the rise of urban uprisings. (shrink)
Publication date: 16 April 2018 Source: Author: Parto Fazli, Ebrahim Abbasi The objective of the study is to test experimentally the Kuznets curve of energy intensity in selected developing countries with the focus of D-8 countries during 1990-2014. According to the results, and by using the static and dynamic estimators and the Panel- ARDL model, the Kuznets curve was accepted for energy intensity and the per capita income threshold was estimated $3931.25. The urbanization rate and the degree of industrialization (...) have a positive and significant effect on the GDP of consuming energy of D-8 countries in the long term. The most important policy recommendations were discussed for policy-makers and researchers. (shrink)
How does law effect well-being? Can school rules influence the feel-good factor among children? If a self-perception of being ‘good’ improves well-being, people would prefer to be good—even children. But traditional school rules are often contrary to the principles of well-being, and create ‘good criminals’. Starting from the seemingly absurd truth—‘crime is caused by the law’— the paper proposes that children should learn to view law critically and creatively. Then, through a novel application of Occupational Therapy , and using ‘law’ (...) to focus social agency, a case study develops ‘The law of school dress’ as a public good. The result reflects Jeremy Bentham’s Principle of Utility. Philosophy of OT reminds us that the ultimate purpose of education is not just to learn: it is to improve well-being through learning as meaningful ‘occupation’. And ‘law’ has a part to play. (shrink)
This study examines the existence, intensity and impacts of intolerance for Press criticism in Pakistani society. It’s generally believed that intolerance for Press criticism leads to professional and psychological complexes for the Press to play its role as a voice for unvoiced and to hold those in power accountable because the Press’s role as the Watchdog compulsively needs high capacities of tolerance in the society to understand the realities and habituate rationalism. As working journalists have to face the direct reaction (...) from masses regarding Press criticism so this paper explores journalist’s perceptions about the presence of intolerance in the societal frame of Pakistan regarding Press’s criticism using survey technique under Likert Scale. The study also incorporates the impacts of intolerance on professionalism in media that induce threats to journalists and compel them to exercise self-censorship which ultimately results in content biases, depriving the citizens of fundamental right of expression. The conclusion provides guidelines for policy making on the subject of Press freedom and social coherence. Also, this study enhances understandings regarding the social sphere of the country and gauges the level of intolerance for media discourses. (shrink)
This commentary focuses on how third parties impact the course of acts of revenge based on their world views, such as belief in a just world. Assuming this belief to be true, the following questions could be asked: (a) What are the consequences of a third party's worldview in terms of secondary victimization? (b) Are bystanders actually aware of these consequences? (c) If so, then why do they let it happens?
Our commentary is focused on the idea that takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of.
Pythagorean fuzzy set is one of the successful extensions of the intuitionistic fuzzy set for handling uncertainties in information. Under this environment, in this paper, we introduce the notion of Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein hybrid averaging aggregation operator along with some of its properties, namely idempotency, boundedness, and monotonicity. PFEHA aggregation operator is the generalization of Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging aggregation operator and Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted averaging aggregation operator. The operator proposed in this paper provides more accurate and (...) precise results as compared to the existing operators. Therefore, this method plays a vital role in real-world problems. Finally, we applied the proposed operator and method to multiple-attribute group decision making. (shrink)
Trapezoidal cubic fuzzy numbers are an extraordinary cubic fuzzy set on a real number set. TzCFNs are useful for dealing with well-known quantities in decision data and decision making problems themselves. This paper is about multi-attribute group decision making problems in which the attribute values are stated with TzCFNs, which are solved by developing a new decision method based on power average operators of TzCFNs. The new operation laws for TzCFNs are given. Hereby, the power average operator of real numbers (...) is extended to four kinds of power average operators of TzCFNs, involving the power average operator of TzCFNs, the weighted power average operator of TzCFNs, the power ordered weighted average operator of TzCFNs, and the power hybrid average operator of TzCFNs. In the proposed group decision method, the individual overall evaluation values of alternatives are generated by using the power average operator of TzCFNs. Applying the hybrid average operator of TzCFNs, the specific general evaluation standards of alternatives are then combined into the collective ones, which are used to rank the alternatives. The example analysis shows the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method. (shrink)
Recent advances in life-sustaining treatments and technologies, have given rise to newly-emerged, critical and sometimes, controversial questions regarding different aspects of end-of-life decision-making and care. Since religious values are among the most influential factors in these decisions, the present study aimed to examine the Islamic scholars' views on end-of-life care. A structured interview based on six main questions on ethical decision-making in end-of-life care was conducted with eight Shiite experts in Islamic studies, and was analyzed through deductive content analysis. Analysis (...) revealed certain points in Islamic views on the definition of death and the persons making decisions about end-of-life care. According to the participants, in addition to conventional criteria such as absence of heartbeat and respiration, the irreversible cessation of human voluntary acts are considered to be the criteria in establishing death. The participants also recognized physicians as the main authorities in verifying signs of death. Furthermore, it was emphasized that life preservation and continuation of care must be sensible, and the patient can request not to have death-prolonging procedures started or continued. In the view of participants, patient's autonomy cannot be the sole basis for all measures, but Islamic ethical and jurisprudential principles should be relied upon to make correct and sensible decisions whether to continue or stop terminal patients' care. Final decisions should be made by a team of experts, and physicians must be at the center of such a team. Finally, we suggest that a guideline in keeping with Islamic norms on human life and death, purpose of life, God's will, boundaries of man's authority, and the physician's ethical duties and obligations should be developed. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to define some new operation laws for the trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy number and Hamming distance. Furthermore, we define and use the trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy TOPSIS method to solve the multi criteria decision making method. The new ranking method for trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy numbers are used to rank the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify and prove the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method.