Language assessment literacy is a significant component of language teachers’ expertise but is also a challenging task for most language teachers. To date, there have been relatively few studies examining the research on teachers’ LAL during these decades. To fill this void, this article reviews the conceptualizations of LAL and relevant empirical studies published from 1991 to 2021. It first analyzes various conceptualizations of LAL. Then in examining the empirical studies on teachers’ LAL, five major themes emerge: teachers’ LAL levels; (...) factors influencing LAL; language teachers’ assessment training needs; language assessment training courses; and LAL development through reflection. Finally, future research directions on teachers’ LAL are discussed. (shrink)
Liang Shuming once applied the concept of intuition to characterize Chinese culture as a whole. Later, he not only replaced the theoretical position of intuition with the concept of reason, but discarded the term for intuition itself. This essay will answer three questions related to this academic riddle. (1) What does intuition mean to both Bergson and Liang? (2) What does the Chinese cultural heritage contribute to the formation of Liang's intuition? (3) What is the relationship between (...)Liang's intuition and reason? (shrink)
Ben shu bi jiao yan jiu liang shu ming he hu kuo de wen hua qu xiang, zheng zhi qu xiang, xue shu zhi qu, zhong xi wen hua guan, ke xue yu min zhu guan dui chuan tong wen hua de tai du he dui zhong guo wen hua chu lu de xuan ze deng wen ti.
Liang Qichao was a leading political thinker and publicist. His manifesto, On the New People, was published serially in Japan, where Liang—like many other progressive intellectuals in the late Qing—lived and worked for a decade in order to avoid governmental suppression. The present essay was published in 1902 as part of On the New People. Liang began writing about rights as early as 1896; they came to occupy a prominent place in his theorizing after he arrived in (...) Japan in 1898. He was influenced by the Social Darwinist ideas of Kato Hiroyuki, which can be seen most clearly in Liang's 1899 essay "The Right of the Strongest." Although some of these ideas are still present in the current essay, Liang had by this time developed a more complex position, partly through reading and interpreting the ideas of Rudolph von Jhering , a pioneering German legal theorist whose influence on Liang was significant, as Liang himself declares early in this essay. (shrink)
This chapter examines Liang Shuming’s work The Fundamentals of Chinese Culture (Zhongguo wenhua yaoyi 中國文化要義), analyzing his major conceptions about Chinese society and investigating his intellectual relations to Western thinkers. Inspired by Bertrand Russel’s discussion of the psychological sources for human activities, Liang distinguished three components of the human heart: instinct, intellect, and reason. He coined a new term, “the operation of mind” (xinsi zuoyong 心思作用), to denote an integral unity composed of intellect and reason. Meanwhile, he reiterated (...) his old idea about the difference between Western and Chinese cultures, arguing that the Westerner was strong in intellect, but weak in reason, while the Chinese was strong in reason, but weak in intellect. Liang holds that traditional Chinese society was an “ethic-based society” and a “profession-differentiated one.” Due to the effort of Confucius and other sages, China completed its effort of replacing religion with morality in an early time. Marx-Engels’ doctrines of class struggle and classification of history were right for Western society but could not be applied to Chinese reality. In China, the four ranks of scholar, peasant, artisan, and merchant represented four social professions, instead of four social classes. Since the Qin-Han period, Chinese history had undertaken a cyclical development without substantial alteration in economy and politics. (shrink)
Shuming has been proclaimed the forerunner of Contemporary Neo-Confucianism. However, assessing Liangâs identity appears a much more complicated task. Taking a closer look at his copious writings on religion, this paper shows how Liang conceived the role of religion at the different steps of humanityâs quest. Applying this frame of understanding to twentieth century China, Liang saw a discrepancy between the task required in our present time and what the future was holding. Therefore, while he engaged the world (...) in a certain way, he was still holding privately another belief. This secret of Liang reshuffles traditional boundaries between the secular and transcendence. (shrink)
Our paper draws attention to a neglected channel of corruption—the bribe payments by state-owned enterprises. This is an important phenomenon as bribe payments by SOEs fruitlessly waste national resources, compromising public welfare and national prosperity. Using a large dataset of 30,249 firms from 50 countries, we show that, in general, SOEs are less likely to pay bribes for achieving organizational objectives owing to their political connectivity. However, in deteriorated institutional environments, SOEs may be subjected to potential managerial rent-seeking behaviors, which (...) disproportionately increase SOE bribe propensity relative to privately owned enterprises. Specifically, our findings highlight the importance of fostering democracy and rule of law, reducing prevalence of corruption and shortening power distance in reducing the incidence of SOE bribery. (shrink)
Reading Bertrand Russell’s Principles of Social Reconstruction, Liang Shuming began a process of interpreting Russell’s philosophy in a Confucian way. The first stage in this process was seeing Russell as a fellow Confucian. Its second stage was absorbing Russell’s theory of impulse, seeing this as sharing aspects of the Confucian doctrine of benevolence (ren). The third stage was reconstructing Russell’s theory of spirit as a Confucian theory of “reason” as impersonal feeling. Under Liang Shuming’s critical assimilation of Russell’s (...) philosophy, Russell’s theories of impulse and spirit came to constitute an intrinsic component of modern New Confucianism and was incorporated into the discourse of modern Chinese philosophy. To a certain extent, this shifts our view of Russell as merely a passing figure in the history of modern Chinese philosophy. (shrink)