Results for 'Eyal M. Rein Gold'

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  1. Letter-Suporiority Effect.Eyal M. Rein Gold - unknown
    Two experiments demonstrated letter-context effects that cannot easily be accounted for by postperceptual theories based on structural redundancy, iigural goodness, or memory advantage. In Experiment 1, subjects identified the color of a letter fragment more accurately in letter than in nonletter contexts. In Experiment 2, subjects identified the feature presented in a precued color more accurately in letters than in nonletters. We argue that these effects result from topdown perceptual processing.
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  2.  30
    Using Direct and Indirect Measures to Study Perception Without Awareness.Eyal M. Reingold & Philip M. Merikle - 1988 - Perception and Psychophysics 44:563-575.
  3.  42
    On the Inter-Relatedness of Theory and Measurement in the Study of Unconscious Processes.Eyal M. Reingold & Philip M. Merikle - 1990 - Mind and Language 5 (1):9-28.
  4. Comparing Direct (Explicit) to Indirect (Implicit) Measures to Study Unconscious Memory.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1991 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 17 (2):224-233.
  5. Process Dissociations Versus Task Dissociations: A Controversy in Progress.Eyal M. Reingold & Jeffrey Toth - 1996 - In G. Underwood (ed.), Implicit Cognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 159-202.
  6.  28
    Estimating the Divergence Point: A Novel Distributional Analysis Procedure for Determining the Onset of the Influence of Experimental Variables.Eyal M. Reingold & Heather Sheridan - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  7. Unconscious Perception and the Classic Dissociation Paradigm: A New Angle?Eyal M. Reingold - 2004 - Perception and Psychophysics 66 (5):882-887.
  8.  50
    Investigating the Visual Span in Comparative Search: The Effects of Task Difficulty and Divided Attention.Eyal M. Reingold & Jiye Shen - 2001 - Cognition 81 (2):57-67.
  9. Unconscious Perception: Assumptions and Interpretive Difficulties.Eyal M. Reingold - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):117-122.
    Reingold and MerikleÕs (1988, 1990) critique of the classic dissociation paradigm identified several issues as inherent problems that severely undermine the utility of this paradigm. Erdelyi (2004) extending his prior analysis (Erdelyi, 1985, 1986) points out several additional factors that may complicate the interpretation of empirically obtained dissociations. The goal of the present manuscript is to further discuss some of these commonly neglected interpretive difficulties. Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  10.  15
    Facilitation and Interference in Indirect/Implicit Memory Tests and in the Process Dissociation Paradigm: The Letter Insertion and the Letter Deletion Tasks.Eyal M. Reingold - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):459-482.
    This paper introduced the letter insertion and letter deletion tasks. In these tasks participants are presented with letter strings and are instructed to insert or delete a letter to create a word. Experiment 1 demonstrated facilitation priming and established these tasks as sensitive indirect measures of memory. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated interference priming effects. In Experiment 4 the process dissociation paradigm was applied to investigate the contributions of automatic and consciously controlled processes to performance on the letter insertion task. (...)
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  11.  4
    On Demonstrating Unconscious Perception: Comment on Draine and Greenwald.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1998 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 127 (3):304-310.
  12.  20
    Toward a Redefinition of Implicit Memory: Process Dissociations Following Elaborative Processing and Self-Generation.Jeffrey Toth, Eyal M. Reingold & Larry Jacoby - 1994 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (2):290-303.
  13. Measuring Unconscious Perceptual Processes.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1992 - In R.F. Bornstein & T.S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 55-80.
     
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  14.  7
    The Holistic Processing Account of Visual Expertise in Medical Image Perception: A Review.Heather Sheridan & Eyal M. Reingold - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  15. Research Report.Eyal M. Reingold & Keith Rayner - unknown
    A critical prediction of the E-Z Reader model is that experimental manipulations that disrupt early encoding of visual and orthographic features of the fixated word without affecting subsequent lexical processing should influence the processing difficulty of the fixated word without affecting the processing of the next word. We tested this prediction by monitoring participants’ eye movements while they read sentences in which a target word was presented either normally or altered. In the critical condition, the contrast between the target word (...)
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  16.  10
    Recognition and Lexical Decision Without Detection: Unconscious Perception?Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1990 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:574-83.
  17. Peripheral and Parafoveal Cueing and Masking Effects on Saccadic Selectivity in a Gaze-Contingent Window Paradigm.Eyal M. Reingold & Jiye Shen - unknown
    The present study employed the gaze-contingent window paradigm to investigate parafoveal and peripheral cueing and masking effects on saccadic selectivity in a triple-conjunction visual search task. In the cueing conditions, the information shown outside the gaze-contingent window was restricted to the feature or feature pair shared between the target and a particular distractor type. In the masking conditions, no stimulus features were shown outside the window. Significant cueing and masking effects on saccadic selectivity were observed for saccades directed at items (...)
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  18. Necessary?Eyal M. Reingold & Larry L. Jacoby - unknown
    In a recent paper, Graf and Komatsu (1994) argued that the process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991) is limited in its ability to separate and measure conscious and unconscious forms of memory and so should be "handIed with caution". Given that the study of unconscious influences has always posed a difficult problem for memory researchers, we agree with the general emphasis on caution. In this paper, we too advocate caution, especially as it applies to the use of indirect tests, assessing Graf (...)
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  19. Saccadic Inhibition in Reading.Eyal M. Reingold & Dave M. Stampe - unknown
    In 5 experiments, participants read text that was briefly replaced by a transient image for 33 ms at random intervals. A decrease in saccadic frequency, referred to as saccadic inhibition, occurred as early as 60 –70 ms following the onset of abrupt changes in visual input. It was demonstrated that the saccadic inhibition was influenced by the saliency of the visual event (Experiment 3) and was not produced in response to abrupt but irrelevant auditory stimuli (Experiment 1). Display changes restricted (...)
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  20. Beyond Perception: Conceptual.Eyal M. Reingold - unknown
    Whenever knowledge of the possible interpretation or conceptualization of some- thing helps in perceiving that thing, we say the processing is conceptually driven. That is, the process starts with conceptualization of what might be present and then looks for confirming evidence, biasing the processing mechanisms to give the expected result... Conceptually driven processing and data-driven processing almost always occur together, with each direction of processing contributing something to the total analysis. (Lindsay and Norman 1977, p. 13).
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  21. Saccadic Inhibition in Voluntary and Reflexive Saccades.Eyal M. Reingold & Dave M. Stampe - unknown
    & The present study investigated saccadic inhibition in both voluntary and stimulus-elicited saccades. Two experiments examined saccadic inhibition caused by an irrelevant flash occurring subsequent to target onset. In each trial, participants were required to perform a single saccade following the presentation of a black target on a gray background, 48 to the left or to the right of screen center. In some trials (flash trials), after a variable delay, a 33-msec flash was displayed at the top and bottom third (...)
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  22. Saccadic Inhibition in Complex Visual Tasks.Eyal M. Reingold & Dave M. Stampe - unknown
    Several gaze contingent studies that used a fixed delay between physical eye movements and a display change documented a dip in the fixation duration distributions (e.g., Blanchard et al. 1984; McConkie et al. 1985; van Diepen et al. 1995). In a study by van Diepen et al. (1995), a moving mask paradigm was employed in which subjects searched line drawings of everyday scenes for non-objects. The appearance of the mask was delayed relative to the end of a saccade (beginning of (...)
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  23. Lester C. Loschky.Eyal M. Reingold - unknown
    Salience of Peripheral 2 Abstract The three experiments reported document a slowing of peripheral target acquisition associated with the presence of a gaze-contingent window. This window effect was shown for displays using either moving video or still images. The window effect was similar across a resolutiondefined window condition and a luminance-defined window condition suggesting that peripheral image degradation is not a prerequisite of this effect. The window effect was also unaffected by the type of window boundary used (sharp or blended). (...)
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  24.  35
    The Einstellung Effect in Anagram Problem Solving: Evidence From Eye Movements.Jessica J. Ellis & Eyal M. Reingold - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  25.  27
    Eye-Movement Control in Reading: Models and Predictions.Eyal M. Reingold - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):500-501.
    It is argued here that a critical prediction of the E-Z Reader model is that experimental manipulations that disrupt early encoding of visual and orthographic features of the fixated word without affecting subsequent lexical processing should influence the processing difficulty of the fixated word without producing any processing effect on the next word. This prediction is explained and illustrated.
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  26. Beyond Perception: Conceptual Contributions to Unconscious Influences of Memory.J. P. Toth & Eyal M. Reingold - 1996 - In G. Underwood (ed.), Implicit Cognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 41--84.
  27.  14
    Conscious Versus Unconscious Processes: Are They Qualitatively Different?Eyal M. Reingold - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):218-219.
  28. Implicit Cognition.Eyal M. Reingold & Colleen A. Ray - 2002 - In Lynn Nadel (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Macmillan.
  29.  33
    Expert Vs. Novice Differences in the Detection of Relevant Information During a Chess Game: Evidence From Eye Movements.Heather Sheridan & Eyal M. Reingold - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  30.  9
    Automatic Retrieval of New Associations Under Shallow Encoding Conditions.Eyal M. Reingold & Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 5 (1-2):117-130.
    In two experiments during the study phase participants read unrelated context-target word pairs presented below a line drawing of the context word. During test the strong cue group was presented with context words, line drawings, and stems of target words. The line drawings were not presented in the weak cue group. Stems were paired with the same context words as at study , paired with different context words , or corresponded to unstudied words . In Experiment 1 participants were instructed (...)
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  31.  36
    Recognition Memory Performance as a Function of Reported Subjective Awareness.Heather Sheridan & Eyal M. Reingold - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1363-1375.
    Three experiments introduced a recognition memory paradigm designed to investigate reported subjective awareness during retrieval. At study, in Experiments 1A and 2, words were either generated or read , while modality of presentation was manipulated in Experiment 1B. Word pairs were presented during test trials, and participants indicated if they contained an old word by responding “remember”, “know” or “new” in Experiments 1A and 1B, and by responding “strong no”, “weak no”, “weak yes”, or “strong yes” in Experiment 2. Participants (...)
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  32. Measuring Unconscious Processes.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - 1992 - In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.
     
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  33. ELIZABETH S. SPELKE (MIT) Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks to Reorient in an Open Space, 119±148 JENNY R. SAFFRAN (University of Wisconsin±Madison) Words in a Sea of Sounds: The Output of Infant Statistical Learning, 149±169 Brief Articles. [REVIEW]Marc Pomplun, Eyal M. Reingold, Jiye Shen, Vittorio Girotto, Markus Kemmelmeier, Dan Sperber, Jean-Baptiste van der Henst, Edward Munnich, Barbara Landau & Barbara Anne Dosher - 2001 - Cognition 81 (249):249-251.
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  34. A Response to Graf and Komatsu's (1994) Critique of the Process-Dissociation Procedure: When is Caution Necessary?Jeffrey Toth, Eyal M. Reingold & Larry Jacoby - 1995 - European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 7:113-130.
  35.  18
    Area Activation: A Computational Model of Saccadic Selectivity in Visual Search.Marc Pomplun, Eyal M. Reingold & Jiye Shen - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (2):299-312.
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  36. Iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold - unknown
    There are hundreds of indications leading us to conclude that at every moment there is in us an infinity of perceptions, unaccompanied by awareness or reflection; that is, of alterations in the soul itself, of which we are unaware because the impressions are either too minute or too numerous, or else too unvarying, so that they are not sufficiently distinctive on their own. But when they are combined with others they do nevertheless have their effect and make themselves felt, at (...)
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  37.  27
    Levels of Processing Influences Both Recollection and Familiarity: Evidence From a Modified Remember–Know Paradigm.Heather Sheridan & Eyal M. Reingold - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):438-443.
    A modified Remember/Know paradigm was used to investigate reported subjective awareness during retrieval. Levels of processing was manipulated at study. Word pairs were presented during test trials, and participants were instructed to respond “remember” if they recollected one of the two words, “know” if the word was familiar in the absence of recollection, or “new” if they judged both words to be new. Participants were then required to indicate which of the 2 words was old . With the standard RK (...)
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  38.  24
    Perceptually Specific and Perceptually Non-Specific Influences on Rereading Benefits for Spatially Transformed Text: Evidence From Eye Movements.Heather Sheridan & Eyal M. Reingold - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1739-1747.
    The present study used eye tracking methodology to examine rereading benefits for spatially transformed text. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either applying the same type of transformation to the word during the first and second presentations , or employing two different types of transformations across the two presentations of the word . Perceptual specificity effects were demonstrated such that fixation (...)
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  39.  24
    Eye Movements Reveal Solution Knowledge Prior to Insight.Jessica J. Ellis, Mackenzie G. Glaholt & Eyal M. Reingold - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):768-776.
    In two experiments, participants solved anagram problems while their eye movements were monitored. Each problem consisted of a circular array of five letters: a scrambled four-letter solution word containing three consonants and one vowel, and an additional randomly-placed distractor consonant. Viewing times on the distractor consonant compared to the solution consonants provided an online measure of knowledge of the solution. Viewing times on the distractor consonant and the solution consonants were indistinguishable early in the trial. In contrast, several seconds prior (...)
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  40. Your Money or Your Life: Comparing Judgements in Trolley Problems Involving Economic and Emotional Harms, Injury and Death: Natalie Gold Et Al.Natalie Gold, Briony D. Pulford & Andrew M. Colman - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):213-233.
    There is a long-standing debate in philosophy about whether it is morally permissible to harm one person in order to prevent a greater harm to others and, if not, what is the moral principle underlying the prohibition. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used in order to probe moral intuitions. Philosophers use them to achieve a reflective equilibrium between intuitions and principles, psychologists to investigate moral decision-making processes. In the dilemmas, the harms that are traded off are almost always deaths. However, the (...)
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  41.  26
    Is Lying Bound to Commitment? Empirically Investigating Deceptive Presuppositions, Implicatures, and Actions.Louisa M. Reins & Alex Wiegmann - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (2):e12936.
    Lying is an important moral phenomenon that most people are affected by on a daily basis—be it in personal relationships, in political debates, or in the form of fake news. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about what actually constitutes a lie. According to the traditional definition of lying, a person lies if they explicitly express something they believe to be false. Consequently, it is often assumed that people cannot lie by more indirectly communicating believed‐false claims, for instance by merely conversationally (...)
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  42. The Embedded Neuron, the Enactive Field?M. Chirimuuta & I. Gold - 2009 - In John Bickle (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
    The concept of the receptive field, first articulated by Hartline, is central to visual neuroscience. The receptive field of a neuron encompasses the spatial and temporal properties of stimuli that activate the neuron, and, as Hubel and Wiesel conceived of it, a neuron’s receptive field is static. This makes it possible to build models of neural circuits and to build up more complex receptive fields out of simpler ones. Recent work in visual neurophysiology is providing evidence that the classical receptive (...)
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  43.  6
    Nudges for Judges: An Experiment on the Effect of Making Sentencing Costs Explicit.Eyal Aharoni, Heather M. Kleider-Offutt, Sarah F. Brosnan & Morris B. Hoffman - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Judges are typically tasked to consider sentencing benefits but not costs. Previous research finds that both laypeople and prosecutors discount the costs of incarceration when forming sentencing attitudes, raising important questions about whether professional judges show the same bias during sentencing. To test this, we used a vignette-based experiment in which Minnesota state judges reviewed a case summary about an aggravated robbery and imposed a hypothetical sentence. Using random assignment, half the participants received additional information about plausible negative consequences of (...)
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  44. Obligations to Future Generations.M. P. Golding - 1972 - The Monist 56 (1):85-99.
    The purpose of this note is to examine the notion of obligations to future generations, a notion that finds increasing use in discussions of social policies and programs, particularly as concerns population distribution and control and environment control. Thus, it may be claimed, the solution of problems in these areas is not merely a matter of enhancing our own good, improving our own conditions of life, but is also a matter of discharging an obligation to future generations.
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  45. Your Money Or Your Life: Comparing Judgements In Trolley Problems Involving Economic And Emotional Harms, Injury And Death.Natalie Gold, Briony D. Pulford & Andrew M. Colman - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):213-233.
    There is a long-standing debate in philosophy about whether it is morally permissible to harm one person in order to prevent a greater harm to others and, if not, what is the moral principle underlying the prohibition. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used in order to probe moral intuitions. Philosophers use them to achieve a reflective equilibrium between intuitions and principles, psychologists to investigate moral decision-making processes. In the dilemmas, the harms that are traded off are almost always deaths. However, the (...)
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  46.  30
    Team Reasoning and the Rational Choice of Payoff-Dominant Outcomes in Games.Natalie Gold & Andrew M. Colman - 2020 - Topoi 39 (2):305-316.
    Standard game theory cannot explain the selection of payoff-dominant outcomes that are best for all players in common-interest games. Theories of team reasoning can explain why such mutualistic cooperation is rational. They propose that teams can be agents and that individuals in teams can adopt a distinctive mode of reasoning that enables them to do their part in achieving Pareto-dominant outcomes. We show that it can be rational to play payoff-dominant outcomes, given that an agent group identifies. We compare team (...)
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  47.  98
    Reining in Excessive Risk-Taking by Executives: The Effect of Accountability. [REVIEW]Mathieu Lefebvre & Ferdinand M. Vieider - 2013 - Theory and Decision 75 (4):497-517.
    Performance-contingent compensation by means of stock options may induce risk-taking in agents that is excessive from the point of view of the company or the shareholders. We test whether increasing shareholder control may be an effective checking mechanism to rein in such excessive risk-taking. We thus tell one group of experimental CEOs that they may have to justify their decision-making processes in front of their shareholders. This indeed reduces risk-taking and increases the performance of the companies they manage. Implications (...)
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  48.  24
    What is Schizophrenia?Janice R. Stevens & James M. Gold - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):50-51.
  49.  41
    Towards a Theory of Human Rights.M. P. Golding - 1968 - The Monist 52 (4):521-549.
    In this paper I hope to show that a conception of human rights requires a view of the social ideal and the good life, and requires a view of the nature of human community. But what I say in favor of these points hardly amounts to a demonstration. Instead I try to exhibit how we think and talk about rights in general, and what the presuppositions of such thought and talk are. Throughout, I emphasize the pragmatic side of rights-discourse and (...)
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  50.  56
    The Stroop Task: The "Gold Standard" of Attentional Measures.Colin M. MacLeod - 1992 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121 (1):12-14.
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