This massive two-volume reference presents a comprehensive selection of the most important works on the foundations of mathematics. While the volumes include important forerunners like Berkeley, MacLaurin, and D'Alembert, as well as such followers as Hilbert and Bourbaki, their emphasis is on the mathematical and philosophical developments of the nineteenth century. Besides reproducing reliable English translations of classics works by Bolzano, Riemann, Hamilton, Dedekind, and Poincare, William Ewald also includes selections from Gauss, Cantor, Kronecker, and Zermelo, all translated here (...) for the first time. (shrink)
In der modernen Hirnforschung wird die Frage nach der Herkunft des »Mentalen« erneut kontrovers diskutiert. Kann es z. B. »freie Handlungsentscheidungen« angesichts der kausal bedingten physischen Hirnvorgänge geben? Hier ist die Überzeugung zu prüfen, es könnten den physischen »Korrelaten« des Mentalen trotz eines Sinnverlustes die ausschlaggebenden Einsichten entnommen werden.Ewald Richter zeigt: Wird ohne nähere Begründung - ausgehend von sinnlichen Wahrnehmungen bis hin zur Erkenntnis und den ihr aufgestockten Bereichen - jede mögliche Erfahrung bereits als zugeschnitten auf ein objektivierendes Verhalten (...) aufgefaßt, dann unterbleibt eine alles entscheidende Rückfrage. Insbesondere wird der Blick verstellt sowohl für die Berechtigung verschiedener Seinsweisen als auch für die »Weise des Begegnens« von »Seiendem selbst«, welches kein »Abbilden« ist. Verfehlt wird nicht zuletzt die Frage nach der »Gründung« des »Selbst« in einem vorgängig offenen Bereich. (shrink)
This paper presents the case of the post-crisis discursive defence of shadow banking in the Netherlands to argue, first, that there is a need to dust off older elite theories and adapt them to post-democratic conditions where there are no widely shared ‘political formulas’ to secure mass support for elite projects. Second, that temporality should be taken more seriously; it is when stories fail that elite storytelling can be observed in practice. As new ‘political formulas’ are minted and become established, (...) elites can again hope to withdraw from the political scene and leave policy-making to the self-evidence of output legitimacy and/or the perpetuum mobile of There-Is-No-Alternative. This suggests that elite theory should replace an epochal reading of post-democracy with a more conjunctural one. (shrink)
Ewald Hering's color-opponent-theory is still considered one of the foundations of the visual sciences. Prior to Hering, Hermann v. Helmholtz introduced a theory of color appearance, which was based primarily on the physical aspects of the stimulus. In contrast to Helmholtz, Hering's theory strongly emphasized the subject's perception of color. As a consequence, Hering considered Helmholtz' theory inadequate. Contrary to some historical accounts, he did not object to Helmholtz's three-receptor explanation for color-mixture. Instead of Helmholtz' fundamental colors red, green, (...) and blue, Hering suggested that the colors possess opponent character: blue-yellow; red-green; and, black-white. Helmholtz, on the other hand, refused to accept Hering's theory. Finally, a student with Helmholtz, Johannes v. Kries, developed the so-called zone-theory , which combines both, Young-Helmholtz's and Hering's theory at different stages of the visual information processing system. (shrink)
Research on ethical dilemmas in health care has become increasingly salient during the last two decades resulting in confusion about the concept of moral distress. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview and a comparative analysis of the theoretical understandings of moral distress and related concepts. The focus is on five concepts: moral distress, moral stress, stress of conscience, moral sensitivity and ethical climate. It is suggested that moral distress connects mainly to a psychological perspective; stress (...) of conscience more to a theological–philosophical standpoint; and moral stress mostly to a physiological perspective. Further analysis indicates that these thoughts can be linked to the concepts of moral sensitivity and ethical climate through a relationship to moral agency. Moral agency comprises a moral awareness of moral problems and moral responsibility for others. It is suggested that moral distress may serve as a positive catalyst in exercising moral agency. An interdisciplinary approach in research and practice broadens our understanding of moral distress and its impact on health care personnel and patient care. (shrink)
This commentary examines Glenberg's characterization of “suppression” in light of negative priming and related phenomena. After offering a radically different slant on suppression, an attempt is made to weave this alternative version into Glenberg's provocative discussion of embodied memories.
The author offers a conceptual investigation of the tension between openness and protection in well-developed welfare states. Because of a combination of demographic tendencies and labor market shortages, a growing number of European welfare states is currently exploring market-led immigration policies. However, the level of protection these welfare states offer seems hard to reconcile with the low threshold markets that are needed to incorporate newcomers. The author argues that the “solution”lies not so much in a clear political choice for either (...) but rather in the coordinated institutionalization of differentiated citizenship rights. The author illustrates this case with examples taken from the Dutch context, claiming further that the particular combination of corporatist welfare arrangements and the tradition of lenient enforcement in the Netherlands provides a “natural”habitat for the kind of regime pluralism that differentiated citizenship requires. (shrink)
The interconnection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience was explored by constructing two hypothetical scenarios based on a recent Swedish newspaper report. In the first scenario, a 77-year-old man, rational and awake, was coded as “do not resuscitate” (DNR) against his daughter’s wishes. The patient died in the presence of nurses who were not permitted to resuscitate him. The second scenario concerned a 41-year-old man, who had been in a coma for three weeks. He was also coded as (...) “do not resuscitate” and, when he stopped breathing, was resuscitated by his father. The nurses persuaded the physician on call to resume life support treatment and the patient recovered. These scenarios were analyzed using Viktor Frankl’s existential philosophy, resulting in a conceivable theoretical connection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience. To substantiate our conclusion, we encourage further empirical research. (shrink)
Department of Geography and Planning, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands There is a growing sense of dissatisfaction among political philosophers with the practical sterility and empirical inadequacy of the discipline. Post-Rawlsian philosophy is wrestling with the need to construct a contextualized morality that is sensitive to the particularities and complexities of actual moral reasoning but does not succumb to the temptations of relativism. We argue that this predicament is due to its inability to take the pluralism of our moral universe, (...) the multi-layeredness of our social reality, the indeterminacy of our normative principles and the complexity of our practical reasoning seriously. To incorporate these properties of the human condition we have constructed a complex evaluative framework, balancing moral, ethico-political, prudential and realist criteria. We argue that political philosophy new style is well advised to adopt such a framework and to position itself, as a true art, between political philosophy old style and the social sciences. Thus political philosophy is better equipped to deal with the big tradeoffs of today, rekindle our utopian hopes and regain political bite. Key Words: comparative institutionalism evaluation studies political philosophy political theory. (shrink)
Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is widely taken to be the starting point of the modern period of mathematics while David Hilbert was the last great mainstream mathematician to pursue important nineteenth cnetury ideas. This two-volume work provides an overview of this important era of mathematical research through a carefully chosen selection of articles. They provide an insight into the foundations of each of the main branches of mathematics--algebra, geometry, number theory, analysis, logic and set theory--with narratives to show (...) how they are linked. Classic works by Bolzano, Riemann, Hamilton, Dedekind, and Poincare are reproduced in reliable translations and many selections from writers such as Gauss, Cantor, Kronecker and Zermelo are here translated for the first time. The collection is an invaluable source for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the foundation of modern mathematics. (shrink)
Within the realms of cognitive studies, spatial structure is one of the few domains where attempts to trace mental representations from the level of sensory input conditions through conceptual structure to their lexical and grammatical organization seem to be feasible and revealing. Presenting a linguist's approach to the meaning and use of spatial dimensional terms, the paper aims to demonstrate why and how the semantic analysis of these linguistic items has to be justified in terms of nonlinguistic conceptual structure formation, (...) which in turn has to be shown to derive from categorized perceptual input. Regarding framework and approach, the paper supplements Manfred Bierwisch's recent article on Comparison in JS, 6: 1.57-93 and 2.101-146. As to substance, it is argued that the structure of conceptual knowledge of spatial objects can plausibly be modelled by means of object schemata which result from two interacting categorization grids called Primary Perceptual Space and Inherent Proportion Schema. Offering an analysis which draws on linguistic theorizing, the paper is meant as an invitation to psycholinguists and psychologists for discussion and cooperation. (shrink)
Kislinger's book consists of two chapters: the first considers the sources devoted to the Peloponnesus and Sicily - Schriftliche Quellen zur byzantinische Peloponnes und Sizilien , and the second deals with topographical issues - Die örtlichen Gegebenheiten zu Demenna auf Sizilien . The indices and bibliography are accompanied by two addenda. The first quotes the full text of the Chronicle of Monemvasia in Lemerle's , Bees's , and Lambros's editions, and the second includes a chronological overview of the Chronicle of (...) Monemvasia's editions up to now. (shrink)
From 802 to 811, we encounter several diplomatic missions beween Byzantium and the Carolingians with the scope to secure or confirm peace, although in 798 such an agreement had been reached. The real target behind such negotiations was a recognition of the coronation and imperial title of Charlemagne since 800, denied by Byzantium for years. It was only in 810 that Nicephorus I yielded due to military/ political difficulties in Northern Italy with Pepin/pippin, son of Charlemagne, and against the Bulgarians. (...) A treaty defined spheres of interest and Byzantine representatives acclaimed Charlemagne as basileus in 812. The present article tries to clarify the different stages and elements of the whole process. When the power of the Carolingian state diminished in the ongoing 9th century, Byzantium step by step deviated from full recognition of the Western emperor, a process clearly visible during the joint venture against Arab Bari from 869 to 871. An appendix deals with the question, if Empress Eirene had offered a kind of junior-emperorship to Charlemagne in 798/799, as already Paul Speck proposed more than forty years ago, without finding much approval. Now it seems probable that he was right. (shrink)
Since the late 1980s, social scientists have argued that advanced economies have undergone a process of financial concentration that is resulting in a growing unevenness of the accessibility of capital. Households, small and medium-sized businesses as well as non-standard economic activities have increasing difficulties in finding funds. There are both sound economic and compelling moral reasons to address this issue. In order to ensure a more equal accessibility of capital, the author proposes a mandatory levy on the surpluses of mainstream (...) pension funds to fund an alternative financial infrastructure as a first step to redressing unevenness. The underlying rationale is that “financial pluralism” is the key to a more even accessibility of capital. (shrink)
Between 806 and 811 three Byzantine fleets operated in the Venetian lagoon. We owe the informations about it to the Annales regni Francorum, which however manipulated the chronology and contents of the encounter with Pepin. The aim behind such doing was both, to present the Frankish actions in a favourable light and not to offend the Byzantines, since 811/12 on good terms with the Carolingians. The present contribution tries to re-establish the correct sequence of events.
WILLIAM B. EWALD, From Kant to Hubert. A source book in the foundations of mathematics. Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1997. Two volumes, xviii + 1340pp. £175.00. ISBN 0 19 853271 7 DONALD GILLIES, Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method. Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996. xiii+176pp. £35.00 /£ 11.99. ISBN 0 19 875158 3/875159 1 N. VASSALLO, La depsicologizzazione délia logica. Un confronto tra Boole e Frege. Milano:Franco Angeli, 1995. 310 pp. 34,000 L G. SCHURZ, The Is-Ought Problem :An Investigation in Philosophical Logic. Dordrecht, (...) Boston and London : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997. x + 332 pp. $120/£72.00. ISBN 0792344103. (shrink)