In ethics, the use of empirical data has become more and more popular, leading to a distinct form of applied ethics, namely empirical ethics. This 'empirical turn' is especially visible in bioethics. There are various ways of combining empirical research and ethical reflection. In this paper we discuss the use of empirical data in a special form of Reflective Equilibrium (RE), namely the Network Model with Third Person Moral Experiences. In this model, the empirical data consist of the moral experiences (...) of people in a practice. Although inclusion of these moral experiences in this specific model of RE can be well defended, their use in the application of the model still raises important questions. What precisely are moral experiences? How to determine relevance of experiences, in other words: should there be a selection of the moral experiences that are eventually used in the RE? How much weight should the empirical data have in the RE? And the key question: can the use of RE by empirical ethicists really produce answers to practical moral questions? In this paper we start to answer the above questions by giving examples taken from our research project on understanding the norm of informed consent in the field of pediatric oncology. We especially emphasize that incorporation of empirical data in a network model can reduce the risk of self-justification and bias and can increase the credibility of the RE reached. (shrink)
ABSTRACTIn ethics, the use of empirical data has become more and more popular, leading to a distinct form of applied ethics, namely empirical ethics. This ‘empirical turn’ is especially visible in bioethics. There are various ways of combining empirical research and ethical reflection. In this paper we discuss the use of empirical data in a special form of Reflective Equilibrium , namely the Network Model with Third Person Moral Experiences. In this model, the empirical data consist of the moral experiences (...) of people in a practice. Although inclusion of these moral experiences in this specific model of RE can be well defended, their use in the application of the model still raises important questions. What precisely are moral experiences? How to determine relevance of experiences, in other words: should there be a selection of the moral experiences that are eventually used in the RE? How much weight should the empirical data have in the RE? And the key question: can the use of RE by empirical ethicists really produce answers to practical moral questions?In this paper we start to answer the above questions by giving examples taken from our research project on understanding the norm of informed consent in the field of pediatric oncology. We especially emphasize that incorporation of empirical data in a network model can reduce the risk of self‐justification and bias and can increase the credibility of the RE reached. (shrink)
In ethics, the use of empirical data has become more and more popular, leading to a distinct form of applied ethics, namely empirical ethics. This ‘empirical turn’ is especially visible in bioethics. There are various ways of combining empirical research and ethical reflection. In this paper we discuss the use of empirical data in a special form of Reflective Equilibrium (RE), namely the Network Model with Third Person Moral Experiences. In this model, the empirical data consist of the moral experiences (...) of people in a practice. Although inclusion of these moral experiences in this specific model of RE can be well defended, their use in the application of the model still raises important questions. What precisely are moral experiences? How to determine relevance of experiences, in other words: should there be a selection of the moral experiences that are eventually used in the RE? How much weight should the empirical data have in the RE? And the key question: can the use of RE by empirical ethicists really produce answers to practical moral questions?In this paper we start to answer the above questions by giving examples taken from our research project on understanding the norm of informed consent in the field of pediatric oncology. We especially emphasize that incorporation of empirical data in a network model can reduce the risk of self-justification and bias and can increase the credibility of the RE reached. (shrink)
BackgroundPediatric oncology has a strong research culture. Most pediatric oncologists are investigators, involved in clinical care as well as research. As a result, a remarkable proportion of children with cancer enrolls in a trial during treatment. This paper discusses the ethical consequences of the unprecedented integration of research and care in pediatric oncology from the perspective of parents and physicians.MethodologyAn empirical ethical approach, combining a narrative review of qualitative studies on parents' and physicians' experiences of the pediatric oncology research practice, (...) and comparison of these experiences with existing theoretical ethical concepts about research. The use of empirical evidence enriches these concepts by taking into account the peculiarities that ethical challenges pose in practice.ResultsAnalysis of the 22 studies reviewed revealed that the integration of research and care has consequences for the informed consent process, the promotion of the child's best interests, and the role of the physician . True consent to research is difficult to achieve due to the complexity of research protocols, emotional stress and parents' dependency on their child's physician. Parents' role is to promote their child's best interests, also when they are asked to consider enrolling their child in a trial. Parents are almost never in equipoise on trial participation, which leaves them with the agonizing situation of wanting to do what is best for their child, while being fearful of making the wrong decision. Furthermore, a therapeutic misconception endangers correct assessment of participation, making parents inaccurately attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures. Physicians prefer the perspective of a therapist over a researcher. Consequently they may truly believe that in the research setting they promote the child's best interests, which maintains the existence of a therapeutic misconception between them and parents.ConclusionDue to the integration of research and care, their different ethical perspectives become intertwined in the daily practice of pediatric oncology. Increasing awareness of what this means for the communication between parents and physicians is essential. Future research should focus on efforts that overcome the problems that the synchronicity of research and care evokes. (shrink)
BackgroundThis article is part of a study to gain insight into the decision-making process by looking at the views of the relatives of potential brain dead donors. Alongside a literature review, focus interviews were held with healthcare professionals about their role in the request and decision-making process when post-mortal donation is at stake. This article describes the perspectives of the relatives.MethodsA content-analysis of 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with relatives involved in an organ donation decision.ResultsThree themes were identified: ‘conditions’, ‘ethical considerations’ (...) and ‘look back’. Conditions were: ‘sense of urgency’, ‘incompetence to decide’ and ‘agreement between relatives’. Ethical considerations result in a dilemma for non-donor families: aiding people or protecting the deceased’s body, especially when they do not know his/her preference. Donor families respect the deceased’s last will, generally confirmed in the National Donor Register. Looking back, the majority of non-donor families resolved their dilemma by justifying their decision with external arguments. Some non-donor families would like to be supported during decision-making.DiscussionThe discrepancy between general willingness to donate and the actual refusal of a donation request can be explained by multiple factors, with a cumulative effect. Firstly, half of the participants stated that they felt that they were not competent to decide in such a crisis and they seem to struggle with utilitarian considerations against their wish to protect the body. Secondly, non-donor families refused telling that they did not know the deceased’s wishes or contesting posthumous autonomy of the eligible. Thirdly, the findings emphasise the importance of Donor Registration, because it seems to prevent dilemmas in decision-making, at least for donor families.ConclusionDiscrepancies between willingness to consent to donate and refusal at the bedside can be attributed to an unresolved dilemma: aiding people or protect the body of the deceased. Non-donor families felt incompetent to decide. They refused consent for donation, since their deceased had not given any directive. When ethical considerations do not lead to an unambiguous answer, situational factors were pivotal. Relatives of unregistered eligible donors are more prone to unstable decisions. To overcome ambivalence, coaching during decision-making is worth investigation. (shrink)
In the Netherlands, consent from relatives is obligatory for post mortal donation. This study explored the perspectives of relatives regarding the request for consent for donation in cases without donor registration. A content analysis of narratives of 24 bereaved relatives of unregistered, eligible, brain-dead donors was performed. Relatives of unregistered, brain-dead patients usually refuse consent for donation, even if they harbour pro-donation attitudes themselves, or knew that the deceased favoured organ donation. Half of those who refused consent for donation mentioned (...) afterwards that it could have been an option. The decision not to consent to donation is attributed to contextual factors, such as feeling overwhelmed by the notification of death immediately followed by the request; not being accustomed to speaking about death; inadequate support from other relatives or healthcare professionals, and lengthy procedures. Healthcare professionals could provide better support to relatives prior to donation requests, address their informational needs and adapt their message to individual circumstances. It is anticipated that the number of consenting families could be enlarged by examining the experience of decoupling and offering the possibility of consent for donation after circulatory death if families refuse consent for donation after brain-death. (shrink)
In some respects this book can be considered as an elaboration of Clarke's earlier Descartes' Philosophy of Science. The latter work contains Clarke's analysis of the natural philosophy of Descartes with special attention to the role of experience and experiment in the formation and confirmation of theories. The present work focuses on the ways in which French philosophers and scientists tried to work out the general views of De l'Homme and the Principia during the period 1650-1700.
Background: Audio-visual teleconsultation is expected to help home-based palliative patients, hospital-based palliative care professionals, and family physicians to jointly design better, pro-active care. Consensual knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of teleconsultation in transmural palliative care is, however, largely lacking.This paper aims at describing elements of both the physical workplace and the cultural-social context of the palliative care practice, which are imperative for the use of teleconsultation technologies. Methods: A semi-structured expert meeting and qualitative, open interviews were deployed to explore (...) professionals’ assumptions and wishes, which are considered to contain latent presumptions about the practice’s physical workplace and latent elements of the cultural-social context, regarding (1) the mediating potential of audio-visual teleconsultation, (2) how the audio-visual teleconsultations will affect medical practice, and (3) the design and usage of the teleconsultation technology. We used a qualitative analysis to investigate how palliative care professionals interpret the teleconsultation package in preparation. The analysis entailed open and axial coding techniques developed in a grounded theory approach. Results: Respondents assume: 1. teleconsultation will hinder physical proximity, thereby compromising anamnesis and diagnosis of new or acutely ill patients as well as “real contact” with the person behind the patient; 2. teleconsultation will help patients becoming more of a pivotal figure in their own care trajectory; 3. they can use teleconsultation to keep a finger on the pulse; 4. teleconsultations have a healing effect of their own due to offered time and digital attention; 5. teleconsultation to open up an additional “gray” network outside the hierarchical structures of the established chain of transmural palliative care. This network could cause bypassing of caregivers and uncertainty about responsibilities; 6. teleconsultations lead to an extended flow of information which helps palliative care professionals to check the stories of patients and medical specialists. Conclusions: Professionals assume teleconsultation co-defines a new patient–professional relationship by extending hospital-based caregivers’ perceptions of as well as attention for their patients. At the cost, however, of clinical and personal connectedness. Secondly, a hermeneutics is needed to carefully interpret teleconsultation images. Thirdly, teleconsultations transform caregiving cultures as formerly separated care domains collide, demanding a redefinition of roles and responsibilities. (shrink)
In this paper we give a brief treatment of a theory of proofs for a system of Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic. This system is distinct from Classical Linear Logic, but unlike the standard Intuitionistic Linear Logic of Girard and Lafont includes the multiplicative disjunction par. This connective does have an entirely natural interpretation in a variety of categorical models of Intuitionistic Linear Logic. The main proof-theoretic problem arises from the observation of Schellinx that cut elimination fails outright for an intuitive (...) formulation of Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic; the nub of the problem is the interaction between par and linear implication. We present here a term assignment system which gives an interpretation of proofs as some kind of non-deterministic function. In this way we find a system which does enjoy cut elimination. The system is a direct result of an analysis of the categorical semantics, though we make an effort to present the system as if it were purely a proof-theoretic construction. (shrink)
Martín de Azpilcueta and his fellow Spanish Scholastics writing and teaching at the University of Salamanca during Spain’s Golden Age are rightly pointed to by historians of economic thought as being major contributors toward, if not outright founders of modern economic theory. Among these is the theory of time-preference for which Azpilcueta has repeatedly been given the credit for discovering. However, this discovery is a curious one given how the same man, Azpilcueta, condemned usury in general during his whole life. (...) If Azpilcueta did in fact discover this theory and fully understand its implications, we would reasonably expect him to have questioned his support for the ban on charging an interest on a loan. This paper, therefore, challenges the claim that Azpilcueta understood and revived time-preference theory and shows how his understanding was much more nuanced, and, at times, inconsistent. (shrink)
The first aim of this note is to describe an algebraic structure, more primitive than lattices and quantales, which corresponds to the intuitionistic flavour of Linear Logic we prefer. This part of the note is a total trivialisation of ideas from category theory and we play with a toy-structure a not distant cousin of a toy-language. The second goal of the note is to show a generic categorical construction, which builds models for Linear Logic, similar to categorical models GC of (...) [deP1990], but more general. The ultimate aim is to relate different categorical models of linear logic. (shrink)
In spite of the important discoveries made by Adam Smith and later by the economists of the Austrian School, Friedrich Hayek remained intellectually challenged by the miracle of the price mechanism. As it turned out there was still some pioneering to do in describing the price mechanism. This became clear when Hayek identified the dispersal of information relevant to exchange transactions as the central issue of economic study. In the context of his distinction between competition as a state of things (...) and as a process the price mechanism manifests itself as a powerful integrator of information which is at first sight hopelessly dispersed in modern society. In 1945 he pointed out another intellectual challenge which the miracle of the price mechanism poses: How could such a marvelous functionality come into existence? “I am convinced that if it [the price mechanism] were the result of deliberate human design, and if the people guided by the price changes understood that their decisions have significance far beyond their immediate aim, this mechanism would have been acclaimed as one of the greatest triumphs of the human mind”. It is precisely because the free determination of prices is obviously not an invention, and because actors on the market in general do not realize that their decisions are at once also signals for the information-processing system that the market is, that in general this market order is not highly estimated. The market order is nevertheless the best illustration of the dual principle that the most beautiful forms of complex functionality are not deliberately created and are not deliberately maintained. (shrink)
Este trabajo se propone examinar algunas características de la máscara del coquus en el corpus plautino. En primer término, se estudia el modo en que este personaje, a partir de las referencias al castigo físico y a la pasividad sexual, es construido como un cuerpo subordinado al servicio de otros. Luego, se consideran sus apariciones como ladrón y como proveedor de placeres corporales. Proponemos que la forma en que los cocineros son representados en la palliata de Plauto pone en evidencia (...) el vínculo que la axiología republicana establece entre actores sociales subalternos, corporalidad y amenaza a los mores maiorum. This paper examines some characteristics of the coquus mask in the plautine corpus. First, we study how this character, from references to physical punishment and sexual passivity, is built as a subordinate body to the service of others. Then, we consider his appearances as a thief and a provider of bodily pleasures. We propose that the way cooks are represented in Plautus' palliata shows us the link established by Republican axiology between subaltern social actors, body and threat to mores maiorum. (shrink)
El presente trabajo intenta mostrar de qué manera Plotino refuta la noción aristotélica del tiempo como «número» o «medida del movimiento», cuáles son las aporías que plantea, cómo las compulsa con sus propios argumentos y qué soluciones propone con respecto a esa misma confrontación. Todo esto será encauzado a partir de un estudio descriptivo y analítico, acompañado de una lectura a la vez hermenéutica y crítica de los textos seleccionados para esta ocasión.
No século XXI, a produção e o consumo de informação acompanharam o ritmo da globalização e hoje, sem muito esforço, podemos saber do que aconteceu a poucos minutos em qualquer parte do planeta. Percebemos, no entanto, que a produção dessa informação, bem como sua circulação, não acontece de forma livre e democrática. Há várias forças em jogo que fazem da comunicação uma ferramenta de manipulação social.
Este artigo explora as relações entre história e literatura considerando a literatura um testemunho que pode ser lido, desconstruído e submetido ao mesmo escrutínio ao qual os historiadores submetem outras fontes que lhes permitam ter acesso à compreensão de redes e tensões sociais mais amplas. Nele são utilizadas poesias publicadas no cancioneiro Trovador: coleção de modinhas, recitativos, árias, lundus, etc.., com o objetivo de mostrar como seus autores estabeleceram um diálogo entre si e com seus leitores acerca de um assunto (...) candente do seu tempo - o progresso e seus desdobramentos para o cotidiano da sociedade – utilizando-se da literatura como instrumento de intervenção na realidade. A partir desses pressupostos, a experiência histórica vivida por escritores é considerada condição básica de análise, bem como texto e contexto são percebidos como dimensões indissociáveis de um fenômeno mais amplo que é ao mesmo tempo, cultural, econômico, social e político devendo ser abordados em conjunto levando-se em conta suas conexões recíprocas. (shrink)
Nossa pesquisa procurou mapear a produção científica de mestres e doutores que atuam nos cursos de Educação Física do Maranhão, coletando e analisando informações sobre suas características epistemológicas, segundo as referências utilizadas na produção das teses e dissertações encontradas. Constatou-se que essa produção aborda temáticas distintas, incorrendo num ecletismo teórico ou numa indefinição epistemológica.
Resumo: A partir da disseminação das políticas educacionais inclusivas observa-se um aumento de matrículas de estudantes em situação de deficiência no Ensino Superior, elegíveis aos serviços de Educação Especial, no Brasil. Este artigo objetiva analisar os critérios institucionais utilizados para delinear o perfil desses universitários nos dados Censitários da Universidade e, de que modo tais dados comungam com as políticas educacionais inclusivas vigentes. Por conseguinte, buscará compreender como as políticas institucionais da universidade se correlacionam com as do Censo do Ensino (...) Superior e Políticas Educacionais Inclusivas no que refere aos apoios e medidas protetivas de acesso e participação dos estudantes a esta etapa de ensino à população mencionada. Trata-se de um estudo documental balizado na descrição do perfil de universitários da graduação e de pós-graduação, de uma universidade pública paulista no a) anuário institucional, b) formulário de identificação de matrícula de estudantes e, c) das designações desta população, descrita no Censo do INEP. Os resultados demonstraram um descompasso na caracterização dos marcadores que retratam o perfil do público em relação as designações referenciadas na Lei Brasileira de Inclusão. A escassez de práticas institucionais inclusivas dirigidas a este tema, somadas a falta de clareza na compreensão sobre as demandas educacionais específicas, declaradas pelos estudantes contribuem para manter um clima de instabilidade das tratativas de respostas à permanência deste público na universidade investigada. Palavra-chave: Acessibilidade; Deficiência; Ensino Superior; Políticas Educacionais Inclusivas. Policy for the identification of students with SEN at a public Brazilian university: From the dissemination of inclusive educational policies, there is an increase in enrollment of students with Special Educational Needs in Higher Education, users of Special Education services, in Brazil.The article aims to analyze the institutional criteria used to delineate the profile of these university students in the University's Census data and how these data are in line with the current inclusive educational policies. Therefore, it will seek to understand how the university's institutional policies correlate with those of the Higher Education Census and Inclusive Educational Policies regarding support and protective measures to access this stage of education for the population mentioned. This is a documentary study based on the description of the profile of undergraduate and graduate students, of a public university in São Paulo in a) institutional yearbook, b) student enrollment identification form, and c) the designations of this population, described in the INEP Census. The results demonstrated a disparity in the characterization of the markers that portray the public's profile in relation to the designations referenced in the Brazilian Inclusion Law. The shortage of inclusive institutional practices aimed at this theme, added to the lack of clarity in understanding about the especific educational demands, declared by students at the time contribute to maintaining a climate of instability in the treatment of responses to the permanence of this public in the investigated university. Key-words: Accessibility; Disability; Higher Education; Inclusive Educational Policies. Política para la identificación de estudiantes con NEE en una universidad pública brasileña Resumen: El artigo tiene como objetivo analizar los criterios institucionales utilizados para delinear el perfil de estos estudiantes universitarios en los datos del Censo de la Universidad y cómo estos datos están en línea con las políticas educativas inclusivas vigentes. Por lo tanto, le interesará comprender cómo las políticas institucionales de la universidad se correlacionan con las del Censo de Educación Superior y las Políticas Educativas Inclusivas en cuanto a medidas de apoyo y protección para el acceso a esta etapa educativa para la población mencionada. Se trata de un estudio documental basado en la descripción del perfil de estudiantes de grado y posgrado, de una universidad pública de São Paulo en a) anuario institucional y b) formulario de identificación de matrícula y, c) las designaciones de esta población, descritas en Censo del INEP. Los resultados demostraron un desajuste en la caracterización de los marcadores que retratan el perfil del público en relación a las designaciones referenciadas en la Ley de Inclusión brasileña. La escasez de prácticas institucionales inclusivas dirigidas a esta temática, sumada a la falta de claridad en la comprensión de las demandas educativas especificas, declaradas por los estudiantes al momento de su ingreso y / o matrícula, contribuyen a mantener un clima de inestabilidad en el tratamiento de respuestas a la permanencia de este público en la universidad investigada. Palabra-claves: Accesibilidad ; Deficiencia ; Enseñanza superior ; Políticas educativas inclusivas Data de registro: 16/04/2021 Data de aceite: 16/02/2022. (shrink)
Desde el punto de vista no solo historiográfico sino también _topológico_, atendiendo a la hermenéutica textual que se desprende de las _Enéadas_, este trabajo pretende mostrar que el pensamiento de Plotino representa la primera respuesta racionalmente satisfactoria a la irrupción histórica sin precedentes del principio de la _diferencia absoluta_, establecido ya en el _Evangelio según San Juan_. La trascendencia del Uno-Bien evidencia otro ámbito histórico y filosófico que no pertenece ya al modo griego de comprender la naturaleza metafísica de la (...) verdad. En Plotino, la verdad cobra la forma de una _operatio_, pues ella infunde en el alma un amor que la mueve hacia la unión infinita. Esta noción de la verdad se aproxima más a las contribuciones posteriores a Plotino y constituye, por ende, un punto de partida solvente para la reflexión teológica ulterior sobre la trascendencia divina y la dependencia causal del ente en el orden del ser. Para el logro de los fines propuestos, se utiliza un registro descriptivo y analítico, junto con una lectura crítica tanto de las fuentes como de la bibliografía especializada. (shrink)
Economic and social activities are undergoing radical changes, which can be labelled as ‘knowledge economy and/or society’. In this sense, intellectual capital, or knowledge assets, as the fourth factor of production, is replacing the other ones – job, land and capital. This article tries to offer the origins and nature of the firm’s IC that can be labelled as ‘An Intellectual Capital-Based View of the Firm Competition’. This framework tries to highlight the strategic role of different intangible assets like talented (...) and committed workers, cultural values, or long-term relationships among the firm and its stakeholders – customers, allies, suppliers and society in general – in gaining and sustaining competitive advantages, being the management of IC a key issue in the management agenda. (shrink)
Economic and social activities are undergoing radical changes, which can be labelled as 'knowledge economy and/or society'. In this sense, intellectual capital (IC), or knowledge assets, as the fourth factor of production, is replacing the other ones-job, land and capital. This article tries to offer the origins and nature of the firm's IC that can be labelled as 'An Intellectual Capital-Based View of the Firm Competition'. This framework tries to highlight the strategic role of different intangible assets like talented and (...) committed workers, cultural values, or long-term relationships among the firm and its stakeholders-customers, allies, suppliers and society in general - in gaining and sustaining competitive advantages, being the management of IC a key issue in the management agenda. (shrink)
O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa qualitativa que relata a organização espacial das fazendas aquícolas no litoral central de Santa Catarina, nas comunidades da Praia de Fora e Enseada de Brito, as quais se encontram no município de Palhoça, pertencentes ao Aglomerado Urbano de Florianópolis. As características de ocupação urbana nas localidades supracitadas remontam ao século XVIII, mantendo as atividades econômicas extrativistas e rurais até a segunda metade do século XX. A partir da década de 1960/1970 verificou-se acelerado processo de construção (...) de casas de veraneio, sobrepujado por uma intensa urbanização com moradores fixos por causa do calçamento da via principal em 2010. A legalização das fazendas marinhas ocorreu nesta mesma época, como parte do “Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Maricultura”, nos estados litorâneos brasileiros com aptidão ao cultivo nas comunidades envolvidas, apesar dos conflitos socioambientais. O município de Palhoça detém a maior produção de mexilhões em Santa Catarina. O marisco é um alimento popular no litoral catarinense e também uma iguaria na gastronomia internacional. A maior ameaça ao setor são os efluentes urbanos e os seus impactos ambientais. A falta de uma associação de produtores, bem como de um planejamento voltado à ocupação territorial de modo controlado e racional, tomando como fim a preservação do ecossistema de interesse, afeta a continuidade e o desenvolvimento econômico da atividade. (shrink)
Resumen En esta conversación, María del Rosario Acosta y Jean-Luc Nancy reflexionan sobre los distintos registros de la palabra "murmullo" y la relación que puede establecerse entre cada uno de ellos y la pregunta por la crítica política y de lo político en el pensamiento de Nancy. El aspecto sonoro del murmullo permite acercarse, por un lado, a una reflexión sobre la circulación del sentido en términos de resonancia. Conduce también a la pregunta por la singularidad de la experiencia de (...) la escucha en la constitución de ser-en-común, y por el papel del testimonio -y la desaparición de espacios para su escucha- en medio de las múltiples violencias que afectan nuestro presente histórico. Nancy revisa algunas de sus posturas anteriores frente a estas preguntas, profundiza en otras, y trae a colación temas nuevos que no se encuentran desarrollados en otros de sus escritos. Como texto inédito, esta conversación es un homenaje a su voz en el contexto de su muerte reciente. Nos recuerda que el murmullo de su pensamiento seguirá circulando entre nosotres.In this conversation, María del Rosario Acosta and Jean-Luc Nancy reflect on the different registers of the word "murmur" and the relationship that can be established between each of them and the question of the political and political criticism in the thought of Nancy. The sound aspect of the murmur allows us to approach, on the one hand, a reflection on the circulation of meaning in terms of resonance. It also leads to the question of the uniqueness of the experience of listening in the constitution of being-in-common, and of the role of testimony -and the disappearance of spaces for listening to it- during the multiple violence that affects our historical present. Nancy reviews some of his previous positions on these questions, delves into others, and brings up new themes that are not developed in other of his writings. As a previously unpublished text, this conversation is a tribute to his voice in the context of his recent death. He reminds us that the murmur of his thoughts will continue to circulate. (shrink)
A tradução que ora se apresenta é a primeira parte do estudo do neotomista espanhol Santiago Maria Ramírez, O.P., o qual versa sobre o valor doutrinal da obra de Santo Tomás de Aquino. Para o que, distingue a autoridade científica da autoridade canônica, dependente esta exclusivamente do reconhecimento eclesiástico, apresentando os testemunhos históricos e documentais desde sua morte até o pontificado de Leão XIII, exclusive.