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Evan Fales [68]Evan M. Fales [2]
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Evan Fales
University of Iowa
  1. Causation and Universals.Evan Fales - 1990 - Routledge.
    The world contains objective causal relations and universals, both of which are intimately connected. If these claims are true, they must have far-reaching consequences, breathing new life into the theory of empirical knowledge and reinforcing epistemological realism. Without causes and universals, Professor Fales argues, realism is defeated, and idealism or scepticism wins. Fales begins with a detailed analysis of David Hume's argument that we have no direct experience of necessary connections between events, concluding that Hume was mistaken on this fundamental (...)
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  2. A Defense of the Given.Evan Fales - 1996 - Lanham: Rowman &Amp; Littlefield.
    The Doctrine of the Given The Myth of the Given A Methodological Problem To a convinced foundationalist, the project of establishing the existence of the ...
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  3.  62
    Causation and Universals.The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume.Causation: A Realist Approach.Evan Fales, Galen Strawson & Michael Tooley - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (165):494-498.
  4. A Defense of the Given.Evan Fales - 2000 - Noûs 34 (3):468-480.
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  5. Are Causal Laws Contingent?Evan Fales - 1993 - In John Bacon, Keith Campbell & Lloyd Reinhardt (eds.), Ontology, Causality and Mind: Essays in Honour of D.M. Armstrong. Cambridge University Press.
    It has been nearly a decade and a half since Fred Dretske, David Armstrong and Michael Tooley, having each rejected the Regularity theory, independently proposed that natural laws are grounded in a second-order relation that somehow binds together universals.' (l shall call this the ‘DTA theory’). In this way they sought to overcome the major - and notorious — shortcomings of every version of the Regularity theory: how to provide truth conditions for laws that lack instances; how to distinguish laws (...)
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  6. A Defense of the Given.Michael Huemer & Evan Fales - 1999 - Philosophical Review 108 (1):128.
    The “doctrine of the given” that Fales defends holds that there are certain experiences such that we can have justified beliefs about their “contents” that are not based on any other beliefs, and that the rest of our justified empirical beliefs rest on those “basic beliefs.” The features of experience basic beliefs are about are said to be “given.” Fales holds that some basic beliefs are infallible, having a kind of clarity that guarantees their truth to the believer. In addition, (...)
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  7.  32
    Is Faith a Path to Knowledge?Evan Fales - 2020 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 2 (1):182-205.
    In this paper, I consider whether faith has any role to play in conferring positive epistemic status to beliefs. I outline several conceptions of faith that have been historically important within Western religious traditions. I then consider what role faith might be supposed to play, so understood, within the framework of internalist and externalist accounts of knowledge. My general conclusion is that, insofar as faith itself is a justified epistemic attitude, it requires justification and acquires that justification only through the (...)
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  8.  11
    Divine Intervention: Metaphysical and Epistemological Puzzles.Evan Fales - 2009 - Routledge.
    This study is a new look at the question of how God can act upon the world, and whether the world can affect God, examining contemporary work on the metaphysics of causation and laws of nature, and current work in the theory of knowledge and mysticism. It has been traditional to address such questions by appealing to God’s omnipotence and omniscience, but this book claims that this is useless unless it can be shown how these two powers "work." Instead of (...)
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  9.  9
    Causation: A Realist Approach.Evan Fales - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (3):605-610.
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  10.  85
    Is a Science of the Supernatural Possible?Evan Fales - 2013 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 247.
    This chapter examines arguments for the view that any science of the supernatural must be a pseudoscience. It shows that many of these arguments are not good arguments. It also argues that, contrary to recent philosophical discussions, the appeal to the supernatural should not be ruled out as science for methodological reasons, but rather because the notion of supernatural intervention probably suffers from fatal flaws.
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  11.  72
    Turtle Epistemology.Evan Fales - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (2):339-354.
    In “Justification Without Awareness”, Michael Bergmann divides internalist epistemologies into those with a strong awareness requirement and those with a weak awareness requirement; he presents a dilemma, hoisting the “strongs” on one horn, and the “weaks” on the other. Here I reply on behalf of the strong-awareness view, presenting what I take to be a more satisfactory, and more fundamental, reply to Bergmann than I believe has been offered by his other critics, and in particular by Rogers and Matheson in (...)
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  12. Plantinga's Case Against Naturalistic Epistemology.Evan Fales - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):432-451.
    In Warrant and Proper Function, Alvin Plantinga claims that metaphysical naturalism, when joined to a naturalized epistemology, is self-undermining. Plantinga argues that naturalists are committed to a neoDarwinian account of our origins, and that the reliability of our cognitive faculties is improbable or unknown relative to that theory. If the theory is true, then we are in no position to know that, whereas theism, if true, underwrites cognitive reliability. I seek to turn the tables on Plantinga, showing that neoDarwinism provides (...)
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  13.  59
    Natural Kinds and Freaks of Nature.Evan Fales - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (1):67-90.
    Essentialism--understood as the doctrine that there are natural kinds--can be sustained with respect to the most fundamental physical entities of the world, as I elsewhere argue. In this paper I take up the question of the existence of natural kinds among complex structures built out of these elementary ones. I consider a number of objections to essentialism, in particular Locke's puzzle about the existence of borderline cases. A number of recent attempts to justify biological taxonomy are critically examined. I conclude (...)
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  14.  35
    Darwin's Doubt, Calvin's Calvary.Evan Fales - 2009 - In Michael Ruse (ed.), Philosophy After Darwin: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Princeton University Press. pp. 309.
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  15.  34
    Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences, Part I: The Case of St Teresa: Evan Fales.Evan Fales - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (2):143-163.
    Several writers have argued for the implausibility of there being naturalistic explanations of mystical experience. These writers recognize that the evidential significance of mystical experiences for theism depends upon whether explanations that exclude supernatural agency can be discounted; but they seem unaware of some of the best scientific work done in this area. Part I of the present paper introduces the theory of I. M. Lewis, an anthropologist, and tests it against the case of St Teresa. I use Teresa because (...)
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  16.  73
    Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences, Part I: The Case of St Teresa.Evan Fales - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (2):143.
    Several writers have argued for the implausibility of there being naturalistic explanations of mystical experience. These writers recognize that the evidential significance of mystical experiences for theism depends upon whether explanations that exclude supernatural agency can be discounted; but they seem unaware of some of the best scientific work done in this area. Part I of the present paper introduces the theory of I. M. Lewis, an anthropologist, and tests it against the case of St Teresa. I use Teresa because (...)
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  17. Uniqueness and Historical Laws.Evan Fales - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (2):260-276.
    This paper presents an argument for the claim that historical events are unique in a nontrivial sense which entails the inapplicability of the Hempelian D-N model to historical explanations. Some previous criticisms of Hempel are shown to be general criticisms of the D-N model which can be outflanked in cases where a reduction to fundamental laws is available. I then survey grounds for denying that explanations by reasons can be effectively reduced to causal explanations, and for rejecting methodological individualism. I (...)
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  18. Is Middle Knowledge Possible? Almost.Evan Fales - 2011 - Sophia 50 (1):1-9.
  19.  97
    Do Mystics See God?Evan Fales - 2004 - In Michael L. Peterson & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell. pp. 145--148.
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  20. Proper Basicality.Evan Fales - 2004 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 68 (2):373 - 383.
    Foundationalist epistemologies, whether internalist or externalist, ground noetic structures in beliefs that are said to be foundational, or properly basic. It is essential to such epistemologies that they provide clear criteria for proper basicality. This proves, I argue, to be a thorny task, at least insofar as the goal is to provide a psychologically realistic reconstruction of our actual doxastic practices. I examine some of the difficulties, and suggest some implications, in particular for the externalist epistemology of Alvin Plantinga.
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  21.  99
    Divine Intervention.Evan Fales - 1997 - Faith and Philosophy 14 (2):170-194.
    Some philosophers deny that science can investigate the supernatural - specifically, the nature and actions of God. If a divine being is atemporal, then, indeed, this seems plausible - but only, I shall argue, because such a being could not causally interact with anything. Here I discuss in detail two major attempts, those of Stump and Kretzmann, and of Leftow, to make sense of theophysical causation on the supposition that God is eternal. These views are carefully worked out, and their (...)
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  22. Naturalism and Physicalism.Evan Fales - 2007 - In Michael Martin (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
     
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  23.  26
    The Case for Humanism: An Introduction.Lewis Vaughn, Austin Dacey & Evan Fales - 2003 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The Case for Humanism is the premier textbook to introduce and help students think critically about the 'big ideas' of Western humanism—secularism, rationalism, materialism, science, democracy, individualism, and others—all powerful themes that run through Western thought from the ancient Greeks and the Enlightenment to the present day.
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  24. Alvin Plantinga's Warranted Christian Belief.Evan Fales - 2003 - Noûs 37 (2):353–370.
    This critical study of the third book of Plantinga's trilogy on proper-function epistemology begins by denying that classical foundationalism proposes a deontic conception of justification. Nor is it subject to Gettier counterexamples, as, I show, Plantinga's fallibilism is and must be. Plantinga's central thesis is that there's no way of attacking the rationality of central Christian beliefs without attacking their truth. That, I argue, is not so on several grounds, e.g., because one can demand independent evidence for the existence of (...)
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  25.  73
    The Ontology of Social Roles.Evan Fales - 1977 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 7 (2):139-161.
  26.  33
    Generic Universals.Evan Fales - 1982 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):29 – 39.
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  27.  45
    Theoretical Simplicity and Defeasibility.Evan Fales - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (2):273-288.
    Theoretical simplicity is difficult to characterize, and evidently can depend upon a number of distinct factors. One such desirable characteristic is that the laws of a theory have relatively few "counterinstances" whose accommodation requires the invocation of a ceteris paribus condition and ancillary explanation. It is argued that, when one theory is reduced to another, such that the laws of the second govern the behavior of the parts of the entities in the domain of the first, there is a characteristic (...)
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  28.  15
    The Spiritual Brain: Intimations or Hallucinations of God?Evan Fales - 2021 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 3 (2):214-236.
    Do mystical experiences make it rational to believe in God? A fair number of theistic philosophers have thought so, and, for the mystic who is ignorant of current scientific findings, perhaps that conclusion is correct. But the ignorant are not best qualified to judge: let us see how science might inform judgment. Here I will focus most particularly on the neurological basis of mystical experiences. It might initially seem that the evidence for such a basis is theologically benign—neutral on the (...)
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  29. Mystical Experience as Evidence.Evan Fales - 1996 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 40 (1):19 - 46.
  30.  73
    Should God Not Have Created Adam?Evan Fales - 1992 - Faith and Philosophy 9 (2):193-209.
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  31. Divine Commands and Moral Obligation.Evan Fales - 2010 - Philo 13 (2):151 - 166.
    A popular proof for the existence of God assumes that there are objective moral duties, arguing that this can only be explained by there being a supreme law-giver, namely God. The upshot is either a Divine command theory (DCT) -- or something similar -- or a natural-law theory. I discuss two prominent theories, Robert Adams’s DCT and Stephen Evans’s hybrid DCT/natural-law theory. I argue that they suffer from fatal difficulties. Natural-law theories are plausible, if God exists, but can’t be used (...)
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  32.  38
    Relative Essentialism.Evan Fales - 1979 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (4):349-370.
  33. Divine Freedom and the Choice of a World.Evan M. Fales - 1994 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (2):65 - 88.
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  34.  58
    Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences: II. The Challenge to Theism.Evan Fales - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (3):297-313.
    In Part I of this paper, I argued that the mystical experiences of Teresa of Avila are well explained by the anthropological theory of I. M. Lewis. In Part II, I discuss how the causal gap between the social circumstances identified by Lewis and individual phenomenology can be filled in. I then show that Lewis's theory, thus supplemented, is a genuine competitor to the theistic understanding of mystical experience, and that it is much more strongly confirmed by the available evidence (...)
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  35.  34
    Scientific Explanations of Mystical Experiences: Evan Fales.Evan Fales - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (3):297-313.
    In Part I of this paper, I took up a challenge posed by Alston , Wainwright , Yandell , and other theists who hold the rather natural view that mystical experiences provide perceptual contact with God, roughly on a par with the access sense experience affords to the natural world. These theists recognize, at the same time, that the plausibility of this view would be significantly compromised by the possibility of scientifically explaining mystical experiences – especially if a scientific explanation (...)
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  36.  41
    How to Be a Metaphysical Realist.Evan Fales - 1988 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 12 (1):253-274.
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  37.  44
    Truth, Tradition, and Rationality.Evan Fales - 1976 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (2):97-113.
  38.  5
    Causes and Coincidences.Evan Fales - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (2):465-468.
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  39. Theodicy in a Vale of Tears.Evan Fales - 2013 - In The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil.
    Theodicies can be distinguished as “hard-nosed” or “good-hearted.” Typical features of each are given. I reject the former; they set the bar too low for God. Considerable discussion is devoted to Eleonore Stump's recent Wandering in Darkness, which sets the standard for good-hearted theodicies. I then develop the notion of a “perfect creature”, a possible being indistinguishable from God except lacking aseity, and argue that God should have created only perfect creatures. Since He did not, He is not. Theodicies, therefore, (...)
     
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  40.  72
    Can Science Explain Mysticism?Evan Fales - 1999 - Religious Studies 35 (2):213-227.
    Jerome Gellman has recently disputed my claim that a naturalistic explanation for mystical experiences is available, a better explanation than any current attempt to show that God is sometimes perceived in those experiences. Gellman argues (i) that some mystics do not 'fit' the sociological explanation of I. M. Lewis; (ii) that the sociological analysis of tribal mysticism cannot properly be extended to theistic experiences; and (iii) that mystical experiences merit prima facie credence, so the burden of proof falls on the (...)
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  41.  16
    "Causation: A Realist Approach" by Michael Tooley. [REVIEW]Evan Fales - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (3):605.
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  42. Causal Knowledge: What Can Psychology Teach Philosophers.Evan Fales & Edward A. Wasserman - 1992 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (1):1-28.
    Theories of how organisms learn about cause-effect relations have a history dating back at least to the associationist/mechanistic hypothesis of David Hume. Some contemporary theories of causal learning are descendants of Hume's mechanistic models of conditioning, but others impute principled, rule-based reasoning. Since even primitive animals are conditionable, it is clear that there are built-in mechanical algorithms that respond to cause/effect relations. The evidence suggests that humans retain the use of such algorithms, which are surely adaptive when causal judgments must (...)
     
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  43.  68
    Reformed Epistemology and Biblical Hermeneutics.Evan Fales - 2001 - Philo 4 (2):169-184.
    Literal-minded Christians are enjoying resurgent respectability in intellectual circles. Darwin isn’t the only target: also under attack is the application of modern historiography to Scripture According to Reformed epistemologists, ordinary Christians can directly know that, e.g., Jesus rose from the dead, and evidential concerns can be dismissed. This reversion to a sixteenth century hermeneutic deserves response.
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  44.  77
    Are the Gods Apolitical?Evan Fales - 1999 - Philo.
    The attraction between religion and politics is perennial. Sometimes, in its long and checkered history, it has led to an adulterous affair. I want to ask what lies at the heart of this attraction, and whether that can shed any light on the current religious/political scene. But the romance metaphor is at bottom not a good one. I shall argue that, in their originary condition, religion and politics are "closer," both ontologically and in their motivation, than woman and man, closer (...)
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  45. Review of John Foster, The Divine Lawmaker: Lectures on Induction, Laws of Nature, and the Existence of God[REVIEW]Evan Fales - 2004 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (9).
  46.  73
    Definite Descriptions as Designators.Evan Fales - 1976 - Mind 85 (338):225-238.
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  47.  68
    World Without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism.Evan Fales - 2005 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 71 (2):494-497.
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  48.  67
    Despair, Optimism, and Rebellion.Evan Fales - 2007 - Internet Infidels, Modern Library.
    I will make all my goodness pass before you, and will proclaim before you my name 'the LORD'; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. But ... you cannot see my face; for man shall not see me and live. Exodus 33:19-20, RSV..
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  49. Mystical Experience of God: A Philosophical Inquiry, by Jerome Gellman. [REVIEW]Evan Fales - 2002 - Ars Disputandi 2.
  50. "Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature" by Richard Rorty.Evan Fales - 1983 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 13 (4):524.
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