69 found
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  1.  60
    Recommendations for Responsible Development and Application of Neurotechnologies.Sara Goering, Eran Klein, Laura Specker Sullivan, Anna Wexler, Blaise Agüera Y. Arcas, Guoqiang Bi, Jose M. Carmena, Joseph J. Fins, Phoebe Friesen, Jack Gallant, Jane E. Huggins, Philipp Kellmeyer, Adam Marblestone, Christine Mitchell, Erik Parens, Michelle Pham, Alan Rubel, Norihiro Sadato, Mina Teicher, David Wasserman, Meredith Whittaker, Jonathan Wolpaw & Rafael Yuste - 2021 - Neuroethics 14 (3):365-386.
    Advancements in novel neurotechnologies, such as brain computer interfaces and neuromodulatory devices such as deep brain stimulators, will have profound implications for society and human rights. While these technologies are improving the diagnosis and treatment of mental and neurological diseases, they can also alter individual agency and estrange those using neurotechnologies from their sense of self, challenging basic notions of what it means to be human. As an international coalition of interdisciplinary scholars and practitioners, we examine these challenges and make (...)
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  2.  24
    Authenticity and Ambivalence: Toward Understanding the Enhancement Debate.Erik Parens - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (3):34.
    The differences between critics and proponents of enhancement technologies are easily overblown. Both sides of this debate share the moral ideal of being “authentic” to oneself. They differ in how they prefer to understand authenticity, but even this difference is not as stark as it sometimes seems.
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  3. Authenticity and ambivalence: Toward understanding the enhancement debate.Erik Parens - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (3):34-41.
    : The differences between critics and proponents of enhancement technologies are easily overblown. Both sides of this debate share the moral ideal of being "authentic" to oneself. They differ in how they prefer to understand authenticity, but even this difference is not as stark as it sometimes seems.
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  4.  8
    Shaping our selves: on technology, flourishing, and a habit of thinking.Erik Parens - 2015 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Seeing from somewhere in particular -- Embracing binocularity -- Creativity and gratitude -- Technology as vlaue-free and as value-laden -- Nobody's against true enhancement -- Comprehending persons as subjectss and as objects -- Respecting persons as subjects and as objects.
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  5. On good and bad forms of medicalization.Erik Parens - 2011 - Bioethics 27 (1):28-35.
    The ongoing ‘enhancement’ debate pits critics of new self-shaping technologies against enthusiasts. One important thread of that debate concerns medicalization, the process whereby ‘non-medical’ problems become framed as ‘medical’ problems.In this paper I consider the charge of medicalization, which critics often level at new forms of technological self-shaping, and explain how that charge can illuminate – and obfuscate. Then, more briefly, I examine the charge of pharmacological Calvinism, which enthusiasts, in their support of technological self-shaping, often level at critics. And (...)
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  6.  73
    Special Supplement: Is Better Always Good? The Enhancement Project.Erik Parens - 1998 - Hastings Center Report 28 (1):S1.
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  7.  43
    Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights.Erik Parens & Adrienne Asch (eds.) - 2000 - Georgetown University Press.
    "In these essays, health care professionals, scholars, and members of the disability community debate the implications of prenatal testing for people with disabilitties and for parent-child relationships generally."--Cover.
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  8. The Goodness of Fragility: On the Prospect of Genetic Technologies Aimed at the Enhancement of Human Capacities.Erik Parens - 1995 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 5 (2):141-153.
    Beginning with the assumptions that genetic technology will make possible the enhancement of some significant human capacities and that our society will have self-evident reasons to pursue such enhancements, this essay suggests less evident reasons to proceed with extreme caution. The essay asks: Will we, in our attempts to enhance humans by reducing their subjection to chance and change, inadvertently impoverish them? It explores how technologies aimed at enhancement might affect the good that is our experience of some forms of (...)
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  9.  34
    Wrestling with Social and Behavioral Genomics: Risks, Potential Benefits, and Ethical Responsibility.Michelle N. Meyer, Paul S. Appelbaum, Daniel J. Benjamin, Shawneequa L. Callier, Nathaniel Comfort, Dalton Conley, Jeremy Freese, Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Evelynn M. Hammonds, K. Paige Harden, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Alicia R. Martin, Daphne Oluwaseun Martschenko, Benjamin M. Neale, Rohan H. C. Palmer, James Tabery, Eric Turkheimer, Patrick Turley & Erik Parens - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (S1):2-49.
    In this consensus report by a diverse group of academics who conduct and/or are concerned about social and behavioral genomics (SBG) research, the authors recount the often‐ugly history of scientific attempts to understand the genetic contributions to human behaviors and social outcomes. They then describe what the current science—including genomewide association studies and polygenic indexes—can and cannot tell us, as well as its risks and potential benefits. They conclude with a discussion of responsible behavior in the context of SBG research. (...)
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  10.  16
    Wrestling with Public Input on an Ethical Analysis of Scientific Research.Erik Parens, Michelle N. Meyer, Patrick Turley, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Nanibaa’ A. Garrison, Shawneequa L. Callier & Daphne Oluwaseun Martschenko - 2023 - Hastings Center Report 53 (2):S50-S65.
    Bioethicists frequently call for empirical researchers to engage participants and community members in their research, but don't themselves typically engage community members in their normative research. In this article, we describe an effort to include members of the public in normative discussions about the risks, potential benefits, and ethical responsibilities of social and behavioral genomics (SBG) research. We reflect on what might—and might not— be gained from engaging the public in normative scholarship and on lessons learned about public perspectives on (...)
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  11.  87
    Special Supplement: The Disability Rights Critique of Prenatal Genetic Testing Reflections and Recommendations.Erik Parens & Adrienne Asch - 1999 - Hastings Center Report 29 (5):S1.
  12.  36
    Sequencing Newborns: A Call for Nuanced Use of Genomic Technologies.Josephine Johnston, John D. Lantos, Aaron Goldenberg, Flavia Chen, Erik Parens & Barbara A. Koenig - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (S2):2-6.
    Many scientists and doctors hope that affordable genome sequencing will lead to more personalized medical care and improve public health in ways that will benefit children, families, and society more broadly. One hope in particular is that all newborns could be sequenced at birth, thereby setting the stage for a lifetime of medical care and self‐directed preventive actions tailored to each child's genome. Indeed, commentators often suggest that universal genome sequencing is inevitable. Such optimism can come with the presumption that (...)
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  13.  26
    Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights.Walter M. Robinson, Erik Parens & Adrienne Asch - 2002 - Hastings Center Report 32 (2):45.
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  14.  45
    Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.Paul S. Appelbaum, Erik Parens, Cameron R. Waldman, Robert Klitzman, Abby Fyer, Josue Martinez, W. Nicholson Price & Wendy K. Chung - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (4):22-32.
    Genomic research—including whole genome sequencing and whole exome sequencing—has a growing presence in contemporary biomedical investigation. The capacity of sequencing techniques to generate results that go beyond the primary aims of the research—historically referred to as “incidental findings”—has generated considerable discussion as to how this information should be handled—that is, whether incidental results should be returned, and if so, which ones.Federal regulations governing most human subjects research in the United States require the disclosure of “the procedures to be followed” in (...)
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  15.  27
    Genetic Differences and Human Identities.Erik Parens - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (S1):4-35.
  16.  23
    Choosing Flourishing: Toward a More "Binocular" Way of Thinking about Disability.Erik Parens - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (2):135-150.
    It is hardly news to readers of this collection that in bioethics there has been a long-standing debate between people who can seem to be arguing "for" disability and people who can seem to be arguing "against" it. Those who have argued for have often been disability scholars and those who have argued against have often been philosophers of a utilitarian bent. At least since the mid 2000s, some disability scholars and some philosophers of a utilitarian bent have sought to (...)
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  17.  83
    The ethics of memory blunting and the narcissism of small differences.Erik Parens - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (2):99-107.
    At least since 2003, when the US President’s Council on Bioethics published Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness , there has been heated debate about the ethics of using pharmacology to reduce the intensity of emotions associated with painful memories. That debate has sometimes been conducted in language that obfuscates as much as it illuminates. I argue that the two sides of the debate actually agree that, in general, it is good to reduce the emotional intensity of memories (...)
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  18.  46
    Incidental Findings in the Era of Whole Genome Sequencing?Erik Parens, Paul Appelbaum & Wendy Chung - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (4):16-19.
    The rise of technologies that can inexpensively sequence entire genomes means that researchers and clinicians have access to ever vaster stores of genomic data, some of which could be of great use to research participants or patients, and most of which, at least for today, will be of little, uncertain, or no use. Those facts are essential features of a new ethical territory we are now entering with genetics research. As we explore that territory, we should try to be as (...)
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  19.  42
    Sequencing Newborns: A Call for Nuanced Use of Genomic Technologies.Josephine Johnston, John D. Lantos, Aaron Goldenberg, Flavia Chen, Erik Parens, Barbara A. Koenig, Members of the Nsight Ethics & Policy Advisory Board - forthcoming - Zygon.
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  20.  13
    Special Supplement: Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult.Erik Parens - 2004 - Hastings Center Report 34 (1):S1.
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  21.  11
    Drifting Away from Informed Consent in the Era of Personalized Medicine.Erik Parens - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (4):16-20.
    The price of sequencing all the DNA in a person's genome is falling so fast that, according to one biotech leader, soon it won't cost much more than flushing a toilet. Getting all that genomic data at an ever‐lower cost excites the imaginations not only of biotech investors and researchers but also of the President and many members of Congress. They envision the data ushering in an age of “personalized medicine,” where medical care is tailored to persons’ genomes. The new (...)
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  22.  23
    Troubled Children: Diagnosing, Treating, and Attending to Context.Erik Parens & Josephine Johnston - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):S4-S31.
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  23. Toward a more fruitful debate about enhancement.Erik Parens - 2009 - In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oxford University Press. pp. 181--197.
     
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  24.  27
    Human Flourishing in an Age of Gene Editing.Erik Parens & Josephine Johnston (eds.) - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    International uproar followed the recent announcement of the birth of twin girls whose genomes had been edited with a breakthrough DNA editing-technology. This technology, called clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats or CRISPR-Cas9, can alter any DNA, including DNA in embryos, meaning that changes can be passed to the offspring of the person that embryo becomes. Should we use gene editing technologies to change ourselves, our children, and future generations to come? The potential uses of CRISPR-Cas9 and other gene editing (...)
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  25.  31
    Should We Hold the (Germ) Line?Erik Parens - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):173-176.
    In 1982, the President's Commission produced its report on human gene therapy. One of that report's recommendations was to expand the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee to the National Institutes of Health to include a subcommittee on human gene therapy. In 1984, the Human Gene Therapy Subcommittee was established, and in 1989 it produced a document—“Points to Consider for Protocols for the Transfer of Recombinant DNA into Human Subjects”—that stated the RAC's position on what sorts of protocols it would approve.In assessing (...)
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  26.  15
    Should We Hold the (Germ) Line?Erik Parens - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):173-176.
    In 1982, the President's Commission produced its report on human gene therapy. One of that report's recommendations was to expand the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee to the National Institutes of Health to include a subcommittee on human gene therapy. In 1984, the Human Gene Therapy Subcommittee was established, and in 1989 it produced a document—“Points to Consider for Protocols for the Transfer of Recombinant DNA into Human Subjects”—that stated the RAC's position on what sorts of protocols it would approve.In assessing (...)
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  27.  42
    Taking Behavioral Genetics Seriously.Erik Parens - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (4):13-18.
    Discussions of information produced by genetics research are often guided by two mistaken theoretical moves. Enthusiasts tell us not to worry because genetic tinkering can alter only our body, never our soul; worriers suggest that discovering links between our behavior and our different bodies threatens important democratic ideas like moral equality. If we understand the body and soul to be inseparable and equality to be undiminished by difference, we can begin to take seriously the information produced by genetics research.
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  28.  21
    Neuroimaging: Beginning to Appreciate Its Complexities.Erik Parens & Josephine Johnston - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s2):2-7.
    For over a century, scientists have sought to see through the protective shield of the human skull and into the living brain. Today, an array of technologies allows researchers and clinicians to create astonishingly detailed images of our brain's structure as well as colorful depictions of the electrical and physiological changes that occur within it when we see, hear, think and feel. These technologies—and the images they generate—are an increasingly important tool in medicine and science.Given the role that neuroimaging technologies (...)
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  29.  26
    On What We Have Learned and Still Need to Learn about the Psychosocial Impacts of Genetic Testing.Erik Parens & Paul S. Appelbaum - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (S1):2-9.
    Since the start of the program to investigate the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project in 1990, many ELSI scholars have maintained that genetic testing should be used with caution because of the potential for negative psychosocial effects associated with receiving genetic information. More recently, though, some ELSI scholars have produced evidence suggesting that the original ELSI concerns were unfounded, exaggerated, or, at a minimum, misdirected. At least in the contexts that have been most studied, (...)
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  30.  21
    Troubled Children: Diagnosing, Treating, and Attending to Context.Erik Parens & Josephine Johnston - 2011 - Hastings Center Report 41 (2):S4-S31.
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  31.  27
    The Pluralist Constellation.Erik Parens - 1995 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (2):197.
    I work at a research institute where the staff spends its time thinking about ethical issues that arise with progress in medicine, the life sciences, and technology. After such thinking, we make public policy recommendations. We pride ourselves in the diversity of our staff: there is a doctor, a lawyer, a linguistic anthropologist, a political scientist, a theologian, some philosophers, and so on. Both men and women do research and we are religiously diverse: Catholics, Jews, Protestants, and atheists.
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  32.  25
    Respecting Children with Disabilities—and Their Parents.Erik Parens - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (1):22-23.
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  33. Book Reviews-Enhancing Human Traits: Ethical and Social Implications.Erik Parens & David B. Resnik - 2000 - Bioethics 14 (1):93-95.
     
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  34.  43
    How Long Has This Been Going On? Disability Issues, Disability Studies, and Bioethics.Erik Parens - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (3):54-55.
    (2001). How Long Has This Been Going On? Disability Issues, Disability Studies, and Bioethics. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 54-55.
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  35.  10
    Living with the Ancient Puzzle.Erik Parens - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s2):50-52.
    We began this special report by suggesting that neuroimaging technologies are tools that can, when used carefully and in conjunction with the other tools of neuroscience and psychology, help illuminate the capacities and behaviors that constitute our minds. In the course of this special report we have called attention to some basic points that are worth remembering as we encounter more and more claims about human psychology that are based on evidence from imaging technologies like fMRI.
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  36. How far will the treatment/enhancement distinction get us as we grapple with new ways to shape ourselves.Erik Parens - forthcoming - Neuroethics: Mapping the Field.
     
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  37.  31
    Alzheimer's disease and personhood.Erik Parens - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (1):1 - p.
    As in the United States, the Dutch conversation about assisted suicide emerged primarily in the context of cancer. At least in that context, before acceding to a request for assistance in dying, caregivers must be sure that the person has made a voluntary and carefully considered request, and that her suffering is unbearable and without prospect of improvement. The Dutch have recently been trying to use those criteria in the context of Alzheimer's disease. Given the wave of Alzheimer's cases poised (...)
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  38.  21
    The Authors Reply.Paul S. Appelbaum, Wendy Chung, Abby J. Fyer, Robert L. Klitzman, Josue Martinez, Erik Parens, W. Nicholson Price & Cameron Waldman - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (1):4-4.
    Reply to a commentary by Felicitas Holzer and Ignacio Mastroleoon “Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.”.
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  39.  21
    What Differences Make a Difference?Erik Parens - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
    Four years ago The Hastings Center initiated a That project gave the Center staff a chance to explore one swath of the theoretical literature concerning how members of democratic regimes ought to think about and respond to the differences among themselves. Much of that literature, produced by philosophers like Charles Taylor, Martha Nussbaum, and John Kekes, is wonderfully articulate about difference in general. But it is nearly silent about how particular categories of difference actually make a difference in the lives (...)
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  40.  31
    Laughter in the Best Medicine.Joyce A. Griffin, Susan Gilbert, Nora Porter, Nancy Berlinger, Mary Crowley, Josephine Johnston, Thomas H. Murray & Erik Parens - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  41.  35
    How to Think about Stemming an Insurgency.Gregory E. Kaebnick, Eric F. Trump, Nora Porter, Joyce Griffin, Bruce Jennings, Karen J. Maschke, Thomas H. Murray & Erik Parens - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  42.  5
    Autonomous consumers.Erik Parens - 1994 - Hastings Center Report 24 (4):3.
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  43.  13
    Admiring Dan's Creation.Erik Parens - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (5):6-7.
    Dan Callahan never tired of probing the fundamental ethical question that Socrates asked, “How should we live?” The investigation animated him. He asked, Can we, for a moment, set aside our preoccupation with better health and a longer life and think together about what we want those things for? Can we explore what a good life consists in? It turned out there was no better alibi for asking that fundamental question than taking up the seemingly more manageable ones that were (...)
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  44. About Enhancement.Erik Parens - 2009 - In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oxford University Press. pp. 181.
     
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  45.  21
    An Introduction to Thinking about Trustworthy Research into the Genetics of Intelligence.Erik Parens & Paul S. Appelbaum - 2015 - Hastings Center Report 45 (S1):2-8.
    The advent of new technologies has rekindled some hopes that it will be possible to identify genetic variants that will help to explain why individuals are different with respect to complex traits. At least one leader in the development of “whole genome sequencing”—the Chinese company BGI—has been quite public about its commitment to using the technique to investigate the genetics of intelligence in general and high intelligence in particular. Because one needs large samples to detect the small effects associated with (...)
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  46.  43
    Bioethicists Are More Like Bricoleurs than Engineers: Reflections on Fredrik Svenaeus' Phenomenological Bioethics.Erik Parens - 2018 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (4):479-486.
    In America in the 1960s, ethics was out of fashion. Scientists tended to think it was as wooly and "ideological" as religion, and many philosophers agreed. But advances in the biosciences and biotechnologies made the need for ethical reflection hard to ignore. Ethics needed what today we would call rebranding.The new field devoted to questions arising with advances in the biosciences and biotechnologies would be called "bioethics." As theologian Warren Reich put it when reflecting back on the birth of bioethics (...)
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  47.  8
    Best‐Laid Editorial Plans.Erik Parens, Thomas H. Murray, Karen J. Maschke, Josephine Johnston, Nora Porter, Susan Gilbert, Joyce A. Griffin & Gregory E. Kaebnick - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 38 (6):2-2.
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  48. Creativity, gratitude and the enhancement debate: on the fertile tension between two ethical frameworks.Erik Parens - 2005 - In Judy Illes (ed.), Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  49.  16
    Disability, Technology, and Flourishing.Erik Parens - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (5):inside_front_cover-inside_front_.
    Because people with disabilities live in a world not built for them, they are often the first to experiment with new technologies and are often expert in making choices about when to use them. People with disabilities face the question that all human beings increasingly face: to what extent will a given technology promote or thwart my flourishing? More generally, and at least as importantly, what does “flourishing” mean, and how can people use technologies to promote it? To address those (...)
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  50.  21
    Derrida, "Woman," and Politics: A Reading of Spurs.Erik Parens - 1989 - Philosophy Today 33 (4):291-301.
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