Results for 'Erica Zarkovich'

525 found
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  1. The Virtues of Evidence.Erica Zarkovich & R. E. G. Upshur - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):403-412.
    Evidence-based medicine has beendefined as the conscientious and judicious useof current best evidence in making clinicaldecisions. This paper will attempt to explicatethe terms ``conscientious'''' and ``judicious''''within the evidence-based medicine definition.It will be argued that ``conscientious'''' and``judicious'''' represent virtue terms derived fromvirtue ethics and virtue epistemology. Theidentification of explicit virtue components inthe definition and therefore conception ofevidence-based medicine presents an importantstarting point in the connection between virtuetheories and medicine itself. In addition, aunification of virtue theories andevidence-based medicine will illustrate theneed for (...)
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  2.  6
    To: “Introduction to Special Section: Ambient Noise,” Sjoerd de Ridder, Florent Brenguier, Farnoush Forghani, Erica Galetti, Nori Nakata, and Cornelis Weemstra, Interpretation, 4, No. 3, SJi, Doi: 10.1190/INT-2016-0627-SPSEINTRO.1. [REVIEW]Sjoerd de Ridder, Florent Brenguier, Farnoush Forghani, Erica Galetti, Nori Nakata & Cornelis Weemstra - 2016 - Interpretation: SEG 4 (4):Y3-Y3.
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  3. Laws of Nature, Explanation, and Semantic Circularity.Erica Shumener - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (3):787-815.
    Humeans and anti-Humeans agree that laws of nature should explain scientifically particular matters of fact. One objection to Humean accounts of laws contends that Humean laws cannot explain particular matters of fact because their explanations are harmfully circular. This article distinguishes between metaphysical and semantic characterizations of the circularity and argues for a new semantic version of the circularity objection. The new formulation suggests that Humean explanations are harmfully circular because the content of the sentences being explained is part of (...)
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  4.  21
    Taxonomizing Views of Clinical Ethics Expertise.Erica K. Salter & Abram Brummett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):50-61.
    Our aim in this article is to bring some clarity to the clinical ethics expertise debate by critiquing and replacing the taxonomy offered by the Core Competencies report. The orienting question for our taxonomy is: Can clinical ethicists offer justified, normative recommendations for active patient cases? Views that answer “no” are characterized as a “negative” view of clinical ethics expertise and are further differentiated based on why they think ethicists cannot give justified normative recommendations and what they think ethicists can (...)
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  5. Expert Judgment for Climate Change Adaptation.Erica Thompson, Roman Frigg & Casey Helgeson - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):1110-1121.
    Climate change adaptation is largely a local matter, and adaptation planning can benefit from local climate change projections. Such projections are typically generated by accepting climate model outputs in a relatively uncritical way. We argue, based on the IPCC’s treatment of model outputs from the CMIP5 ensemble, that this approach is unwarranted and that subjective expert judgment should play a central role in the provision of local climate change projections intended to support decision-making.
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  6. Explaining Identity and Distinctness.Erica Shumener - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (7):2073-2096.
    This paper offers a metaphysical explanation of the identity and distinctness of concrete objects. It is tempting to try to distinguish concrete objects on the basis of their possessing different qualitative features, where qualitative features are ones that do not involve identity. Yet, this criterion for object identity faces counterexamples: distinct objects can share all of their qualitative features. This paper suggests that in order to distinguish concrete objects we need to look not only at which properties and relations objects (...)
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  7. Humeans Are Out of This World.Erica Shumener - 2021 - Synthese 198 (6):5897-5916.
    I defend the following argument in this paper. Premise 1: Laws of nature are intrinsic to the universe. Premise 2: Humeanism maintains that laws of nature are extrinsic to the universe. Conclusion: Humeanism is false. This argument is inspired by John Hawthorne’s (2004) argument in “Why Humeans are out of their Minds”. My argument differs from his; Hawthorne focuses on Humean views of causation and how they interact with judgments about consciousness. He thinks Humeans are forced to treat certain mental (...)
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  8.  65
    Deciding for a Child: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Best Interest Standard. [REVIEW]Erica K. Salter - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):179-198.
    This article critically examines, and ultimately rejects, the best interest standard as the predominant, go-to ethical and legal standard of decision making for children. After an introduction to the presumption of parental authority, it characterizes and distinguishes six versions of the best interest standard according to two key dimensions related to the types of interests emphasized. Then the article brings three main criticisms against the best interest standard: (1) that it is ill-defined and inconsistently appealed to and applied, (2) that (...)
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  9. The Metaphysics of Identity: Is Identity Fundamental?Erica Shumener - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (1):1-13.
    Identity and distinctness facts are ones like “The Eiffel Tower is identical to the Eiffel Tower,” and “The Eiffel Tower is distinct from the Louvre.” This paper concerns one question in the metaphysics of identity: Are identity and distinctness facts metaphysically fundamental or are they nonfundamental? I provide an overview of answers to this question.
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  10. Machines and the Moral Community.Erica L. Neely - 2013 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):97-111.
    A key distinction in ethics is between members and nonmembers of the moral community. Over time, our notion of this community has expanded as we have moved from a rationality criterion to a sentience criterion for membership. I argue that a sentience criterion is insufficient to accommodate all members of the moral community; the true underlying criterion can be understood in terms of whether a being has interests. This may be extended to conscious, self-aware machines, as well as to any (...)
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  11.  13
    How Epidemics End.Erica Charters & Kristin Heitman - 2021 - Centaurus 63 (1):210-224.
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  12. Machiavelli's Ethics.Erica Benner - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
    Benner, Erica. Machiavelli’s Ethics. Princeton, 2009. 527p bibl index afp; ISBN 9780691141763, $75.00; ISBN 9780691141770 pbk, $35.00.

    Reviewed in CHOICE, April 2010

    This major new study of Machiavelli’s moral and political philosophy by Benner (Yale) argues that most readings of Machiavelli suffer from a failure to appreciate his debt to Greek sources, particularly the Socratic tradition of moral and political philosophy. Benner argues that when read in the light of his Greek sources, Machiavelli appears as much less the immoralist or (...)
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  13. Deconstructing Developmental Psychology.Erica Burman - 2007
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  14.  10
    Resisting temptation and overcoming procrastination: The roles of mental time travel and metacognition.Erica Cosentino, Christopher Jude McCarroll & Kourken Michaelian - 2022 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 21 (4):791-811.
    We tend to seek immediate gratification at the expense of long-term reward. In fact, the more distant a reward is from the present moment?the more we tend to discount it. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. Engaging in mental time travel plausibly enables subjects to overcome temporal discounting, but it is unclear how, exactly, it does so. In this paper, we develop a framework designed to explain the effects of mental time travel on temporal discounting by showing how the (...)
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  15.  11
    Academic Integrity Matters: Five Considerations for Addressing Contract Cheating. [REVIEW]Erica J. Morris - 2018 - International Journal for Educational Integrity 14 (1).
    This commentary paper examines the issue of contract cheating in higher education, drawing on research and current debate in the field of academic integrity. Media coverage of this issue has reflected significant concerns in the field about students’ use of custom academic writing services, along with sector and national calls for action that would lead to making such essay mills illegal. However, recent studies have revealed the complex nature of contract cheating, with a relatively low proportion of students engaging in (...)
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  16.  22
    Authenticity and Corporate Governance.Erica Steckler & Cynthia Clark - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (4):951-963.
    Although personal attributes have gained recognition as an important area of effective corporate governance, scholarship has largely overlooked the value and implications of individual virtue in governance practice. We explore how authenticity—a personal and morally significant virtue—affects the primary monitoring and strategy functions of the board of directors as well as core processes concerning director selection, cultivation, and enactment by the board. While the predominant focus in corporate governance research has been on structural factors that influence firm financial outcomes, this (...)
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  17.  18
    Artifacts and Affordances.Erica Cosentino - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 17):4007-4026.
    What are the affordances of artifacts? One view is that the affordances of artifacts, just as the affordances of natural objects, pertain to possible ways in which they can be manipulated. Another view maintains that, given that artifacts are sociocultural objects, their affordances pertain primarily to their culturally-derived function. Whereas some have tried to provide a unifying notion of affordance to capture both aspects, here I argue that they should be kept separate. In this paper, I introduce a distinction between (...)
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  18.  38
    What Can the Social Sciences Contribute to the Study of Ethics? Theoretical, Empirical and Substantive Considerations.Erica Haimes - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (2):89–113.
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  19. Identity.Erica Shumener - 2020 - In Michael J. Raven (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding. London: Routledge. pp. 413-424.
    I explore proposals for stating identity criteria in terms of ground. I also address considerations for and against taking identity and distinctness facts to be ungrounded.
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  20. Do Identity and Distinctness Facts Threaten the PSR?Erica Shumener - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (4):1023-1041.
    One conception of the Principle of Sufficient Reason maintains that every fact is metaphysically explained. There are different ways to challenge this version of the PSR; one type of challenge involves pinpointing a specific set of facts that resist metaphysical explanation. Certain identity and distinctness facts seem to constitute such a set. For example, we can imagine a scenario in which we have two qualitatively identical spheres, Castor and Pollux. Castor is distinct from Pollux but it is unclear what could (...)
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  21.  35
    Think-Aloud Protocols and the Selection Task: Evidence for Relevance Effects and Rationalisation Processes.Erica Lucas & Linden Ball - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (1):35 – 66.
    Two experiments are reported that employed think-aloud methods to test predictions concerning relevance effects and rationalisation processes derivable from Evans' (1996) heuristic-analytic theory of the selection task. Evans' account proposes that card selections are triggered by relevance-determining heuristics, with analytic processing serving merely to rationalise heuristically cued decisions. As such, selected cards should be associated with more references to both their facing and their hidden sides than rejected cards, which are not subjected to analytic rationalisation. Experiment 1 used a standard (...)
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  22.  10
    What Can the Social Sciences Contribute to the Study of Ethics? Theoretical, Empirical and Substanti.Erica Haimes - 2002 - Bioethics 16 (2):89-113.
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  23. The Power to Govern.Erica Shumener - forthcoming - Philosophical Perspectives.
    I provide a new account of what it is for the laws of nature to govern the evolution of events. I locate the source of governance in the content of law propositions. As such, I do not appeal to primitive notions of ground, essence, or production to characterize governance. After introducing the account, I use it to outline previously unrecognized varieties of governance. I also specify that laws must govern to have two theoretical virtues: explanatory power as well as a (...)
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  24.  21
    The Time-Course of Sentence Meaning Composition. N400 Effects of the Interaction Between Context-Induced and Lexically Stored Affordances.Erica Cosentino, Giosuè Baggio, Jarmo Kontinen & Markus Werning - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
  25.  12
    Toddlers Encode Similarities Among Novel Words From Meaningful Sentences.Erica H. Wojcik & Jenny R. Saffran - 2015 - Cognition 138:10-20.
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  26. Linguistics and Moral Theory.Erica Roedder & Gilbert Harman - 2010 - In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  27.  76
    Self in Time and Language.Erica Cosentino - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):777-783.
    Time has been considered a crucial factor in distinguishing between two levels of self-awareness: the “core,” or “minimal self,” and the “extended,” or “narrative self.” Herein, I focus on this last concept of the self and, in particular, on the relationship between the narrative self and language. In opposition to the claim that the narrative self is a linguistic construction, my idea is that it is created by the functioning of mental time travel, that is, the faculty of human beings (...)
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  28.  85
    Building and Surveying: Relative Fundamentality in Karen Bennett’s Making Things Up.Erica Shumener - 2019 - Analysis 79 (2):303-314.
    I discuss Bennett's characterization of the "more fundamental than" relation.
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  29.  2
    Pets.Erica Fudge - 2008 - Routledge.
    'When I play with my cat, who knows if I am not a pastime to her more than she is to me?' - Michel de Montaigne. Why do we live with pets? Is there something more to our relationship with them than simply companionship? What is it we look for in our pets and what does this say about us as human beings? In this fascinating book, Erica Fudge explores the nature of this most complex of relationships and the (...)
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  30.  1
    Pets.Erica Fudge - 2008 - Routledge.
    'When I play with my cat, who knows if I am not a pastime to her more than she is to me?' - Michel de Montaigne. Why do we live with pets? Is there something more to our relationship with them than simply companionship? What is it we look for in our pets and what does this say about us as human beings? In this fascinating book, Erica Fudge explores the nature of this most complex of relationships and the (...)
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  31.  52
    Intrinsicality and determinacy.Erica Shumener - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-16.
    Comparativism maintains that physical quantities are ultimately relational in character. For example, an object’s having 1 kg rest mass depends on the relations it stands in to other objects in the universe. Comparativism, its advocates allege, reveals that quantities are not metaphysically mysterious: Quantities are reducible to familiar relations holding among physical objects. Modal accounts of intrinsicality—such as Lewis’s duplication account or Langton and Lewis’s combinatorial account—are popular accounts preserving many of our core intuitions regarding which properties are intrinsic. I (...)
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  32. Using a Developmental-Ecological Approach to Understand the Relation Between Language and Music.Erica H. Wojcik, Daniel J. Lassman & Dominique T. Vuvan - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Neurocognitive and genetic approaches have made progress in understanding language-music interaction in the adult brain. Although there is broad agreement that learning processes affect how we represent, comprehend, and produce language and music, there is little understanding of the content and dynamics of the early language-music environment in the first years of life. A developmental-ecological approach sees learning and development as fundamentally embedded in a child’s environment, and thus requires researchers to move outside of the lab to understand what children (...)
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  33. Communication as Navigation: A New Role for Consciousness in Language.Erica Cosentino & Francesco Ferretti - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):263-274.
    Classical cognitive science has been characterized by an association with the computational theory of mind. Although this association has produced highly significant results, it has also limited the scope of scientific psychology. In this paper, we analyse the limits of the specific kind of computational model represented by the Chomskian-Fodorian tradition in the study of mind and language. In our opinion, the adhesion to the principle of formality imposed by this specific computational model has motivated the exclusion of consciousness in (...)
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  34. Processing Narrative Coherence: Towards a Top-Down Model of Discourse.Erica Cosentino, Ines Adornetti & Francesco Ferretti - 2013 - Open Access Series in Informatics (OASICS) 32:61-75.
    Models of discourse and narration elaborated within the classical compositional framework have been characterized as bottom-up models, according to which discourse analysis proceeds incrementally, from phrase and sentence local meaning to discourse global meaning. In this paper we will argue against these models. Assuming as a case study the issue of discourse coherence, we suggest that the assessment of coherence is a top-down process, in which the construction of a situational interpretation at the global meaning level guides local meaning analysis. (...)
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  35.  31
    Kant’s Quasi‐Eudaimonism.Erica A. Holberg - 2018 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 56 (3):317-341.
    In contrast to eudaimonism, Kant argues that moral reasoning and prudential reasoning are two distinct uses of practical reason, each with its own standard for good action. Despite Kant’s commitment to the ineradicable potential for fundamental conflict between these types of practical reasoning, I argue that once we shift to consideration of a developmental narrative of these faculties, we see that virtuous moral reasoning is able to substantively influence prudential reasoning, while prudential reason should be responsive to such influence. Further, (...)
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  36. Proof Planning with Multiple Strategies.Erica Melis, Andreas Meier & Jörg Siekmann - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (6-7):656-684.
  37.  42
    Informed Consent and the Misattributed Paternity Problem in Genetic Counseling.Erica K. Lucast - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (1):41–50.
  38.  30
    Conceptual Complexity and the Bias/Variance Tradeoff.Erica Briscoe & Jacob Feldman - 2011 - Cognition 118 (1):2-16.
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  39.  16
    The History of Science and Medicine in the Context of COVID ‐19.Erica Charters & Richard A. McKay - 2020 - Centaurus 62 (2):223-233.
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  40.  5
    Castes and Trees: Tracing the Link Between European and Mexican Representations of Human Taxonomy.Erica Torrens & Ana Barahona - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Twenty-two years after Charles Darwin began to think of character divergence from a common ancestor in his Notebook B, the now famous and iconic branching diagram appeared in the fourth chapter of On the Origin of Species.
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  41.  14
    Conflating Capacity & Authority: Why We're Asking the Wrong Question in the Adolescent Decision‐Making Debate.Erica K. Salter - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (1):32-41.
    Whether adolescents should be allowed to make their own medical decisions has been a topic of discussion in bioethics for at least two decades now. Are adolescents sufficiently capacitated to make their own medical decisions? Is the mature-minor doctrine, an uncommon legal exception to the rule of parental decision-making authority, something we should expand or eliminate? Bioethicists have dealt with the curious liminality of adolescents—their being neither children nor adults—in a variety of ways. However, recently there has been a trend (...)
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  42.  25
    Love as a Regulative Ideal in Surrogate Decision Making.Erica Lucast Stonestreet - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (5):523-542.
    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a “best judgment” model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the “substituted judgment” model and the “best interests” model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two (...)
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  43. Racial Cognition and the Ethics of Implicit Bias.Daniel Kelly & Erica Roedder - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (3):522–540.
    We first describe recent empirical research on racial cognition, particularly work on implicit racial biases that suggests they are widespread, that they can coexist with explicitly avowed anti-racist and tolerant attitudes, and that they influence behavior in a variety of subtle but troubling ways. We then consider a cluster of questions that the existence and character of implicit racial biases raise for moral theory. First, is it morally condemnable to harbor an implicit racial bias? Second, ought each of us to (...)
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  44. Guidelines on Regulating Robotics.Erica Palmerini, Federico Azzarri, Fiorella Battaglia, Andrea Bertolini, Antonio Carnevale, Jacopo Carpaneto, Filippo Cavallo, Angela Di Carlo, Marco Cempini, Marco Controzzi, Bert-Jaap Koops, Federica Lucivero, Nikil Mukerji, Luca Nocco, Alberto Pirni & Huma Shah - 2014 - Robolaw (FP7 project).
  45.  31
    Social and Ethical Issues in the Use of Familial Searching in Forensic Investigations: Insights From Family and Kinship Studies.Erica Haimes - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (2):263-276.
    This article explores the socio-ethical concerns raised by the familial searching of forensic databases in criminal investigations, from the perspective of family and kinship studies. It discusses the broader implications of this expanded understanding for wider debates about identity, privacy and genetic databases.
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  46.  30
    Music and “Seeking One’s Heart-Mind” in the “Xing Zi Ming Chu”.Erica F. Brindley - 2006 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (2):247-255.
  47.  6
    Greece Is This Run-Down.Erica Wright - 2009 - Arion 17 (1):111-118.
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  48.  4
    Sense and Sensibility.Erica Sarah Spatz - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):24-25.
    Volume 20, Issue 5, June 2020, Page 24-25.
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  49.  44
    Moral Autonomy and Individual Sources of Authority in the Analects.Erica Brindley - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):257-273.
  50.  7
    Reconsidering Empathy: An Interpersonal Approach and Participatory Arts in the Medical Humanities.Erica L. Cao, Craig D. Blinderman & Ian Cross - 2021 - Journal of Medical Humanities 42 (4):627-640.
    The decline of empathy among health professional students, highlighted in the literature on health education, is a concern for medical educators. The evidence suggests that empathy decline is likely to stem more from structural problems in the healthcare system rather than from individual deficits of empathy. In this paper, we argue that a focus on direct empathy development is not effective and possibly detrimental to justice-oriented aims. Drawing on critical and narrative theory, we propose an interpersonal approach to enhance empathic (...)
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