Results for 'Emily Freeman'

991 found
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  1.  62
    The evidence‐based medicine model of clinical practice: scientific teaching or belief‐based preaching?Cathy Charles, Amiram Gafni & Emily Freeman - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (4):597-605.
  2.  5
    Bodily Integrity and the Surgical Management of Intersex.Emily Grabham - 2012 - Body and Society 18 (2):1-26.
    Surgeries inevitably raise questions of bodily integrity: how the post-surgical body reframes (or does not reframe) its experiences of functionality to incorporate new features. Nevertheless, when we try to define or delimit the concept of bodily integrity, it becomes increasingly important to think about how the physical and social unease caused by some forms of surgeries sits alongside the more transformative potential of surgical bodily modification. This article focuses on aesthetic genital surgeries on infants with disorders of sex development (DSD, (...)
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  3. The donation of eggs for research and the rise of neopaternalism.Emily Jackson - 2008 - In Michael D. A. Freeman (ed.), Law and Bioethics / Edited by Michael Freeman. Oxford University Press.
  4.  84
    Business ethics: the state of the art.R. Edward Freeman (ed.) - 1991 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    This book is a unique collection of essays by the leading scholars in business ethics. The purpose of the volume is to examine the emergence of business ethics as an important element of managerial practice and as an integral area of scholarship. The four lead essays--by Norman Bowie, Kenneth Goodpaster, Thomas Donaldson, and Ezra Bowen--are examples of some of the best thinking about the role of ethics in business. These essays examine such issues as the nature of scholarship and knowledge (...)
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  5. Laws of Nature as Constraints.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-41.
    The laws of nature have come a long way since the time of Newton: quantum mechanics and relativity have given us good reasons to take seriously the possibility of laws which may be non-local, atemporal, ‘all-at-once,’ retrocausal, or in some other way not well-suited to the standard dynamical time evolution paradigm. Laws of this kind can be accommodated within a Humean approach to lawhood, but many extant non-Humean approaches face significant challenges when we try to apply them to laws outside (...)
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  6. The Construction of Social Reality. Anthony Freeman in conversation with John Searle.J. Searle & A. Freeman - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (2):180-189.
    John Searle began to discuss his recently published book `The Construction of Social Reality' with Anthony Freeman, and they ended up talking about God. The book itself and part of their conversation are introduced and briefly reflected upon by Anthony Freeman. Many familiar social facts -- like money and marriage and monarchy -- are only facts by human agreement. They exist only because we believe them to exist. That is the thesis, at once startling yet obvious, that philosopher (...)
     
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  7.  23
    Information is Physical: Cross-Perspective Links in Relational Quantum Mechanics.Emily Adlam & Carlo Rovelli - 2023 - Philosophy of Physics 1 (1).
    Relational quantum mechanics (RQM) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on the idea that quantum states do not describe an absolute property of a system but rather a relationship between systems. There have recently been some criticisms of RQM pertaining to issues around intersubjectivity. In this article, we show how RQM can address these criticisms by adding a new postulate which requires that all of the information possessed by a certain observer is stored in physical variables of that observer (...)
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  8. Understanding from Machine Learning Models.Emily Sullivan - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (1):109-133.
    Simple idealized models seem to provide more understanding than opaque, complex, and hyper-realistic models. However, an increasing number of scientists are going in the opposite direction by utilizing opaque machine learning models to make predictions and draw inferences, suggesting that scientists are opting for models that have less potential for understanding. Are scientists trading understanding for some other epistemic or pragmatic good when they choose a machine learning model? Or are the assumptions behind why minimal models provide understanding misguided? In (...)
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  9. Cognitive Transformation, Dementia, and the Moral Weight of Advance Directives.Emily Walsh - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):54-64.
    Dementia patients in the moderate-late stage of the disease can, and often do, express different preferences than they did at the onset of their condition. The received view in the philosophical literature argues that advance directives which prioritize the patient’s preferences at onset ought to be given decisive moral weight in medical decision-making. Clinical practice, on the other hand, favors giving moral weight to the preferences expressed by dementia patients after onset. The purpose of this article is to show that (...)
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  10.  42
    Can you perceive ensembles without perceiving individuals?: The role of statistical perception in determining whether awareness overflows access.Emily J. Ward, Adam Bear & Brian J. Scholl - 2016 - Cognition 152 (C):78-86.
    Do we see more than we can report? Psychologists and philosophers have been hotly debating this question, in part because both possibilities are supported by suggestive evidence. On one hand, phenomena such as inattentional blindness and change blindness suggest that visual awareness is especially sparse. On the other hand, experiments relating to iconic memory suggest that our in-the-moment awareness of the world is much richer than can be reported. Recent research has attempted to resolve this debate by showing that observers (...)
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  11.  33
    Does science need intersubjectivity? The problem of confirmation in orthodox interpretations of quantum mechanics.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1–39.
    Any successful interpretation of quantum mechanics must explain how our empirical evidence allows us to come to know about quantum mechanics. In this article, we argue that this vital criterion is not met by the class of ‘orthodox interpretations,’ which includes QBism, neo-Copenhagen interpretations, and some versions of relational quantum mechanics. We demonstrate that intersubjectivity fails in radical ways in these approaches, and we explain why intersubjectivity matters for empirical confirmation. We take a detailed look at the way in which (...)
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  12. Corporate Responsibility.Patricia Werhane & R. Edward Freeman - 2003 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The Oxford handbook of practical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 514--536.
     
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  13.  57
    Determinism beyond time evolution.Emily Adlam - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (4):1-36.
    Physicists are increasingly beginning to take seriously the possibility of laws outside the traditional time-evolution paradigm; yet many popular definitions of determinism are still predicated on a time-evolution picture, making them manifestly unsuited to the diverse range of research programmes in modern physics. In this article, we use a constraint-based framework to set out a generalization of determinism which does not presuppose temporal evolution, distinguishing between strong, weak and delocalised holistic determinism. We discuss some interesting consequences of these generalized notions (...)
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  14.  19
    What Does ‘(Non)-absoluteness of Observed Events’ Mean?Emily Adlam - 2024 - Foundations of Physics 54 (1):1-43.
    Recently there have emerged an assortment of theorems relating to the ‘absoluteness of emerged events,’ and these results have sometimes been used to argue that quantum mechanics may involve some kind of metaphysically radical non-absoluteness, such as relationalism or perspectivalism. However, in our view a close examination of these theorems fails to convincingly support such possibilities. In this paper we argue that the Wigner’s friend paradox, the theorem of Bong et al and the theorem of Lawrence et al are all (...)
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  15.  51
    Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Emily Adlam - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    Quantum mechanics is an extraordinarily successful scientific theory. But more than 100 years after it was first introduced, the interpretation of the theory remains controversial. This Element introduces some of the most puzzling questions at the foundations of quantum mechanics and provides an up-to-date and forward-looking survey of the most prominent ways in which physicists and philosophers of physics have attempted to resolve them. Topics covered include nonlocality, contextuality, the reality of the wavefunction and the measurement problem. The discussion is (...)
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  16.  55
    Our Biotech Future.Freeman Dyson - unknown
    It has become part of the accepted wisdom to say that the twentieth century was the century of physics and the twenty-first century will be the century of biology. Two facts about the coming century are agreed on by almost everyone. Biology is now bigger than physics, as measured by the size of budgets, by the size of the workforce, or by the output of major discoveries; and biology is likely to remain the biggest part of science through the twenty-first (...)
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  17.  3
    Stig S. Frøland, Duel without End: Mankind's Battle with Microbes(trans. John Irons) London: Reaktion Books, 2022. Pp. 632. ISBN: 978-1-78914-505-2. £30.00 GBP (paperback). [REVIEW]Emily Webster - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Science:1-2.
  18.  19
    New but for whom? Discourses of innovation in precision agriculture.Emily Duncan, Alesandros Glaros, Dennis Z. Ross & Eric Nost - 2021 - Agriculture and Human Values 38 (4):1181-1199.
    We describe how the set of tools, practices, and social relations known as “precision agriculture” is defined, promoted, and debated. To do so, we perform a critical discourse analysis of popular and trade press websites. Promoters of precision agriculture champion how big data analytics, automated equipment, and decision-support software will optimize yields in the face of narrow margins and public concern about farming’s environmental impacts. At its core, however, the idea of farmers leveraging digital infrastructure in their operations is not (...)
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  19.  44
    Is there causation in fundamental physics? New insights from process matrices and quantum causal modelling.Emily Adlam - 2023 - Synthese 201 (5):1-40.
    In this article we set out to understand the significance of the process matrix formalism and the quantum causal modelling programme for ongoing disputes about the role of causation in fundamental physics. We argue that the process matrix programme has correctly identified a notion of ‘causal order’ which plays an important role in fundamental physics, but this notion is weaker than the common-sense conception of causation because it does not involve asymmetry. We argue that causal order plays an important role (...)
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  20. Two roads to retrocausality.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Synthese 200 (5):1-36.
    In recent years the quantum foundations community has seen increasing interest in the possibility of using retrocausality as a route to rejecting the conclusions of Bell’s theorem and restoring locality to quantum physics. On the other hand, it has also been argued that accepting nonlocality leads to a form of retrocausality. In this article we seek to elucidate the relationship between retrocausality and locality. We begin by providing a brief schema of the various ways in which violations of Bell’s inequalities (...)
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  21.  21
    Crisis and the Poverty of Nations: Two Market Products Which Value Explains Better.Alan Freeman - 1999 - Historical Materialism 5 (1):29-76.
    In Sarsi I seem to discern the firm belief that in philosophising one must support oneself on the opinion of some celebrated author, as if our minds ought to remain completely sterile and barren unless wedded to the reasoning of someone else…that is not how things are. Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe, which stands continually open to our gaze.
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  22. Downgraded phenomenology: how conscious overflow lost its richness.Emily Ward - 2018 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 373.
    Our in-the-moment experience of the world can feel vivid and rich, even when we cannot describe our experience due to limitations of attention, memory or other cognitive processes. But the nature of visual awareness is quite sparse, as suggested by the phenomena of failures of awareness, such as change blindness and inattentional blindness. I will argue that once failures of memory or failures of comparison are ruled out as explanations for these phenomena, they present strong evidence against rich awareness. To (...)
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  23. Inattentional blindness reflects limitations on perception, not memory: Evidence from repeated failures of awareness.Emily Ward & Brian Scholl - 2015 - Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22:722-727.
    Perhaps the most striking phenomenon of visual awareness is inattentional blindness (IB), in which a surprisingly salient event right in front of you may go completely unseen when unattended. Does IB reflect a failure of perception, or only of subsequent memory? Previous work has been unable to answer this question, due to a seemingly intractable dilemma: ruling out memory requires immediate perceptual reports, but soliciting such reports fuels an expectation that eliminates IB. Here we introduce a way of evoking repeated (...)
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  24. The problem of confirmation in the Everett interpretation.Emily Adlam - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 47:21-32.
    I argue that the Oxford school Everett interpretation is internally incoherent, because we cannot claim that in an Everettian universe the kinds of reasoning we have used to arrive at our beliefs about quantum mechanics would lead us to form true beliefs. I show that in an Everettian context, the experimental evidence that we have available could not provide empirical confirmation for quantum mechanics, and moreover that we would not even be able to establish reference to the theoretical entities of (...)
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  25.  48
    Operational theories as structural realism.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 94 (C):99-111.
  26.  29
    Statistical learning and Gestalt-like principles predict melodic expectations.Emily Morgan, Allison Fogel, Anjali Nair & Aniruddh D. Patel - 2019 - Cognition 189 (C):23-34.
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  27.  12
    Crisis and the poverty of nations.Freeman Alan - 1999 - Historical Materialism 4 (1):29-76.
    In Sarsi I seem to discern the firm belief that in philosophising one must support oneself on the opinion of some celebrated author, as if our minds ought to remain completely sterile and barren unless wedded to the reasoning of someone else…that is not how things are. Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe, which stands continually open to our gaze.
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  28.  17
    For Another Europe: A Class Analysis of European Economic Integration.Alan Freeman - 2006 - Historical Materialism 14 (1):283-297.
  29.  16
    Infinite in All Directions: Gifford Lectures Given at Aberdeen, Scotland, April-November 1985.Freeman J. Dyson - 1988 - Perennial.
    Infinite in All Directions is a popularized science at its best. In Dyson's view, science and religion are two windows through which we can look out at the world around us. The book is a revised version of a series of the Gifford Lectures under the title "In Praise of Diversity" given at Aberdeen, Scotland. They allowed Dyson the license to express everything in the universe, which he divided into two parts in polished prose: focusing on the diversity of the (...)
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  30. Emancipation and the freed in American Sculpture..Freeman Henry Morris Murray - 1916 - [n. p.]:
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  31.  60
    Creating Ties That Bind.R. Edward Freeman & Jared D. Harris - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):685-692.
    The work of Donaldson and Dunfee offers an example of how normative and descriptive approaches to business ethics can be integrated. We suggest that to be truly integrative, however, the theory should explore the processes by which such integration happens. We, therefore, sketch some preliminary thoughts that extend Integrative Social Contracts Theory by beginning to consider the process by which microsocial contracts are connected to hypernorms.
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  32.  46
    Objectivity in the Eye of the Beholder: Divergent Perceptions of Bias in Self Versus Others.Emily Pronin, Thomas Gilovich & Lee Ross - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (3):781-799.
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  33.  39
    Contextuality, Fine-Tuning and Teleological Explanation.Emily Adlam - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (6):1-40.
    I assess various proposals for the source of the intuition that there is something problematic about contextuality, ultimately concluding that contextuality is best thought of in terms of fine-tuning. I then argue that as with other fine-tuning problems in quantum mechanics, this behaviour can be understood as a manifestation of teleological features of physics. Finally I discuss several formal mathematical frameworks that have been used to analyse contextuality and consider how their results should be interpreted by scientific realists. In the (...)
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  34. Vulnerability in Social Epistemic Networks.Emily Sullivan, Max Sondag, Ignaz Rutter, Wouter Meulemans, Scott Cunningham, Bettina Speckmann & Mark Alfano - 2020 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 28 (5):1-23.
    Social epistemologists should be well-equipped to explain and evaluate the growing vulnerabilities associated with filter bubbles, echo chambers, and group polarization in social media. However, almost all social epistemology has been built for social contexts that involve merely a speaker-hearer dyad. Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and group polarization all presuppose much larger and more complex network structures. In this paper, we lay the groundwork for a properly social epistemology that gives the role and structure of networks their due. In particular, (...)
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  35. Do ML models represent their targets?Emily Sullivan - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    I argue that ML models used in science function as highly idealized toy models. If we treat ML models as a type of highly idealized toy model, then we can deploy standard representational and epistemic strategies from the toy model literature to explain why ML models can still provide epistemic success despite their lack of similarity to their targets.
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  36. Experiments, Simulations, and Epistemic Privilege.Emily C. Parke - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (4):516-536.
    Experiments are commonly thought to have epistemic privilege over simulations. Two ideas underpin this belief: first, experiments generate greater inferential power than simulations, and second, simulations cannot surprise us the way experiments can. In this article I argue that neither of these claims is true of experiments versus simulations in general. We should give up the common practice of resting in-principle judgments about the epistemic value of cases of scientific inquiry on whether we classify those cases as experiments or simulations, (...)
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  37. Idealizations and Understanding: Much Ado About Nothing?Emily Sullivan & Kareem Khalifa - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (4):673-689.
    Because idealizations frequently advance scientific understanding, many claim that falsehoods play an epistemic role. In this paper, we argue that these positions greatly overstate idealiza...
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  38. Inductive Risk, Understanding, and Opaque Machine Learning Models.Emily Sullivan - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (5):1065-1074.
    Under what conditions does machine learning (ML) model opacity inhibit the possibility of explaining and understanding phenomena? In this article, I argue that nonepistemic values give shape to the ML opacity problem even if we keep researcher interests fixed. Treating ML models as an instance of doing model-based science to explain and understand phenomena reveals that there is (i) an external opacity problem, where the presence of inductive risk imposes higher standards on externally validating models, and (ii) an internal opacity (...)
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  39.  36
    Tabletop Experiments for Quantum Gravity Are Also Tests of the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Emily Adlam - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (5):1-43.
    Recently there has been a great deal of interest in tabletop experiments intended to exhibit the quantum nature of gravity by demonstrating that it can induce entanglement. In order to evaluate these experiments, we must determine if there is any interesting class of possibilities that will be convincingly ruled out if it turns out that gravity can indeed induce entanglement. In particular, since one argument for the significance of these experiments rests on the claim that they demonstrate the existence of (...)
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  40. Grief, alienation, and the absolute alterity of death.Emily Hughes - 2023 - Philosophical Explorations 26 (1):61-65.
    Disturbances to one's sense of self, the feeling that one has ‘lost a part of oneself’ or that one ‘no longer feels like oneself,’ are frequently recounted throughout the bereavement literature. Engaging Allan Køster's important contribution to this issue, this article reinforces his suggestion that, by rupturing the existential texture of self-familiarity, bereavement can result in experiences of estrangement that can be meaningfully understood according to the concept of self-alienation. Nevertheless, I suggest that whilst Køster's relational interpretation of alienation as (...)
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  41.  25
    The seductive allure is a reductive allure: People prefer scientific explanations that contain logically irrelevant reductive information.Emily J. Hopkins, Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Jordan C. V. Taylor - 2016 - Cognition 155 (C):67-76.
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  42.  6
    The evolution of science.Freeman Dyson - 1998 - In A. C. Fabian (ed.), Evolution: society, science, and the universe. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 9--118.
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  43. Loss, Loneliness, and the Question of Subjectivity in Old Age.Emily Hughes - 2023 - Topoi 42 (5):1185-1194.
    When a loved one dies, it is common for the bereaved to feel profoundly lonely, disconnected from the world with the sense that they no longer belong. In philosophy, this experience of ‘loss and loneliness’ has been interpreted according to both a loss of possibilities and a loss of the past. But it is unclear how these interpretations apply to the distinctive way in which loss and loneliness manifest in old age. Drawing on the phenomenological analyses of old age given (...)
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  44. Meaninglessness and monotony in pandemic boredom.Emily Hughes - 2023 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences (5):1105-1119.
    Boredom is an affective experience that can involve pervasive feelings of meaninglessness, emptiness, restlessness, frustration, weariness and indifference, as well as the slowing down of time. An increasing focus of research in many disciplines, interest in boredom has been intensified by the recent Covid-19 pandemic, where social distancing measures have induced both a widespread loss of meaning and a significant disturbance of temporal experience. This article explores the philosophical significance of this aversive experience of ‘pandemic boredom.’ Using Heidegger’s work as (...)
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  45.  19
    Neuroimaging and Disorders of Consciousness: Envisioning an Ethical Research Agenda.Emily Murphy**, Steven Laureys**, Joy Hirsch**, James L. Bernat**, Judy Illes* & Joseph J. Fins* - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (9):3-12.
    The application of neuroimaging technology to the study of the injured brain has transformed how neuroscientists understand disorders of consciousness, such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states, and deepened our understanding of mechanisms of recovery. This scientific progress, and its potential clinical translation, provides an opportunity for ethical reflection. It was against this scientific backdrop that we convened a conference of leading investigators in neuroimaging, disorders of consciousness and neuroethics. Our goal was to develop an ethical frame to move (...)
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  46.  3
    The Second Yearbook of Research and Statistical Methodology.Frank S. Freeman - 1943 - Philosophical Review 52 (2):212-213.
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  47.  38
    The causal situationist account of constitutive relevance.Emily Prychitko - 2019 - Synthese 198 (2):1829-1843.
    An epistemic account of constitutive relevance lists the criteria by which scientists can identify the components of mechanisms in empirical practice. Three prominent claims from Craver form a promising basis for an account. First, constitutive relevance is established by means of interlevel experiments. Second, interlevel experiments are executions of interventions. Third, there is no interlevel causation between a mechanism and its components. Currently, no account on offer respects all three claims. I offer my causal situationist account of constitutive relevance that (...)
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  48.  22
    Ethical theory and medical ethics: a personal perspective.J. M. Freeman - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (10):617-618.
    Ethical physicians need to share their biases and prejudices and articulate alternatives and also be tolerant of the decisions of their patients and families.I believe that I am a moral, caring, dedicated doctor working with children and parents who are often faced with ethical problems of large and small dimensions. There is no question that these decisions should be ethical, but, in general, I find ethical theory of little day-to-day use. Indeed, even when an ethicist joins me in a discussion (...)
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  49.  46
    Nation-State and Cosmopolis: A Response to David Miller.Michael Freeman - 1994 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 11 (1):79-87.
    ABSTRACT The contemporary world is politically organised on the assumption that there exists an international community which should be governed by the rule of law under the authority of the United Nations Organisation. This idea may be called cosmopolitan liberalism. It is commonly criticised for ineffectiveness caused by excessive respect for the sovereignty of states. Recently, it has become apparent that cosmopolitan liberalism is inadequate to conceptualise and consequently to solve the practical problems posed by nationalism. David Miller has sought (...)
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  50.  23
    The Promise of Pragmatism: Richard Rorty and Business Ethics.Sareh Pouryousefi & R. Edward Freeman - 2021 - Business Ethics Quarterly 31 (4):572-599.
    Pragmatists believe that philosophical inquiry must engage closely with practice to be useful and that practice serves as a source of social norms. As a growing alternative to the analytic and continental philosophical traditions, pragmatism is well suited for research in business ethics, but its role remains underappreciated. This article focuses on Richard Rorty, a key figure in the pragmatist tradition. We read Rorty as a source of insight about the ethical and political nature of business practice in contemporary global (...)
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