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  1.  37
    Emotional Coregulation in Close Relationships.Emily A. Butler & Ashley K. Randall - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (2):1754073912451630.
    Coregulation refers to the process by which relationship partners form a dyadic emotional system involving an oscillating pattern of affective arousal and dampening that dynamically maintains an optimal emotional state. Coregulation may represent an important form of interpersonal emotion regulation, but confusion exists in the literature due to a lack of precision in the usage of the term. We propose an operational definition for coregulation as a bidirectional linkage of oscillating emotional channels between partners, which contributes to emotional stability for (...)
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  2.  30
    Interpersonal Affect Dynamics: It Takes Two (and Time) to Tango.Emily A. Butler - 2015 - Emotion Review 7 (4):336-341.
    Everything is constantly changing. Our emotions are one of the primary ways we track, evaluate, organize, and motivate responsive action to those changes. Furthermore, emotions are inherently interpersonal. We learn what to feel from others, especially when we are children. We “catch” other people’s emotions just by being around them. We get caught in escalating response–counterresponse emotional sequences. This all takes place in time, generating complex patterns of interpersonal emotional dynamics. This review summarizes theory, empirical findings, and key challenges for (...)
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  3.  19
    Emotion Regulation and the Temporal Dynamics of Emotions: Effects of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression on Emotional Inertia.Peter Koval, Emily A. Butler, Tom Hollenstein, Dianna Lanteigne & Peter Kuppens - 2015 - Cognition and Emotion 29 (5):831-851.
  4.  19
    Emotion Control Values and Responding to an Anger Provocation in Asian-American and European-American Individuals.Iris B. Mauss, Emily A. Butler, Nicole A. Roberts & Ann Chu - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (6):1026-1043.
  5.  48
    Emotion and Emotion Regulation: Integrating Individual and Social Levels of Analysis.Emily A. Butler & James J. Gross - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (1):86-87.
    Rimé makes the important observation that the literature on adult emotion and emotion regulation has largely focused on the individual level of analysis. He argues, we believe correctly, that emotion research would benefit by addressing the fact that emotional events provoke not only individual responses, but systematic social responses as well. We present examples of our own research that are in accord with Rimé's central claims, and that demonstrate the benefits of considering the goals that are provoked and satisfied by (...)
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  6.  14
    Author Reply: Coregulation is a State of a Temporal Interpersonal Emotion System.Emily A. Butler & Ashley K. Randall - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (2):213-214.
    People in an emotional exchange form a temporal interpersonal emotion system (TIES), in which their emotions are interconnected over time (Butler, 2011). These systems can be in various states, defined by the pattern of emotional interconnections. We have defined coregulation as one such state involving coupled dampened oscillations between partners’ emotions that converge on a stable level. Coregulation could be distinguished from other states, such as stress buffering, by comparing statistical models that represent the theoretical distinctions between states. Optimal data (...)
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