Embracing an inter-disciplinary approach grounded on Gärdenfors’ theory of conceptual spaces, we introduce a formal framework to analyse and compare selected theories about technical artefacts present in the literature. Our focus is on design-oriented approaches where both designing and manufacturing activities play a crucial role. Intentional theories, like Kroes’ dual nature thesis, are able to solve disparate problems concerning artefacts but they face both the philosophical challenge of clarifying the ontological nature of intentional properties, and the empirical challenge of testing (...) the attribution of such intentional properties to artefacts. To avoid these issues, we propose an approach that, by identifying different modalities to characterise artefact types, does not commit to intentional qualities and is able to empirically ground compliance tests. (shrink)
Information entities are used in ontologies to represent engineering technical specifications, health records, pictures or librarian data about, e.g., narrative fictions, among others. The literature in applied ontology lacks a comparison of the state of the art, and foundational questions on the nature of information entities remain open for research. The purpose of the paper is twofold. First, to compare existing ontologies with both each other and theories proposed in philosophy, semiotics, librarianship, and literary studies in order to understand how (...) the ontologies conceive and model information entities. Second, to discuss some open research challenges that can lead to principled approaches for the treatment of information entities, possibly by getting into account the variety of information entity types found in the literature. (shrink)
Standards and ontologies for manufacturing understand resources differently. Because of this heterogeneity, misunderstandings arise concerning the basic features that characterize them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how to ontologically model resources with the goal of facilitating the development of knowledge representation models for manufacturing. By reviewing the literature, we discuss and compare three approaches for the representation of resources depending on whether they are conceived in connection to either processes, plans or goals. By addressing the advantages and (...) shortcomings of each view, we present a unifying perspective to enable the modeling of resources in an integrated manner. In this way, the intended meanings of the used notions are harmonized and, as a result, one can facilitate multiple experts to interact e.g., via data sharing and/or data integration procedures. Differently, by keeping three separated views, there is no guarantee that data coming from different parties will share common meanings even if the same terms are used. By the end of the paper, we present a case study to show the application of our approach and to compare it with an existing ontology for manufacturing. (shrink)
Resumen En esta discusión expongo algunas objeciones a las siguientes tesis de Velázquez 2020: 1) que tanto Descartes como Frege sostienen que las entidades aritméticas son irreductibles a procesos empíricos; 2) que, en el caso de Descartes, dichas entidades son “perennes, inherentes a la propia constitución y funcionamiento de la mente” y 3) que Frege impugnó la filosofía matemática de Mill por psicologista. Sostengo que la segunda tesis no es, per se, controversial, pero que sí lo es en el contexto (...) del artículo de Velázquez.In this discussion I present objections to the following theses in Velázquez 2020: 1) that both Descartes and Frege maintain that arithmetic entities are irreducible to empirical processes; 2) that, in the case of Descartes, these entities are “perennial, inherent to the very constitution and functioning of the mind”, and 3) that Frege contested Mill’s mathematical philosophy for being psychologistic. I argue that the second thesis is not, per se, controversial, but that it is controversial in the context of Velázquez’s article. (shrink)
We have developed a new method to assess the movement of particles in different steps of a well-calibrated sequential kinematic restoration. Calibration included correct assessment of amounts of overburden, sedimentation, erosion, and thermal behavior through time. Our method allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of deformation and uplift in different geologic provinces. In our pilot case study in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, we have used movement vectors in balanced cross sections to document an initial phase of dominant vertical uplift (...) and a final phase of dominant tangential horizontal shortening. Our findings challenged the common assumptions related to folding and deformation mechanisms in fold-and-thrust belts used for cross-section balancing and palinspastic reconstructions. Thus, we found that the movement vectors in cross sections can be used to test and validate a complete procedure to obtain calibrated sequential kinematic restorations and represent a powerful tool to better understand deformation mechanisms in different settings. (shrink)
Após a obrigatoriedade da educação sexual (ES) nas escolas portuguesas em 2009, pretendemos conhecer que perspectiva têm os professores ( N = 307) sobre a ES. Através de um questionário on-line , analisado através de estatística descritiva e de análise factorial e inferencial, avaliámos as atitudes ..
We present the first comprehensive taxonomic revision and review the biology of the olingos, the endemic Neotropical procyonid genus Bassaricyon, based on most specimens available in museums, and with data derived from anatomy, morphometrics, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, field observations, and geographic range modeling. Species of Bassaricyon are primarily forest-living, arboreal, nocturnal, frugivorous, and solitary, and have one young at a time. We demonstrate that four olingo species can be recognized, including a Central American species (Bassaricyon gabbii), lowland species with (...) eastern, cis-Andean (Bassaricyon alleni) and western, trans-Andean (Bassaricyon medius) distributions, and a species endemic to cloud forests in the Andes. The oldest evolutionary divergence in the genus is between this last species, endemic to the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, and all other species, which occur in lower elevation habitats. Surprisingly, this Andean endemic species, which we call the Olinguito, has never been previously described; it represents a new species in the order Carnivora and is the smallest living member of the family Procyonidae. We report on the biology of this new species based on information from museum specimens, niche modeling, and fieldwork in western Ecuador, and describe four Olinguito subspecies based on morphological distinctions across different regions of the Northern Andes. (shrink)
A characterization of the subdirectly irreducible separable dynamic algebras is presented. The notions develo- ped for this study were also suitable to describe the previously found class of simple separable dynamic algebras.
The current paper proposes the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis; that beliefs in being unlucky are associated with deficits in executive functioning. Four studies suggest initial support for the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis via four aspects of executive functioning. Study 1 established that self-reports of dysexecutive symptoms predicted unique variance in beliefs in being unlucky after controlling for a number of other variables previously reported to be related to beliefs around luck. Studies 2 to 4 demonstrated support for the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis via (...) assessment of executive functioning via: two fundamental executive functions , emotional processes related to executive functioning as described by the Somatic Marker hypothesis, and higher executive functions as accessed via divergent thinking. The findings suggest that individuals’ beliefs in being unlucky are accompanied by a range of deficits in executive functioning. (shrink)
La investigación actual referida al "burnout" está ampliando su campo de estudio. De las primeras investigaciones centradas en profesionales de ayuda se ha pasado al estudio del burnout en otros profesionales. Por otro lado, la preocupación de las universidades por ofrecer una enseñanza de calidad s..
Este Artigo pretende acompanhar a análise bergsoniana da multiplicidade numérica e do tempo homogêneo, conceituação do tempo operada principalmente pela ciência; o objetivo desta análise é esclarecer o papel do espaço na formação do número e na apreensão conceitual da duração, explicitando o procedimento geral da inteligência humana.
El artículo relaciona el nuevo orden narrativo con la técnica del “storytelling” y cómo se manifiestan en el periodismo actual. Se estudian los casos de tres periodistas: David Simon, Stieg Larsson y Ryzard Kapuscinski y cómo su obra muestra la difusa línea de los hechos, la recreación, la invención, la fábula, la historia, la apariencia y la verdad. Se contrastan estos casos con las aportaciones del paradigma narrativo de Fisher. Nos preguntamos también cómo se crean narraciones en Internet a partir (...) de los periodistas estudiados. El ámbito de la verdad periodística se entremezcla con una apariencia de verdad mientras la ficción que aparenta realidad se convierte en acercamiento a ésta. La aproxi-mación a este fenómeno, que se inicia a finales del siglo XX y se consolida en la primera década del siglo XXI, se lleva a cabo desde las aportaciones de la Teoría de la Comunicación. (shrink)