Results for 'Emanuel Gross'

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  1.  21
    Self-Defense Against Terrorism--What Does It Mean? The Israeli Perspective.Emanuel Gross - 2002 - Journal of Military Ethics 1 (2):91-108.
    The malicious acts of terrorism in New York and Washington emphasized the need for states to combat terrorism. Likewise, Israel has suffered various terrorist attacks since its establishment. There are distinctive features in contemporary terrorism which call for a new assessment of its nature and the status of terrorists in domestic and international law. In October 2000, a violent conflict erupted between organizations operating within the territory of the Palestinian Authority--an entity that is not a state but is a sovereign (...)
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  2. Linda L. Emanuel and Ezekiel J. Emanuel.Ezekiel J. Emanuel - forthcoming - Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.
  3.  1
    Sobre Los Orígenes y Actualidad Del Estado / Emanuele Amodio, Miguel Ángel Latouche.Emanuele Amodio & Miguel Ángel Latouche (eds.) - 2009 - Fundación Manuel García-Pelayo.
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  4. Aristotele Nella Critica E Negli Studi Contemporanei Scritti di Emanuele Severino [Et Al.].Emanuele Severino & Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore - 1957 - Società Editrice "Vita E Pensiero,".
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  5. Inside the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: For a Decentralized Approach. Interview of James Brusseau by Marco Emanuele.James Brusseau & Marco Emanuele - 2021 - The Science of Where.
    Interview by Marco Emanuele of James Brusseau. October 27, 2021, The Science of Where. Topics include: AI ethics, Accelerationism, Decentralization.
     
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  6. Steven Gross.Steven Gross - unknown
    Should a theory of meaning state what sentences mean, and can a Davidsonian theory of meaning in particular do so? Max Ko¨lbel answers both questions affirmatively. I argue, however, that the phenomena of non-homophony, non-truth-conditional aspects of meaning, semantic mood, and context-sensitivity provide prima facie obstacles for extending Davidsonian truth-theories to yield meaning-stating theorems. Assessing some natural moves in reply requires a more fully developed conception of the task of such theories than Ko¨lbel provides. A more developed conception is also (...)
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  7. Alfred North Whitehead an Anthology. Selected by F.S.C. Northrop and Mason W. Gross; Introductions and a Note on Whitehead's Terminology.Alfred North Whitehead, Mason Welch Gross & F. S. C. Northrop - 1953 - At the University Press.
     
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  8. Vermischte Schriften [Ed. By F. Gross].Immanuel Kant & Felix Gross - 1912
     
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  9. Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Ross Upshur, Beatriz Thome, Michael Parker, Aaron Glickman, Cathy Zhang & Connor Boyle - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine 45:10.1056/NEJMsb2005114.
    Four ethical values — maximizing benefits, treating equally, promoting and rewarding instrumental value, and giving priority to the worst off — yield six specific recommendations for allocating medical resources in the Covid-19 pandemic: maximize benefits; prioritize health workers; do not allocate on a first-come, first-served basis; be responsive to evidence; recognize research participation; and apply the same principles to all Covid-19 and non–Covid-19 patients.
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  10. Lying with Presuppositions.Emanuel Viebahn - 2020 - Noûs 54 (3):731-751.
    It is widely held that all lies are assertions: the traditional definition of lying entails that, in order to lie, speakers have to assert something they believe to be false. It is also widely held that assertion contrasts with presupposition and, in particular, that one cannot assert something by presupposing it. Together, these views imply that speakers cannot lie with presuppositions—a view that Andreas Stokke has recently explicitly defended. The aim of this paper is to argue that speakers can lie (...)
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  11. The Lying-Misleading Distinction: A Commitment-Based Approach.Emanuel Viebahn - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (6):289-319.
    The distinction between lying and mere misleading is commonly tied to the distinction between saying and conversationally implicating. Many definitions of lying are based on the idea that liars say something they believe to be false, while misleaders put forward a believed-false conversational implicature. The aim of this paper is to motivate, spell out, and defend an alternative approach, on which lying and misleading differ in terms of commitment: liars, but not misleaders, commit themselves to something they believe to be (...)
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  12.  95
    Michael L. Gross Replies.Michael L. Gross - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (5):5-5.
  13.  98
    Articulating Reasons: An Introduction to Inferentialism.Steven Gross - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (2):284.
    This is a book review of: Robert B. Brandom, Articulating Reasons: An Introduction to Inferentialism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000. Pp. 230.
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  14. Is the P300 Component a Manifestation of Context Updating?Emanuel Donchin & Michael G. H. Coles - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):357.
  15.  39
    To: “ Imaging of an Active Fault: Comparison Between 3D GPR Data and Outcrops at the Castrovillari Fault, Calabria, Italy,” Ercoli Maurizio, Pauselli Cristina, Romana Cinti Francesca, Forte Emanuele, and Volpe Roberto, Interpretation, 3, No. 3, SY57–SY66, Doi: Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1190/INT-2014-0234.1. [REVIEW]Ercoli Maurizio, Pauselli Cristina, Romana Cinti Francesca, Forte Emanuele & Volpe Roberto - 2018 - Interpretation: SEG 6 (2):Y1-Y1.
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  16.  38
    To: “Imaging of an Active Fault: Comparison Between 3D GPR Data and Outcrops at the Castrovillari Fault, Calabria, Italy,”Ercoli Maurizio, Pauselli Cristina, Romana Cinti Francesca, Forte Emanuele, and Volpe Roberto,Interpretation,3, No. 3, SY57–SY66, Doi: Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1190/INT-2014-0234.1. [REVIEW]Ercoli Maurizio, Pauselli Cristina, Romana Cinti Francesca, Forte Emanuele & Volpe Roberto - 2015 - Interpretation: SEG 3 (4):Y1-Y1.
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  17. Opening Up Closings.Emanuel A. Schegloff & Harvey Sacks - 1973 - Semiotica 8 (4).
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  18.  4
    To: “Imaging of an Active Fault: Comparison Between 3D GPR Data and Outcrops at the Castrovillari Fault, Calabria, Italy,” Ercoli Maurizio, Pauselli Cristina, Romana Cinti Francesca, Forte Emanuele, and Volpe Roberto, Interpretation, 3, No. 3, SY57–SY66, Doi: Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1190/INT-2014-0234.1. [REVIEW]Ercoli Maurizio, Pauselli Cristina, Romana Cinti Francesca, Forte Emanuele & Volpe Roberto - 2015 - Interpretation 3 (4):Y1-Y1.
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  19.  81
    Non-Literal Lies.Emanuel Viebahn - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (6):1367-1380.
    Many recent definitions of lying are based on the notion of what is said. This paper argues that says-based definitions of lying cannot account for lies involving non-literal speech, such as metaphor, hyperbole, loose use or irony. It proposes that lies should instead be defined in terms of assertion, where what is asserted need not coincide with what is said. And it points to possible implications this outcome might have for the ethics of lying.
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  20.  13
    The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Health Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study.Emanuele Maria Giusti, Elisa Pedroli, Guido E. D'Aniello, Chiara Stramba Badiale, Giada Pietrabissa, Chiara Manna, Marco Stramba Badiale, Giuseppe Riva, Gianluca Castelnuovo & Enrico Molinari - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
  21.  53
    What Kind of Novelties Can Machine Learning Possibly Generate? The Case of Genomics.Emanuele Ratti - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:86-96.
    Machine learning (ML) has been praised as a tool that can advance science and knowledge in radical ways. However, it is not clear exactly how radical are the novelties that ML generates. In this article, I argue that this question can only be answered contextually, because outputs generated by ML have to be evaluated on the basis of the theory of the science to which ML is applied. In particular, I analyze the problem of novelty of ML outputs in the (...)
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  22. Cognitive Penetration and Attention.Steven Gross - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8:1-12.
    Zenon Pylyshyn argues that cognitively driven attentional effects do not amount to cognitive penetration of early vision because such effects occur either before or after early vision. Critics object that in fact such effects occur at all levels of perceptual processing. We argue that Pylyshyn’s claim is correct—but not for the reason he emphasizes. Even if his critics are correct that attentional effects are not external to early vision, these effects do not satisfy Pylyshyn’s requirements that the effects be direct (...)
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  23.  97
    Big Data Biology: Between Eliminative Inferences and Exploratory Experiments.Emanuele Ratti - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (2):198-218.
    Recently, biologists have argued that data - driven biology fosters a new scientific methodology; namely, one that is irreducible to traditional methodologies of molecular biology defined as the discovery strategies elucidated by mechanistic philosophy. Here I show how data - driven studies can be included into the traditional mechanistic approach in two respects. On the one hand, some studies provide eliminative inferential procedures to prioritize and develop mechanistic hypotheses. On the other, different studies play an exploratory role in providing useful (...)
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  24. An Ethical Framework for Global Vaccine Allocation.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Govind Persad, Adam Kern, Allen E. Buchanan, Cecile Fabre, Daniel Halliday, Joseph Heath, Lisa M. Herzog, R. J. Leland, Ephrem T. Lemango, Florencia Luna, Matthew McCoy, Ole F. Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, G. Owen Schaefer, Kok-Chor Tan, Christopher Heath Wellman, Jonathan Wolff & Henry S. Richardson - 2020 - Science 1:DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2803.
    In this article, we propose the Fair Priority Model for COVID-19 vaccine distribution, and emphasize three fundamental values we believe should be considered when distributing a COVID-19 vaccine among countries: Benefiting people and limiting harm, prioritizing the disadvantaged, and equal moral concern for all individuals. The Priority Model addresses these values by focusing on mitigating three types of harms caused by COVID-19: death and permanent organ damage, indirect health consequences, such as health care system strain and stress, as well as (...)
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  25.  5
    Beyond Self-Interest.Michael L. Gross - 1991 - Ethics 101 (4):875-876.
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  26.  23
    Cultivating Moral Attention: a Virtue-Oriented Approach to Responsible Data Science in Healthcare.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1819-1846.
    In the past few years, the ethical ramifications of AI technologies have been at the center of intense debates. Considerable attention has been devoted to understanding how a morally responsible practice of data science can be promoted and which values have to shape it. In this context, ethics and moral responsibility have been mainly conceptualized as compliance to widely shared principles. However, several scholars have highlighted the limitations of such a principled approach. Drawing from microethics and the virtue theory tradition, (...)
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  27.  31
    Gross Negligence Manslaughter and Doctors: Ethical Concerns Following the Case of Dr Bawa-Garba.Ash Samanta & Jo Samanta - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):10-14.
    Dr Bawa-Garba, a senior paediatric trainee who had been involved in the care of a child who died shortly after admission to hospital, was convicted of gross negligence manslaughter and subsequently erased from the medical register. We argue that criminalisation of doctors in this way is fraught with ethical tensions at levels of individual blameworthiness, systemic failures, professionalism, patient safety and at the interface of the regulator and doctor. The current response to alleged manslaughter during clinical care is not (...)
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  28.  12
    Ambiguity and Zeugma.Emanuel Viebahn - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (4):749-762.
    In arguing against a supposed ambiguity, philosophers often rely on the zeugma test. In an application of the zeugma test, a supposedly ambiguous expression is placed in a sentence in which several of its supposed meanings are forced together. If the resulting sentence sounds zeugmatic, that is taken as evidence for ambiguity; if it does not sound zeugmatic, that is taken as evidence against ambiguity. The aim of this article is to show that arguments based on the second direction of (...)
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  29.  86
    Communitarian International Relations: The Epistemic Foundations of International Relations.Emanuel Adler - 2005 - Routledge.
    In Emanuel Adler's distinctive constructivist approach to international relations theory, international practices evolve in tandem with collective knowledge of the material and social worlds. This book - comprising a selection of his journal publications, a new introduction and three previously unpublished articles - points IR constructivism in a novel direction, characterized as 'communitarian'. Adler's synthesis does not herald the end of the nation-state; nor does it suggest that agency is unimportant in international life. Rather, it argues that what mediates (...)
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  30.  13
    Infinite Lotteries, Spinners, Applicability of Hyperreals†.Emanuele Bottazzi & Mikhail G. Katz - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    We analyze recent criticisms of the use of hyperreal probabilities as expressed by Pruss, Easwaran, Parker, and Williamson. We show that the alleged arbitrariness of hyperreal fields can be avoided by working in the Kanovei–Shelah model or in saturated models. We argue that some of the objections to hyperreal probabilities arise from hidden biases that favor Archimedean models. We discuss the advantage of the hyperreals over transferless fields with infinitesimals. In Paper II we analyze two underdetermination theorems by Pruss and (...)
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  31. Principles for Allocation of Scarce Medical Interventions.Govind Persad, Alan Wertheimer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2009 - The Lancet 373 (9661):423--431.
    Allocation of very scarce medical interventions such as organs and vaccines is a persistent ethical challenge. We evaluate eight simple allocation principles that can be classified into four categories: treating people equally, favouring the worst-off, maximising total benefits, and promoting and rewarding social usefulness. No single principle is sufficient to incorporate all morally relevant considerations and therefore individual principles must be combined into multiprinciple allocation systems. We evaluate three systems: the United Network for Organ Sharing points systems, quality-adjusted life-years, and (...)
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  32.  5
    Science, Technology, and Virtues: Contemporary Perspectives.Emanuele Ratti & Tom Stapleford (eds.) - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
  33.  9
    Internality, Transfer, and Infinitesimal Modeling of Infinite Processes†.Emanuele Bottazzi & Mikhail G. Katz - forthcoming - Philosophia Mathematica.
    ABSTRACTA probability model is underdetermined when there is no rational reason to assign a particular infinitesimal value as the probability of single events. Pruss claims that hyperreal probabilities are underdetermined. The claim is based upon external hyperreal-valued measures. We show that internal hyperfinite measures are not underdetermined. The importance of internality stems from the fact that Robinson’s transfer principle only applies to internal entities. We also evaluate the claim that transferless ordered fields may have advantages over hyperreals in probabilistic modeling. (...)
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  34.  58
    Lying with Pictures.Emanuel Viebahn - 2019 - British Journal of Aesthetics 59 (3):243-257.
    Pictures are notably absent from the current debate about how to define lying. Theorists in this debate tend to focus on linguistic means of communication and do not consider the possibility of lying with photographs, drawings and other kinds of pictures. The aim of this paper is to show that such a narrow focus is misguided: there is a strong case to be made for the possibility of lying with pictures and this possibility allows for insights concerning the question of (...)
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  35.  24
    Explainable Machine Learning Practices: Opening Another Black Box for Reliable Medical AI.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - 2022 - AI and Ethics:1-14.
    In the past few years, machine learning (ML) tools have been implemented with success in the medical context. However, several practitioners have raised concerns about the lack of transparency—at the algorithmic level—of many of these tools; and solutions from the field of explainable AI (XAI) have been seen as a way to open the ‘black box’ and make the tools more trustworthy. Recently, Alex London has argued that in the medical context we do not need machine learning tools to be (...)
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  36. Can Empirical Theories of Semantic Competence Really Help Limn the Structure of Reality?Steven Gross - 2006 - Noûs 40 (1):43–81.
    There is a long tradition of drawing metaphysical conclusions from investigations into language. This paper concerns one contemporary variation on this theme: the alleged ontological significance of cognitivist truth-theoretic accounts of semantic competence. According to such accounts, human speakers’ linguistic behavior is in part empirically explained by their cognizing a truth-theory. Such a theory consists of a finite number of axioms assigning semantic values to lexical items, a finite number of axioms assigning semantic values to complex expressions on the basis (...)
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  37.  76
    What’s Within? Nativism Reconsidered. [REVIEW]Steven Gross - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (1):94-97.
    Fiona Cowie’s _What’s Within_ consists of three parts. In the first, she examines the early modern rationalist- empiricist debate over nativism, isolating what she considers the two substantive “strands” (67)1 that truly separated them: whether there exist domain-specific learning mechanisms, and whether concept acquisition is amenable to naturalistic explanation. She then turns, in the book’s succeeding parts, to where things stand today with these issues. The second part argues that Jerry Fodor’s view of concepts is continuous with traditional nativism in (...)
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  38.  47
    Real Equality of Opportunity: BARRY R. GROSS.Barry R. Gross - 1987 - Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1):120-142.
    We are often told that we are morally obligated to produce equal opportunity for all. Therefore, it seems we should examine what power we have to produce that desirable state. For it would be nonsense to say we are required to provide what is beyond our power to provide. When we examine this question, we find our power limited by two sets of constraints. One set comprises formal constraints upon the idea itself of equal opportunity. We cannot do the logically (...)
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  39.  2
    Clinical Psychological Figures in Healthcare Professionals: Resilience and Maladjustment as the “Cost of Care”.Emanuele Maria Merlo, Anca Pantea Stoian, Ion G. Motofei & Salvatore Settineri - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Background: The health professionals are involved in the paths of care for patients with different medical conditions. Their life is frequently characterized by psychopathological outcomes so that it is possible to identify consistent burdens. Besides the possibility to develop pathological outcomes, some protective factors such as resilience play a fundamental role in facilitating the adaptation process and the management of maladaptive patterns. Personal characteristics and specific indexes such as burdens and resilience are essential variables useful to study in-depth ongoing conditions (...)
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  40. The Cognitive Control of Emotion.K. N. Ochsner & J. J. Gross - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (5):242-249.
    The capacity to control emotion is important for human adaptation. Questions about the neural bases of emotion regulation have recently taken on new importance, as functional imaging studies in humans have permitted direct investigation of control strategies that draw upon higher cognitive processes difficult to study in nonhumans. Such studies have examined (1) controlling attention to, and (2) cognitively changing the meaning of, emotionally evocative stimuli. These two forms of emotion regulation depend upon interactions between prefrontal and cingulate control systems (...)
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  41. The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics.Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Comprehensive in scope and research, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students alike.
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  42.  1
    World Ordering: A Social Theory of Cognitive Evolution.Emanuel Adler - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    Drawing on evolutionary epistemology, process ontology, and a social-cognition approach, this book suggests cognitive evolution, an evolutionary-constructivist social and normative theory of change and stability of international social orders. It argues that practices and their background knowledge survive preferentially, communities of practice serve as their vehicle, and social orders evolve. As an evolutionary theory of world ordering, which does not borrow from the natural sciences, it explains why certain configurations of practices organize and govern social orders epistemically and normatively, and (...)
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  43.  6
    The Higher the Score, the Darker the Core: The Nonlinear Association Between Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism.Emanuel Jauk & Scott Barry Kaufman - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  44. The Routine as Achievement.Emanuel A. Schegloff - 1986 - Human Studies 9 (2-3):111 - 151.
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  45.  65
    ‘Models of’ and ‘Models For’: On the Relation Between Mechanistic Models and Experimental Strategies in Molecular Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (2):773-797.
    Molecular biologists exploit information conveyed by mechanistic models for experimental purposes. In this article, I make sense of this aspect of biological practice by developing Keller’s idea of the distinction between ‘models of’ and ‘models for’. ‘Models of (phenomena)’ should be understood as models representing phenomena and are valuable if they explain phenomena. ‘Models for (manipulating phenomena)’ are new types of material manipulations and are important not because of their explanatory force, but because of the interventionist strategies they afford. This (...)
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  46.  66
    Mechanistic Models and the Explanatory Limits of Machine Learning.Emanuele Ratti & Ezequiel López-Rubio - unknown
    We argue that mechanistic models elaborated by machine learning cannot be explanatory by discussing the relation between mechanistic models, explanation and the notion of intelligibility of models. We show that the ability of biologists to understand the model that they work with severely constrains their capacity of turning the model into an explanatory model. The more a mechanistic model is complex, the less explanatory it will be. Since machine learning increases its performances when more components are added, then it generates (...)
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  47. Revisited Linguistic Intuitions.Jennifer Culbertson & Steven Gross - 2011 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):639 - 656.
    Michael Devitt ([2006a], [2006b]) argues that, insofar as linguists possess better theories about language than non-linguists, their linguistic intuitions are more reliable. (Culbertson and Gross [2009]) presented empirical evidence contrary to this claim. Devitt ([2010]) replies that, in part because we overemphasize the distinction between acceptability and grammaticality, we misunderstand linguists' claims, fall into inconsistency, and fail to see how our empirical results can be squared with his position. We reply in this note. Inter alia we argue that Devitt's (...)
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  48.  13
    Semantic Pluralism.Emanuel Viebahn - 2018 - Frankfurt, Germany: Klostermann.
    What is the content of a sentence in context? A proposition, says the standard propositional view accepted in much of semantics. A set of propositions, says the hitherto little-explored view of Semantic Pluralism. The aim of this book is to motivate, develop and defend Semantic Pluralism. To achieve this aim, the book puts forward two arguments against Contextualism, the most popular propositional theory. It spells out two versions of Semantic Pluralism: Flexible Pluralism, which takes many expressions to be context-sensitive, and (...)
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  49.  60
    Undue Inducement: Nonsense on Stilts?Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):9-13.
    1. The opinions expressed are the author's own. They do not reflect any position or policy of the National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, or any of the authors affiliated organizations.
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  50. Ways of Using Words: On Semantic Intentions.Emanuel Viebahn - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 100 (1):93-117.
    Intentionalism is the view that demonstratives, gradable adjectives, quantifiers, modals and other context‐sensitive expressions are intention‐sensitive: their semantic value on a given use is fixed by speaker intentions. The first aim of this paper is to defend Intentionalism against three recent objections, according to which speakers at least sometimes do not have suitable intentions when using supposedly intention‐sensitive expressions. Its second aim is to thereby shed light on the so far little‐explored question of which kinds of intentions can be semantically (...)
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