18 found
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  1.  17
    True Contextuality Beats Direct Influences in Human Decision Making.Irina Basieva, Víctor H. Cervantes, Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Andrei Khrennikov - 2019 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148 (11):1925-1937.
  2.  50
    On Selective Influences, Marginal Selectivity, and Bell/CHSH Inequalities.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Janne V. Kujala - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):121-128.
    The Bell/CHSH inequalities of quantum physics are identical with the inequalities derived in mathematical psychology for the problem of selective influences in cases involving two binary experimental factors and two binary random variables recorded in response to them. The following points are made regarding cognitive science applications: (1) compliance of data with these inequalities is informative only if the data satisfy the requirement known as marginal selectivity; (2) both violations of marginal selectivity and violations of the Bell/CHSH inequalities are interpretable (...)
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  3.  10
    Unfalsifiability and Mutual Translatability of Major Modeling Schemes for Choice Reaction Time.Matt Jones & Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (1):1-32.
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  4.  16
    Contextuality in Three Types of Quantum-Mechanical Systems.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov, Janne V. Kujala & Jan-Åke Larsson - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (7):762-782.
    We present a formal theory of contextuality for a set of random variables grouped into different subsets corresponding to different, mutually incompatible conditions. Within each context the random variables are jointly distributed, but across different contexts they are stochastically unrelated. The theory of contextuality is based on the analysis of the extent to which some of these random variables can be viewed as preserving their identity across different contexts when one considers all possible joint distributions imposed on the entire set (...)
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  5. No-Forcing and No-Matching Theorems for Classical Probability Applied to Quantum Mechanics.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Janne V. Kujala - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (3):248-265.
    Correlations of spins in a system of entangled particles are inconsistent with Kolmogorov’s probability theory (KPT), provided the system is assumed to be non-contextual. In the Alice–Bob EPR paradigm, non-contextuality means that the identity of Alice’s spin (i.e., the probability space on which it is defined as a random variable) is determined only by the axis $\alpha _{i}$ chosen by Alice, irrespective of Bob’s axis $\beta _{j}$ (and vice versa). Here, we study contextual KPT models, with two properties: (1) Alice’s (...)
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  6.  2
    On Universality of Classical Probability with Contextually Labeled Random Variables.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Maria Kon - 2018 - Journal of Mathematical Psychology 85:17-24.
    One can often encounter claims that classical (Kolmogorovian) probability theory cannot handle, or even is contradicted by, certain empirical findings or substantive theories. This note joins several previous attempts to explain that these claims are unjustified, illustrating this on the issues of (non)existence of joint distributions, probabilities of ordered events, and additivity of probabilities. The specific focus of this note is on showing that the mistakes underlying these claims can be precluded by labeling all random variables involved contextually. Moreover, contextual (...)
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  7.  15
    Can Brightness Be Related to Luminance by a Meaningful Function?Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (3):565-566.
  8. Sorites Without Vagueness I: Classificatory Sorites.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Damir D. Dzhafarov - 2010 - Theoria 76 (1):4-24.
    An abstract mathematical theory is presented for a common variety of soritical arguments, treated here in terms of responses of a system, say, a biological organism, a gadget, or a set of normative linguistic rules, to stimuli. Any characteristic of the system's responses which supervenes on stimuli is called a stimulus effect upon the system. Classificatory sorites is about the identity of or difference between the effects of stimuli that differ 'only microscopically'. We formulate the classificatory sorites on arguably the (...)
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  9.  9
    Proof of a Conjecture on Contextuality in Cyclic Systems with Binary Variables.Janne V. Kujala & Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (3):282-299.
    We present a proof for a conjecture previously formulated by Dzhafarov et al.. The conjecture specifies a measure for the degree of contextuality and a criterion for contextuality in a broad class of quantum systems. This class includes Leggett–Garg, EPR/Bell, and Klyachko–Can–Binicioglu–Shumovsky type systems as special cases. In a system of this class certain physical properties \ are measured in pairs \ \); every property enters in precisely two such pairs; and each measurement outcome is a binary random variable. Denoting (...)
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  10.  8
    Contextuality and Dichotomizations of Random Variables.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Janne V. Kujala - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 52 (1):1-25.
    The Contextuality-by-Default approach to determining and measuring the contextuality of a system of random variables requires that every random variable in the system be represented by an equivalent set of dichotomous random variables. In this paper we present general principles that justify the use of dichotomizations and determine their choice. The main idea in choosing dichotomizations is that if the set of possible values of a random variable is endowed with a pre-topology, then the allowable dichotomizations split the space of (...)
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  11. Sorites Without Vagueness II: Comparative Sorites.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Damir D. Dzhafarov - 2010 - Theoria 76 (1):25-53.
    We develop a mathematical theory for comparative sorites, considered in terms of a system mapping pairs of stimuli into a binary response characteristic whose values supervene on stimulus pairs and are interpretable as the complementary relations 'are the same' and 'are not the same' (overall or in some respect). Comparative sorites is about hypothetical sequences of stimuli in which every two successive elements are mapped into the relation 'are the same', while the pair comprised of the first and the last (...)
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  12. Perceptual Separability of Stimulus Dimensions: A Fechnerian Analysis.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 2004 - In Christian Kaernbach, Erich Schroger & Hermann Müller (eds.), Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition. Psychology Press. pp. 9.
     
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  13. Descriptive and Normative Approaches to Human Behavior, Advanced Series on Mathematical Psychology.Hans Colonius & Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov (eds.) - 2011
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  14. Corrigendum: Noncontextuality with Marginal Selectivity in Reconstructing Mental Architectures.Ru Zhang & Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  15.  1
    Noncontextuality with Marginal Selectivity in Reconstructing Mental Architectures.Ru Zhang & Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  16.  2
    On Universality of Classical Probability with Contextually Labeled Random Variables: Response to A. Khrennikov.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Maria Kon - 2019 - Journal of Mathematical Psychology 89:93-97.
    In his constructive and well-informed commentary, Andrei Khrennikov acknowledges a privileged status of classical probability theory with respect to statistical analysis. He also sees advantages offered by the Contextuality-by-Default theory, notably, that it “demystifies quantum mechanics by highlighting the role of contextuality,” and that it can detect and measure contextuality in inconsistently connected systems. He argues, however, that classical probability theory may have difficulties in describing empirical phenomena if they are described entirely in terms of observable events. We disagree: contexts (...)
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  17.  20
    Beyond Quantum Probability: Another Formalism Shared by Quantum Physics and Psychology.Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov & Janne V. Kujala - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):283 - 284.
    There is another meeting place for quantum physics and psychology, both within and outside of cognitive modeling. In physics it is known as the issue of classical (probabilistic) determinism, and in psychology it is known as the issue of selective influences. The formalisms independently developed in the two areas for dealing with these issues turn out to be identical, opening ways for mutually beneficial interactions.
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  18.  2
    Analyzability, Ad Hoc Restrictions, and Excessive Flexibility of Evidence-Accumulation Models: Reply to Two Critical Commentaries.Matt Jones & Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov - 2014 - Psychological Review 121 (4):689-695.
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