Entre la conscience transcendantale et le système spéculatif, la volonté de discours cohérent hésite avant de se trouver invinciblement reconduite à la finitude sans recours de sa position existentielle. De cette histoire de tensions irréductibles résulte pour la philosophie une exigence nouvelle : se comprendre en son originalité comme milieu du sens, d’un sens dialogal librement exigé et partagé, dont la forme vide travaille les interactions de l’existence finie jusqu’à la porter finalement au-delà d’elle-même. The want of a coherent discourse (...) hesitates between the transcendental conscience and the speculative system, before finding itself invincibly taken back to finiteness, without help of its existential position. From this story of irreducible tensions results a new requirement for philosophy : to conceive itself, in its originality, as the milieu of sense, of a dialogic sense freely required and shared, the empty shape of which works on the interactions of the finite existence, up to finally carrying it beyond itself. (shrink)
Précédant le discours systématiquement développé qu'est la Logique de la philosophie, une substantielle introduction cherche dans une réflexion anthropologique la condition première et l'envoi le plus décisif de l'entreprise philosophante. Toujours pris dans la dualité essentielle de la raison et de la violence, l'homme s'appuie d'abord sur une sécurité communautaire idéalisée avant de chercher un recours dans des constructions ontologiques dont la fragilité objective ne pourra cependant pas résister à l'émergence d'une " condition " moderne vouée à l'épreuve de sa (...) finitude radicale. Prior to the systematically developed discourse which is the Logic of Philosophy, a substantial introduction seeks the first condition and the most decisive start of the undertaking of philosophy in an anthropological reflection. Being always caught in the essential duality of reason and violence, man first leans on an idealised communalistic security before having recourse to ontological constructions, the objective fragility of which, however, cannot resist the emergence of a modern " condition " destined for the test of its radical finiteness. (shrink)
O objetivo principal deste artigo é apresentar alguns dos principais argumentos de Eric Weil que sustentam a relevante tese da importância da escolha livre e deliberada do ser humano pela vida racional, demonstrando, por conseguinte, ser razoável a busca por uma existência cada vez mais humanizada e alicerçada sobre valores fundamentais da vida humana, tais como, a honestidade, a justiça e a felicidade, possibilitando, paulatina e progressivamente, a superação e o desaparecimento, tanto quanto possível, dos diferentes tipos de violência, (...) estando o ser humano ciente, no entanto, de que a erradicação total da violência no mundo é impensável, uma vez ser a liberdade do ser humano um processo de contínua deliberação e escolha, tanto em nível pessoal, como também, comunitário e social. (shrink)
Resumo Neste artigo, pretendemos abordar o pensamento de duas mulheres por meio dos conceitos de aniquilamento, que encontramos em Le mirouer des simples ames de Marguerite Porete, e descriação que aparece em Pensateur et grace de Simone Weil. Também usaremos a obra de Weil La connaisance surnaturelle composta pelos Cahiers d’Amérique e Notes ècrites à Londres, onde ela faz referência ao livro de Marguerite Porete. Deste modo, apresentaremos, num primeiro momento, a mística de Marguerite Porete, focando no conceito (...) de aniquilamento. Depois, num segundo momento, mostraremos um pouco da mística de Simone Weil por meio do conceito de descriação. A partir deste segundo momento, já iremos traçando alguns paralelos para mostrar a semelhança entre a mística das duas pensadoras que se refletirá no terceiro momento deste artigo, onde apresentaremos Weil como leitura de Le mirouer des simples ames.In this article we intend to approach the thought of two French philosophers through two concepts: annihilation, found in the Le mirouer des simples ames of Marguerite Porete, and decreation, which appears in the Pensateur et grace of Simone Weil. We will also refer to Weil’s La connaisance surnaturelle, composed of the Cahiers d’Amérique and Notes ècrites à Londres, where she refers to Marguerite Porete’s book. First we present the mysticism of Marguerite Porete, focusing on the concept of annihilation. Next we discuss the mysticism of Simone Weil through the concept of decreation. We then draw some parallels to show the similarity between the mysticism of the two thinkers, and discuss Weil as a reader of Le mirouer des simples ames. (shrink)
Simone Weil's rejection of pacifism -- The empire of force -- Love of neighbor versus totalitarianism -- Values for reading the universe -- Reading and justice -- Simone Weil and the Bhagavad-Gita -- Justice and the supernatural -- Neither victim nor executioner -- Appendix : English translations of Simone Weil's essays.
O artigo compreende a relação entre filosofia e democracia no pensamento político de Eric Weil. O tema se torna particularmente relevante no atual contexto de crises de regimes democráticos ocidentais, e a sua principal contribuição é distinguir a leitura propriamente filosófica desse quadro. Para tanto, o texto se divide em duas partes, na primeira, mostra que filosofia e democracia compartilham os mesmo pressupostos, isto é, a razoabilidade do homem; na segunda analisa o diálogo como fundamental registro político da linguagem, (...) aquele, único capaz de sustentar efetivamente o discurso e a discussão numa democracia. Por fim, a obra de Weil apresenta, mantendo-se sempre na perspectiva do filósofo, uma interpretação consistente da democracia a partir do reconhecimento dos seus limites e das pressões às quais ela pode estar exposta, confrontando suas definições formais às nossas experiências históricas e apontando a superação dos ditos limites no esforço contínuo da educação do homem para a formação do povo. (shrink)
L’avenir de la philosophie é a conferência proferida por Eric Weil à Association régionale des professeurs de philosophie, da cidade de Nice, em 1974. Nela, ficam destacadas alguns temas fundamentais com os quais o autor se preocupou a partir da publicação da sua Logique de la philosophie, em 1950. A tradução do texto vem aqui precedida por uma apresentação que visa a, justamente, sublinhar elementos essenciais à compreensão da obra weiliana, e presentes na conferência, tais como o caráter capital (...) do problema da violência para a filosofia, a importância da escolha pela razoabilidade e, por fim, a filosofia compreendida na passagem da certeza à discussão. (shrink)
RESUMO O artigo apresenta a proposta de Eric Weil para a leitura filosófica de um evento histórico. Trata-se de um exercício de filosofia da história, destacando os termos essenciais da relação entre filosofia e história, o que assume traços precisos na reflexão de Weil sobre o avanço histórico. Para tanto, acompanha a reflexão de Weil sobre as recepções britânica e alemã da Revolução francesa, isto é, do pano de fundo a partir do qual podemos compreender os contornos (...) modernos da moral, da política, da filosofia e da história. Em outras palavras, ao pensar a Revolução, o filósofo lida com Breakthrough que funda o novo quadro referencial no qual são recolocadas as questões da tradição, do sentido e do fim da história. ABSTRACT This paper presents Eric Weil’s proposal for the philosophical reading of a historical event. It is an exercise in the philosophy of history, highlighting the essential terms of the relationship between philosophy and history. These same terms assume precise features in Weil’s reflection on historic Breakthrough. To do this, the article follows Weil’s reflection on the British and German reception of the French Revolution, that is, from the background from which we can understand the modern contours of morality, politics, philosophy and history. In other words, when thinking about the Revolution, the philosopher deals with the framework that founds the new references of the questions of tradition, meaning and the end of history. (shrink)
O artigo aborda o diálogo como dimensão política da linguagem. Partimos do fato de que se, por um lado, a relevância do tema é confirmada pelas dificuldades dos debates políticos sobre os problemas comuns de convivência em comunidades multiculturais e plurirreligiosas, por outro, a filosofias de Weil e de Arendt contribuem para recolocar o diálogo como uma real condição de possibilidade para a ação política. Para isso, retornamos à abordagem do diálogo como virtude, em Weil, e como expressão (...) e construção do mundo, em Arendt, para concluir com um convite, em meio a “tempos sombrios”, para a “coragem da razão”. (shrink)
Simone Weil believed that Greece’s vocation was to build bridges between God and man. This paper argues that, in light of Weil’s “tradition of mystical thought,” the Christian vocation is an extension of the Greek. The search for the perfect bridge in Homer, Sophocles and Plato comes to fruition in the Passion of Christ. The Greek thinkers, especially Plato with his Perfectly Just Man, already had implicit knowledge of the Passion’s truth.
"Anyone interested in Simone Weil will want, and need, to read this superb collection." —Diogenes Allen, Princeton Theological Seminary “These essays—some written by leading specialists in Simone Weil's thought, others by prominent theologians and philosophers of religion—are especially valuable not only for elucidating Weil's reading of Plato but also for showing what one or another form of Christian Platonism can mean for us today.” —James A. Wiseman, O.S.B., Catholic University of America "This remarkable and penetrating collection of (...) essays on Simone Weil's religious philosophy illumines the living intersection between serious metaphysics and ethics. The authors carefully examine this relation that much post-modern reflection has until now only skimmed, but that Weil herself managed to embrace with breathtaking intellectual discipline and self-giving. The book is a bracing testimony to the deep moral consequences of classical ontology and its challenging Christian reorientation." —The Rev. Dr. Ephraim Radner, Ascension Episcopal Church, Pueblo, Colorado In this book a group of renowned international scholars seek to discern the ways in which Simone Weil was indebted to Plato, and how her provocative readings of his work offer challenges to contemporary philosophy, theology, and spirituality. This is the first book in twenty years to systematically investigate Weil’s Christian Platonism. (shrink)
There are many reasons for questioning the relevance of the concepts of self-organization (SO) and emergence. By studying three types of SO, respectively related to ontogeny, phylogeny and formalized models, we show that we always have to suppose an associated hetero-organization and preconceived immergence, unconsciously present in the authors mind. In order to understand how these unusual couples are working, they must be considered as agonistic antagonistic couples. Heteroorganization and immergence put constraints on the system so that SO and emergence (...) will produce new patterns and forms, depending on these constraints. Besides, such couples (SO and heteroorganization, emergence and immergence) seem to belong to a series of couples of the same type, allowing us to define a kind of model of life.The concept of self-organization has been presented as the main concept defining systemics, and second order cybernetics. This concept has been accepted also in general Biological Theory (BT) where authors endowed the key to many phenomena until then poorly understood. (shrink)
To answer the question in the title, we take as an example the model for the regulation of agonistic antagonistic couples (MRAAC). It is a model that associates 4 non-linear differential equations and allows to simulate balance, imbalance between two state variables, and control, if necessary, by two control variables of the same nature as the state variables: this control is defined as a bilateral strategy (bipolar therapy in the medical field). The super model for the regulation of agonism antagonistic (...) couples (SMRAAC), that may be also considered as an agonistic antagonistic network (AAN), associates several elementary MRAAC's, but the interconnection structure falls equally under the category of the agonistic antagonism (AA). First we indicate what may be the results of the interconnection, favourable or not. In the last case, a control can be performed, by acting upon a sole couple of the SMRAAC, even if other couples were imbalanced (with two AA control variables only). Simulation examples are given. We bring also a new result with the SMRAAC, i.e. the appearance of strange auractors with this model. The general models belonging to the AA phylum should put on a growing importance in the future, because they could be the sole models enable to control some complex systems by avoiding the perverse effects of the unilateral strategies. (shrink)
How can we articulate the intimate demand of the spiritual life and the struggle for solidarity? These two issues have often been treated separately; in _Simone Weil: Attention to the Real_, however, Robert Chenavier explores the work of Simone Weil and demonstrates how she brought them together in a single movement of thought. "Our time has a unique mission, calling for the creation of a civilization based on the spirituality of work," she wrote near the end of her (...) short life. Her experience as a militant and the call of the divine nurtured in her writing an intense and unwavering defense of this new civilization, backed by her personal sense of intellectual, moral, and political responsibility. Originally published in French in 2009, _Simone Weil: __Attention to the Real_ leads the reader through her earliest writing as a perceptive social critic to her work on spirituality and materialism, and finally to her extraordinary concept of decreation, produced before her death at the age of thirty-four. "To an exceptional degree," Chenavier says, "the life of Simone Weil, her personality, her commitment, and her reflection form one single whole." Chenavier argues that Weil's vocation took on a very original form in the history of philosophical thought. He is especially concerned with Weil's philosophical writings on the concept of work, which remain relevant today, and which provide an important key to her thinking throughout her life. Bernard Doering's superb translation brings to English readers Chenavier's succinct account of Simone Weil's life and an illuminating introduction to her philosophical thought. "Bernard Doering has crafted a very fine translation of Robert Chenavier's comprehensive but brief introduction to Simone Weil's philosophical project. It provides an excellent English introduction to the social philosophy of Simone Weil, with due attention to her understanding of the importance of work in learning to attend to the real. Doering's translation will be of interest to both a religious and secular readership, both inside and outside the academy." —_Lawrence Schmidt, University of Toronto_. (shrink)
New class of therapies, including bipolar therapies (BPT) and paradoxical unipolar therapies (PUT) were firstly proposed in relation to a clinical insight and to some results of biological investigations, then they gave rise to mathematical modeling which brought a justification of these therapies, at least from a theoretical point of view. After recalling the mathematical model for the regulation of agonistic antagonistic couples, and reporting the fundamental types of control simulation by means of it, we point out the validity of (...) therapeutical applications inferred from this model. These therapy modalities, including BPT and PUT, now concern the following diseases: astrocytomas, epilepsia and trials on multiple sclerosis. Even if such attempts are in their early stage, noticeably for the last case where biological changes have mainly been studied, it seems that a large span of treatments is open to BPT and PUT. Improvement of these techniques in the future depends, in our opinion, on a parallel working on the dynamics of the mathematical model and the dynamics, perceived by clinical insight and confirmed by biological investigations, of the body reactions to such strategies. Justification of BPT and PUT was given, by resorting to the notion of pathological homeostasis which, too often, intervenes in order to nullify the effects of unilateral (not paradoxical) therapies. This research has elicited some therapies which use two agents with antagonistic effects or only an agent with effects similar to the agent already in excess in the body - in both cases at nearly physiological doses. (shrink)
A link between biological and human sciences may be established, under the condition that we should admit the existence of reciprocal influences between them. The model for the regulation of agonistic antagonistic couples (MRAAC) is built from the study of biological systems and gives rise to specific types of control. This model can be helpful in decision processes in some human sciences such as management, economical and political strategies. The reason for such an opportunity lies in the fact that MRAAC (...) is a general and phenomenological model able to incorporate the whole of the agonistic antagonistic systems. This type of regulation might be related to the concept of the viability of a system (yet also valid for human science systems) and to a functional and structural pattern which is the basis for agonistic antagonistic networks. (shrink)