Process philosophy is said by some to be the future of American philosophy. This collection of essays, ranging from studies of Whitehead to Camus and Sir Muhammad Iqbal, extends the discussion far beyond the boundaries of North America. Several of the essays are of a more systematic character. Donald Hanks analyzes the category of process as a pre-conceptual principle used to organize experience into an intelligible pattern. Andrew Reck provides an analysis of the meaning and justification of what he considers (...) to be the ten ideas or categories requisite for a system of process philosophy. Charles Schmidtke argues that process philosophy faces a fundamental decision regarding whether the character of reality as process is given as an ultimate datum or whether process philosophy structures reality in accordance with the characteristic of creative becoming. Other essays in the volume are concerned with the concept of process in the work of a variety of philosophers, some of whom are less directly in the process tradition. Ramona Cormier analyzes the relationship of the process of experience to its unchanging aspect in connection with Camus’ concern for the meaningfulness of life and the limitations of rational inquiry. Bertrand P. Helm provides a study of James’ concept of time and Patrick S. Madigan a study of the concept of space in Leibniz and Whitehead. Whitehead’s understanding of the interaction of things provides the basis for R. Kirby Godsey’s study of the categories of substance and relation in Whitehead, and Robert C. Whittemore provides an introduction to the process philosophy of Sir Muhammad Iqbal, the little known poet-philosopher and sometime student of James Ward. James Leroy Smith’s article on Whitehead and Marx is a critical comparison of their political philosophies.—E.T.L. (shrink)
Earl R. MacCormick provides his readers with a survey of recent studies in the languages of science and religion arguing that both science and religion employ metaphors and that the one is as vulnerable as the other to attacks of meaninglessness on the grounds of verifiability and falsifiability criteria of meaning. While acknowledging that the contents and intentions of metaphors in science and religion differ, MacCormick argues that science and religion use metaphors for similar purposes and that both create myths (...) when they falsely attribute reality to what are in fact tentative explanations. His conclusion is that one cannot legitimately reject religious language as meaningless on the grounds that its language is metaphorical without recognizing that the language of science is subject to the same criticism. (shrink)
A new edition of a work first published in 1926, in which Fr. Summers recounts the nature and the historical activities of the witch, "devotee of a loathly and obscene creed." One cannot doubt either the author's sincerity or his scholarship, evidenced by thorough documentation and a bibliography of 30 pages. A Forword by Felix Morrow compares the author's position with the more skeptical views of M. A. Murray.--E. T.
Six critical essays in various areas of the broad field covered by the title. Included are a discussion of intensional and extensional procedures for analyzing meanings with special attention to remarks of Quine, a consideration of different conceptions of probability, and a comparison of the pragmatism of Peirce, James, and Dewey.--E.T.
In Martin v. Ortho Pharmacetrtical Corp. ), the Supreme Court of Illinois held that, although a federal regulation requires pharmaceutical manufacturers to provide direct warnings to consumers about the dangers associated with oral contraceptives, this regulation does not constitute an exception to the learned intermediary doctrine and the manufacture will not be held strictly liable. The court declined to recognize an exception for manufacturers of contraceptives due to important policy considerations and the legislative intent underlying the learned intermediary doctrine. The (...) doctrine is based on the assumption that prescribing physicians, not pharmaceutical manufacturers, are in the best position to provide direct warnings to patients concerning the dangers associated with prescription drugs. The decision may affect patients whose medical care providers are unable to account for drug propensities or patient susceptibilities. Additionally, patients with forgetful or inarticulate health care providers are at risk. (shrink)
Steinkrauss has written a text for students taking their first course in aesthetics. The book is intentionally traditional and systematic, for while Steinkrauss does not eschew the importance of detailed analyses of selected problems, he does see a need for beginning students to gain an overview of the problems with which philosophers are concerned in the arts. Beginning with what might be called, in a broad sense, a phenomenology of aesthetic experience, the author combines descriptions of distinguishing characteristics of aesthetic (...) experience with frequent references to examples in the arts in an attempt to assist students to reflect on their ordinary aesthetic experiences and judgments. Aesthetic experience is intentional for Steinkrauss, that is, refers to some object, and this leads to the second chapter of the book in which he discusses the work of art. Steinkrauss is aware of some of the difficulties associated with defining a work of art but shows little patience with the efforts of some philosophers in the analytic tradition to provide definitions or to show that definitions are not possible. Steinkrauss prefers to speak of what he calls distinguishing characteristics of works of art. (shrink)
Dupré argues that at the center of the cultural crisis of our time is an objectivist attitude, an attitude which results in thinking of human existence using models appropriate to objects with the result that transcendence is lost and man is thought of as a thing to be manipulated. However, a mere retreat into subjectivity is not the answer to this crisis. What is needed is reflection on the subject itself in order to give it a content of its own, (...) and Dupré suggests that a key to this kind of reflection is given in the work of Husserl and Heidegger. It is within the temporality and historicity of the being of man that man discovers his transcending of objectivist states and an openness to the divine, understood as other than an ultimate object separated from the self and opposed to it. Dupré’s brief and provocative book is primarily a series of reflections on the inner life of human existence, guided by critical reflection on the Judaeo-Christian tradition, in which he believes the inner transcendence of the self to have been articulated. It is the passive open character of man to which Dupré invites our particular attention, not the objectifying manipulating character, which is reflected prominently in our technological age. (shrink)
Search for Gods is an exploration of man’s experiences in his natural and cultural world with the intent of rediscovering and describing the transcendent foundation of human existence which is said to be the ground of man’s freedom and his achievement of the fullness of his being-in-the-world. Writing from a Heideggerian perspective, Vycinas argues that the mythical world view, in which man is open to and takes part in transcendental reality, understood as the play of nature’s forces, was replaced in (...) Western thought and culture by an anthropocentric view in which man establishes his own world, and the transcendental is removed to the perimeter of the unreal. In the anthropocentric world, man understands the absence of the transcendental foundation to be a mark of his supremacy. But Vycinas holds that this is merely a phase in the cultural development of man and argues that when man meditates on his ways he will discover the insecurity of his ways and begin to search for foundations other than anthropocentric ones. (shrink)
Published as volume 10 in the series Analecta Husserliana, edited by Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, this volume is an English translation and revision of the book published in Polish in 1969 under the title, Osoba i Czyn. It is a phenomenological study of man understood as the acting person. It differs from the primary philosophical trend since Descartes in that the primary focus is on action rather than on the cognitive function of persons. Action is taken as a particular moment in experiencing (...) the person and is held to give us insight into the essence of what it is to be a person. Action is understood as conscious action, human action with stress on the purposes and deliberations of action. Morality is held to constitute an intrinsic feature of the action of persons and because of this the findings of this study have implications for ethics. However, the author makes it clear that his interests in this volume are not in moral values as such but only as they give us deeper insights into the nature of the person. (shrink)
Presents the Sanskrit text, together with an English translation by Gnoli, of the tenth century treatises by Abhinavagupta. The text, called the most recent "creative stimulus" to the study of aesthetics in India, is in the form of a commentary on the fourth- or fifth-century work attributed to Bharata, concerned with instructions for the production of drama. As the translator's introduction states, this early manuscript has been a unique source in the development of Indian aesthetic thought.--E. T.
An attempt to introduce readers "at the eleventh grade level" to some leading principles and practitioners of philosophy in America. This undertaking, admittedly difficult, meets with varying success. The book's most satisfactory part consists of essays by various contributors describing the different fields of philosophy; the rest outlines briefly the philosophical doctrines most influential in American thought, and sketches the lives of a wide assortment of American "philosophers," from Jonathan Edwards to Franklin D. Roosevelt, with a one- or two-paragraph selection (...) from the works of each.--E. T. (shrink)
Offers the logical tyro a varied diet, from Aristotle to Lewis Carroll, including the "neglected" forms of argument as well as examples from the logic of classes and relations. To avoid translation among systems, the examples are all in "English." Copious explanatory footnotes and references recommend it to the self-taught.--E. T.
A representative collection of this lively encyclopedist's writings, mainly fiction, selected and introduced by the translators. Included are D'Alembert's Dream and Supplement to Bougainville's "Voyage" in dialogue form, and an essay on "encyclopédie" from that monumental work. --E. T.
Harper appeals to philosophy, literature, psychiatry and theology from Augustine to R. D. Laing to present what he calls a coherent picture of the major existential themes found in interior experience. This is not a book in existential philosophy in the usual sense. Indeed Harper argues that academic philosophers have failed to adequately treat interior experience. Interior experience, he says, is largely emotional and does not yield easily to analysis and conceptualization. Harper’s style is exploratory and suggestive, even lyrical at (...) points, as he interprets human experience in accordance with the themes: existence, insecurity, the void, self-isolation and presence. Human existence is, according to Harper, what I make it to be. Yet it is also characterized by insecurity or anxiousness, a sense of estrangement rather than fulfillment and reconciliation. The experience of contemporary man is characterized not only by insecurity but also by a sense of emotional and spiritual disability. God is absent and man experiences reality as indifferent and himself as alone and isolated in a void. Man is not, however, without hope for there is in existentialism and in personal experience the parallel theme of presence, being open to reality as grace, which gives hope of acceptance and love, satisfying the whole man. Harper’s study is scattered with references to Augustine, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Camus, Sartre and others. But these references are controlled from Harper’s own perspective, the result of his meditations on his own and other reports of interior experience. In the Afterword, Harper makes this perspective and his view of the nature of philosophy more clear.—E. T. L. (shrink)
The author has organized Maritain's writings on man into three categories, man as 1) rational, 2) free, and 3) social, with appropriate quotations and running commentary. The French selections are not translated. Includes an intellectual biography of Maritain, with particular attention to the influence of Bergson.--E. T.
This interesting approach to literary analysis comprises articles by writers in philosophy, literature, and the classics. Authors treated include Shaw, Shakespeare, Plato, Ibsen, and Browning; among those faced with dilemmas are Faust, Billy Budd, Hamlet, and Job.--E. T.
A revised, one-volume edition of Gandhi's account of his life and work up to 1921. The illuminating detail, the humility and humor of the author in contrast with the great events he shaped, combine to make an unforgettable book.--E. T.
Reprints the only English translation of Rousseau's development of the Projet pour rendre la paix perpétuelle en Europe by l'Abbé de Saint-Pierre. The introduction, written for this edition, provides an illuminating comparison of the two thinkers. Fragments of the essay on "The State of War" are also included.--E. T.