Nursing, a scientific and practical discipline, faces continuing challenges of finding new direction in order to decipher its core values and develop current ethical codes for nursing practice. In 2009–10, 28 nurses were purposely selected and interviewed using a semi-structured format in focus groups and individually. Thematic Content Analysis helped explore the perception of Iranian nurses on ethical values in patient care. Seven major themes emerged: respect for dignity, professional integrity, professional commitment, developing human relationships, justice, honesty, and promoting individuals (...) and the nursing profession. Iranian nurses revealed a unique and culture-based set of ethical values. This study found that Iranian nurses place a greater emphasis on preserving the dignity of those accompanying the patient and in showing regard for patients' religious beliefs in a gender appropriate environment. (shrink)
This qualitative research study with a content analysis approach aimed to explore families’ experiences of an organ donation request after brain death. Data were collected through 38 unstructured and in-depth interviews with 14 consenting families and 12 who declined to donate organs. A purposeful sampling process began in October 2009 and ended in October 2010. Data analysis reached 10 categories and two major themes were listed as: 1) serenity in eternal freedom; and 2) resentful grief. The central themes were peace (...) and honor versus doubt and regret. The findings indicated that the families faced with an organ donation request of a brain-dead loved one experienced a lasting effect long after the patient's demise regardless of their decision to donate or refusal to donate. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of family support and follow-up in an efficient healthcare system aimed at developing trust with the families and providing comfort during and after the final decision. (shrink)
Dignity is a human right and a base for human health. This right must be observed in work environments as a moral obligation. This qualitative study aimed to understand nurses’ experiences of violation of their dignity at work and to explore its dimensions. The participants were 15 nurses working in two hospitals in Tehran. The data were collected through 26 unstructured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. The dimensions of violation were ‘irreverence’, including experiences of abuse and violence, humiliation, and (...) being ignored; ‘coercion and violation of autonomy’, consisting of the control of relationships, lack of privacy, rigidness, and imposition; ‘ignoring professional and scientific ability’, indicating impossibilities in applying nurses’ knowledge; and ‘denying the value of nurse/care’, being the theme that verified the dominance of treatment/cure and lack of recognition of care value. Health systems should take the promotion of the nurses’ dignity into account through providing a dignified work environment. (shrink)
The formalist linguists are of the opinion that the literary language is formed by polishing and foregrounding the practiced slang. Many of this literary tricks used in foregrounding are categorized; but there exist some literary tricks that have not been dealt with and are not named or addressed in the available categories. The attempt is made in this study to find an answer to the questions that why has Mandanipour in his masterpiece, “Shargh-e Banafshe” achieved a superior language that is (...) outstanding among his colleagues of the same era and has become a model in advanced language for the writers to come based on adopting defamiliarization theory in the Leech foregrounding format? Assessing the language of this unique work indicates that in addition to introducing an innovation in the usual styles in contemporary writing and the themes he has allowed assimilation and metaphor and other obsolete styles in his language; and yet has used special literary tricks that have never been tried or tested before. This approach has pat language in story writing to a high position. (shrink)
The purpose of the present study was to compare differential functioning of Iranian English versus Persian teachers in responding to compliments and to investigate the possibility of sociolinguistic transmission of speech act of responding to compliments from English culture to native Iranian Persian speakers. Following Chen and Yang (2010), we hypothesized that exposure to English would affect the complimenting behavior of Persian speakers, leading to more acceptance of compliments compared to those with little or no exposure to English. Participants of (...) the study were 50 English teachers, regarded as “exposed-to-English” or E group, and 50 Persian teachers, considered as “unexposed-to-English” or U group. The participants’ age ranged from 20 to 35 and they were selected through non-randomized convenience sampling. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT) comprising eight complimenting situations was developed in two versions, i.e. English and Persian, in light of Mane’s (1983) taxonomy. The results revealed a significant difference in performance between groups and that Iranian English teachers’ Compliment Response (CR) behavior changed due to exposure to English and approached English culture. Further findings and implications are discussed in the paper. (shrink)
Neste livro Gombrich discute as idéias e as posturas específicas que tiveram influência decisiva na prática da arte renascentista. Todos os estudos aqui reunidos tratam de algo a que se pode chamar clima renascentista de opiniões sobre a arte, além da influência desse clima sobre a prática e a crítica da arte.
G.E. Moore, more than either Bertrand Russell or Ludwig Wittgenstein, was chiefly responsible for the rise of the analytic method in twentieth-century philosophy. This selection of his writings shows Moore at his very best. The classic essays are crucial to major philosophical debates that still resonate today. Amongst those included are: * A Defense of Common Sense * Certainty * Sense-Data * External and Internal Relations * Hume's Theory Explained * Is Existence a Predicate? * Proof of an External World (...) In addition, this collection also contains the key early papers in which Moore signals his break with idealism, and three important previously unpublished papers from his later work which illustrate his relationship with Wittgenstein. (shrink)
Wittgenstein’s concepts shed light on the phenomenon of schizophrenia in at least three different ways: with a view to empathy, scientific explanation, or philosophical clarification. I consider two different “positive” wittgensteinian accounts―Campbell’s idea that delusions involve a mechanism of which different framework propositions are parts, Sass’ proposal that the schizophrenic patient can be described as a solipsist, and a Rhodes’ and Gipp’s account, where epistemic aspects of schizophrenia are explained as failures in the ordinary background of certainties. I argue that (...) none of them amounts to empathic-phenomenological understanding, but they provide examples of how philosophical concepts can contribute to scientific explanation, and to philosophical clarification respectively. (shrink)