Results for 'E. G. Upshur Ross'

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  1. Jenicek, M.(2006)'The hard art of soft science'Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410–419.Ross E. G. Upshur B. A. Hons Ma - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):420-422.
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  2. The complex, the exhausted and the personal: reflections on the relationship between evidence-based medicine and casuistry. Commentary on Tonelli (2006), Integrating evidence into clinical practice: an alternative to evidence-based approaches.Ross E. G. Upshur B. A. Hons Ma - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):281-288.
     
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  3.  40
    The role of faith-based organizations in the ethical aspects of pandemic flu planning—lessons learned from the toronto Sars experience.S. Faust Halley, M. Bensimon Cécile & E. G. Upshur Ross - 2009 - Public Health Ethics 2 (1).
    Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto and University of Toronto Ross E. G. Upshur * Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Joint Centre for Bioethics University of Toronto, Toronto * Corresponding author: Ross E. G. Upshur, Primary Care Research Unit, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, #E-349, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4N 3M5. Tel.: 416-480-4753; Fax: 416-480-4536; Email: ross.upshur{at}sunnybrook.ca ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract Are restrictive measures and duties to care ethically (...)
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  4. Meaning and measurement: an inclusive model of evidence in health care.Ross E. G. Upshur, Elizabeth G. VanDenKerkhof & Vivek Goel - 2001 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (2):91-96.
  5.  49
    If not evidence, then what? Or does medicine really need a base?Ross E. G. Upshur - 2002 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (2):113-119.
  6.  63
    Seven characteristics of medical evidence.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2000 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 6 (2):93-97.
  7.  26
    Ebola Virus in West Africa: Waiting for the Owl of Minerva.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):421-423.
    The evolving Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its size and scope, requiring the rapid mobilization of resources. It is too early to determine all of the ethical challenges associated with the outbreak, but these should be monitored closely. Two issues that can be discussed are the decision to implement and evaluate unregistered agents to determine therapeutic or prophylactic safety and efficacy and the justification behind this decision. In this paper, I argue that it is not compassionate use (...)
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  8.  8
    Critical commentary on 'Integrating evidence into clinical practice: an alternative to evidence-based approaches.'.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):281-288.
  9.  20
    The complex, the exhausted and the personal: reflections on the relationship between evidence-based medicine and casuistry. Commentary on Tonelli (2006), Integrating evidence into clinical practice: an alternative to evidence-based approaches. Journal of.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (3):281-288.
  10.  30
    A short note on probability in clinical medicine.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):463-466.
  11.  45
    Ebola and Learning Lessons from Moral Failures: Who Cares about Ethics?Maxwell J. Smith & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (3):305-318.
    The exercise of identifying lessons in the aftermath of a major public health emergency is of immense importance for the improvement of global public health emergency preparedness and response. Despite the persistence of the Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa, it seems that the Ebola ‘lessons learned’ exercise is now in full swing. On our assessment, a significant shortcoming plagues recent articulations of lessons learned, particularly among those emerging from organizational reflections. In this article we argue that, despite not (...)
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  12. Philosophy, ethics, medicine and health care: the urgent need for critical practice.Michael Loughlin, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Robyn Bluhm & Kirstin Borgerson - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):249-259.
  13.  11
    Re-evaluating Concepts of Biological Function in Clinical Medicine: Towards a New Naturalistic Theory of Disease.Benjamin Chin-Yee & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics: Philosophy of Medical Research and Practice 38 (4):245-264.
    Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches. Although this work has enhanced our understanding of (...)
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  14.  22
    Introduction.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2008 - Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (4):271-275.
    Clinical research is now a global enterprise. However, research ethics capacity has lagged behind the growth and expansion of clinical research in low and middle income countries. To address this mismatch, the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health has created a program to fund education in research ethics. This series of articles describes the experiences of graduates from 5 nations of the University of Toronto’s Joint Centre for Bioethics International Masters of Health Science Program. The program has (...)
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  15.  10
    We Need Both Evidence and Values to Navigate Uncertainty.Ross E. G. Upshur - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (5):4-4.
    A commentary on “Ethics and Evidence in Medical Debates: The Case of Recombinant Activated Factor VII,” by Narcyz Ghinea, Wendy Lipworth, Ian Kerridge, Miles Little, and Richard O. Day, in the March‐April 2014 issue.
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  16.  25
    Learning Lessons from COVID-19 Requires Recognizing Moral Failures.Maxwell J. Smith & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):563-566.
    The most powerful lesson learned from the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola in West Africa was that we do not learn our lessons. A common sentiment at the time was that Ebola served as a “wake-up call”—an alarm which signalled that an outbreak of that magnitude should never have occurred and that we are ill-prepared globally to prevent and respond to them when they do. Pledges were made that we must learn from the outbreak before we were faced with another. Nearly (...)
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  17.  27
    Empirical Bioethics Research in the Developing World: When the 'Is' is Close to an 'Ought'.Claudia I. Emerson, Ross E. G. Upshur & Abdallah S. Daar - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):101-103.
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  18.  20
    Ebola and Learning Lessons from Moral Failures: Who Cares about Ethics?: Table 1.Maxwell J. Smith & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2015 - Public Health Ethics:phv028.
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  19.  53
    Re-evaluating concepts of biological function in clinical medicine: towards a new naturalistic theory of disease.Benjamin Chin-Yee & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):245-264.
    Naturalistic theories of disease appeal to concepts of biological function, and use the notion of dysfunction as the basis of their definitions. Debates in the philosophy of biology demonstrate how attributing functions in organisms and establishing the function-dysfunction distinction is by no means straightforward. This problematization of functional ascription has undermined naturalistic theories and led some authors to abandon the concept of dysfunction, favoring instead definitions based in normative criteria or phenomenological approaches. Although this work has enhanced our understanding of (...)
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  20. Global health ethics for students.Andrew D. Pinto & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2007 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (1):1-10.
    As a result of increased interest in global health, more and more medical students and trainees from the.
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  21.  30
    Ethics and chronic disease: Where are the bioethicists?Jennifer L. Gibson & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):ii-iv.
  22.  26
    Critical reflections on evidence, ethics and effectiveness in the management of tuberculosis: public health and global perspectives.Geetika Verma, Ross E. G. Upshur, Elizabeth Rea & Solomon R. Benatar - 2004 - BMC Medical Ethics 5 (1):2.
    Background Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Recent scholarly attention to public health ethics provides an opportunity to analyze several ethical issues raised by the global tuberculosis pandemic. Discussion Recently articulated frameworks for public health ethics emphasize the importance of effectiveness in the justification of public health action. This paper critically reviews the relationship between these frameworks and the published evidence of effectiveness of tuberculosis interventions, with a specific focus on the controversies engendered by the endorsement (...)
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  23.  22
    Evidence-Based Medicine, Reasoned Medicine or both? Commentary on Jenicek, M. (2006) ‘The hard art of soft science’ Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12, 410-419. [REVIEW]Ross E. G. Upshur - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):420-422.
  24. Explanation, understanding, objectivity and experience.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Drozdstoj S. Stoyanov, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):415-421.
  25.  67
    Are there different spheres of conscience?Erica J. Sutton & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):338-343.
  26. Reason and value: making reasoning fit for practice.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson, Vikki Entwistle & Elselijn Kingma - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):929-937.
    Editors' introduction to 3rd thematic issue on philosophy of medicine.
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  27.  28
    A failure in solidarity: Ethical challenges in the development and implementation of new tuberculosis technologies.Ana Komparic, Angus Dawson, Renaud F. Boulanger, Ross E. G. Upshur & Diego S. Silva - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (5):557-567.
    Prominent tuberculosis (TB) actors are invoking solidarity to motivate and justify collective action to address TB, including through intensified development and implementation (D&I) of technologies such as drugs and diagnostics. We characterize the ethical challenges associated with D&I of new TB technologies by drawing on stakeholder perspectives from 23 key informant interviews and we articulate the ethical implications of solidarity for TB technology D&I. The fundamental ethical issue facing TB technological D&I is a failure within and beyond the TB community (...)
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  28.  49
    Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.Diego S. Silva, Angus Dawson & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):75-86.
    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of (...)
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  29.  23
    Developing and Implementing new TB Technologies: Key Informants’ Perspectives on the Ethical Challenges.Renaud F. Boulanger, Ana Komparic, Angus Dawson, Ross E. G. Upshur & Diego S. Silva - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):65-73.
    ObjectiveTo identify the ethical challenges associated with the development and implementation of new tuberculosis drugs and diagnostics.MethodsTwenty-three semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted between December 2015 and September 2016 with programme administrators, healthcare workers, advocates, policymakers, and funders based in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.ResultsDivergent interests and responsibilities, coupled with power imbalances, are a primary source of ethical challenges; the uncertain risk profiles of new drugs present an additional one. Although this challenge can be partially mitigated (...)
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  30. Virtue, Progress and Practice.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Vikki Entwistle - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):839-846.
  31. Philosophy, medicine and health care – where we have come from and where we are going.Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Jonathan Fuller, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Kirstin Borgerson, Maya J. Goldenberg & Elselijn Kingma - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):902-907.
  32.  13
    Lead Essay—Inside the Pandemic.Paul A. Komesaroff, Michael Chapman, Ian Kerridge & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):461-463.
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  33.  50
    On pandemics and the duty to care: whose duty? who cares?Carly Ruderman, C. Shawn Tracy, Cécile M. Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Z. Shaul & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):5.
    BackgroundAs a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were (...)
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  34.  46
    A population‐based cohort study of ambulatory care service utilization among older adults.Jason X. Nie, Li Wang, C. Shawn Tracy, Rahim Moineddin & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (4):825-831.
  35.  40
    Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution Programmes and the Ethics of Task Shifting.Daniel Z. Buchman, Aaron M. Orkin, Carol Strike & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (2):151-164.
    North America is in the grips of an epidemic of opioid-related poisonings. Overdose education and naloxone distribution programmes emerged as an option for structurally vulnerable populations who could not or would not access mainstream emergency medical services in the event of an overdose. These task shifting programmes utilize lay persons to deliver opioid resuscitation in the context of longstanding stigmatization and marginalization from mainstream healthcare services. OEND programmes exist at the intersection of harm reduction and emergency services. One goal of (...)
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  36.  48
    Reporting of informed consent, standard of care and post-trial obligations in global randomized intervention trials: A systematic survey of registered trials.Emma R. M. Cohen, Jennifer M. O'neill, Michel Joffres, Ross E. G. Upshur & Edward Mills - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (2):74-80.
    Objective: Ethical guidelines are designed to ensure benefits, protection and respect of participants in clinical research. Clinical trials must now be registered on open-access databases and provide details on ethical considerations. This systematic survey aimed to determine the extent to which recently registered clinical trials report the use of standard of care and post-trial obligations in trial registries, and whether trial characteristics vary according to setting. Methods: We selected global randomized trials registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://www.controlled-trials.com. We searched for intervention (...)
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  37.  22
    Philosophy of Medicine: An Introduction.R. Paul Thompson & Ross Upshur - 2016 - New York: Routledge. Edited by Ross Upshur.
    What kind of knowledge is medical knowledge? Can medicine be explained scientifically? Is disease a scientific concept, or do explanations of disease depend on values? What is ‘evidence-based’ medicine? Are advances in neuroscience bringing us closer to a scientific understanding of the mind? The nature of medicine raises fundamental questions about explanation, causation, knowledge and ontology – questions that are central to philosophy as well as medicine. In this book Paul R. Thompson and Ross E. G. Upshur introduce (...)
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  38.  48
    The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Ethical Aspects of Pandemic Flu Planning—Lessons Learned from the Toronto SARS Experience.Halley S. Faust, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2009 - Public Health Ethics 2 (1):105-112.
    Are restrictive measures and duties to care ethically reasonably acceptable to faith-based organizations? This study describes the perceptions of individually interviewed spiritual leaders of the disease control measures used during the recent SARS outbreak in Toronto. Four central themes were identified: the relationship between religious obligation and civic responsibilities; the role of faith-based organizations in supporting public health restrictive measures; the reciprocal obligations of public health and religious communities during restrictions; and justifiable limits to duties to care. We conclude that, (...)
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  39. Your liberty or your life: Reciprocity in the use of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. [REVIEW]A. M. Viens, Cécile M. Bensimon & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (2):207-217.
    In this paper, we explore the role of reciprocity in the employment of restrictive measures in contexts of contagion. Reciprocity should be understood as a substantive value that governs the use, level and extent of restrictive measures. We also argue that independent of the role reciprocity plays in the legitimisation the use of restrictive measures, reciprocity can also motivate support and compliance with legitimate restrictive measures. The importance of reciprocity has implications for how restrictive measures should be undertaken when preparing (...)
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  40.  20
    Introducing philosophy of medicine: three new books: Jacob Stegenga, Care and cure: an introduction to philosophy of medicine, University of Chicago Press, 2018, 288 pp, $29, ISBN: 978-0-226-59-503-0 (paperback) R. Paul Thompson and Ross E.G. Upshur, Philosophy of medicine: an introduction, Routledge, 2018, 206 pp, $44.95, ISBN: 978-0-415-50-109-5 (paperback) Alex Broadbent, Philosophy of medicine, Oxford University Press, 2019, 296 pp, $33.95, ISBN: 978-0-19-061-214-6.Jeremy R. Simon - 2021 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 42 (5):267-276.
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  41. The virtues of evidence.Erica Zarkovich & R. E. G. Upshur - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):403-412.
    Evidence-based medicine has beendefined as the conscientious and judicious useof current best evidence in making clinicaldecisions. This paper will attempt to explicatethe terms ``conscientious'''' and ``judicious''''within the evidence-based medicine definition.It will be argued that ``conscientious'''' and``judicious'''' represent virtue terms derived fromvirtue ethics and virtue epistemology. Theidentification of explicit virtue components inthe definition and therefore conception ofevidence-based medicine presents an importantstarting point in the connection between virtuetheories and medicine itself. In addition, aunification of virtue theories andevidence-based medicine will illustrate theneed for (...)
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  42. The importance of getting the ethics right in a pandemic treaty.G. Owen Schaefer, Caesar A. Atuire, Sharon Kaur, Michael Parker, Govind Persad, Maxwell J. Smith, Ross Upshur & Ezekiel Emanuel - 2023 - The Lancet Infectious Diseases 23 (11):e489 - e496.
    The COVID-19 pandemic revealed numerous weaknesses in pandemic preparedness and response, including underfunding, inadequate surveillance, and inequitable distribution of countermeasures. To overcome these weaknesses for future pandemics, WHO released a zero draft of a pandemic treaty in February, 2023, and subsequently a revised bureau's text in May, 2023. COVID-19 made clear that pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response reflect choices and value judgements. These decisions are therefore not a purely scientific or technical exercise, but are fundamentally grounded in ethics. The latest (...)
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  43.  29
    What makes public health studies ethical? Dissolving the boundary between research and practice.Donald J. Willison, Nancy Ondrusek, Angus Dawson, Claudia Emerson, Lorraine E. Ferris, Raphael Saginur, Heather Sampson & Ross Upshur - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):61.
    The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary – whether on grounds of primary purpose, temporality, underlying (...)
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  44. Argumentation and evidence.R. E. G. Upshur & Errol Colak - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (4):283-299.
    This essay explores the role of informal logicand its application in the context of currentdebates regarding evidence-based medicine. This aim is achieved through a discussion ofthe goals and objectives of evidence-basedmedicine and a review of the criticisms raisedagainst evidence-based medicine. Thecontributions to informal logic by StephenToulmin and Douglas Walton are explicated andtheir relevance for evidence-based medicine isdiscussed in relation to a common clinicalscenario: hypertension management. This essayconcludes with a discussion on the relationshipbetween clinical reasoning, rationality, andevidence. It is argued that (...)
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  45.  94
    Priors and prejudice.R. E. G. Upshur - 1999 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (4):319-327.
    This paper explores the relationship between concepts of probability and hermeneutics. It seeks to examine the relationship between subjective (Bayesian) views of probability and hermeneutic descriptions of understanding. It is argued that Gadamer'saccount of the prejudicial nature of understanding, derived from Heidegger'sanalysis of foreunderstanding, offers a provocative model of clinical reasoning. The implications of this model for evidence-based medicine are discussed in conclusion.
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  46. The ethics of alpha: Reflections on statistics, evidence and values in medicine.R. E. G. Upshur - 2001 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (6):565-576.
    As health care embraces the tenets of evidence-based medicine it is important to ask questions about how evidence is produced and interpreted. This essay explores normative dimensions of evidence production, particularly around issues of setting the tolerable level of uncertainty of results. Four specific aspects are explored: what health care providers know about statistics, why alpha levels have been set at 0.05, the role of randomization in the generation of sufficient grounds of belief, and the role of observational studies. The (...)
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  47.  39
    Organ Donation, Discrimination After Death, Anti-Vaccination Sentiments, and Tuberculosis Management.John Coggon, Bill Madden, Tina Cockburn, Cameron Stewart, Jerome Amir Singh, Anant Bhan, Ross E. Upshur & Bernadette Richards - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):125-133.
  48.  9
    Symposium: Platonic Philosophy and Aristotelian Metaphysics.Paul E. More, W. D. Ross & G. Dawes Hicks - 1925 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 5 (1):135-172.
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  49.  54
    Disability, technology, and place: Social and ethical implications of long-term dependency on medical devices.B. E. Gibson, R. E. G. Upshur, N. L. Young & P. McKeever - 2007 - Ethics, Place and Environment 10 (1):7 – 28.
    Medical technologies and assistive devices such as ventilators and power wheelchairs are designed to sustain life and/or improve functionality but they can also contribute to stigmatization and social exclusion. In this paper, drawing from a study of ten men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we explore the complex social processes that mediate the lives of persons who are dependent on multiple medical and assistive technologies. In doing so we consider the embodied and emplaced nature of disability and how life is lived (...)
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  50.  25
    Disability, Technology, and Place: Social and Ethical Implications of Long-Term Dependency on Medical Devices.B. E. Gibson, R. E. G. Upshur, N. L. Young & P. McKeever - 2007 - Ethics, Place and Environment 10 (1):7-28.
    Medical technologies and assistive devices such as ventilators and power wheelchairs are designed to sustain life and/or improve functionality but they can also contribute to stigmatization and social exclusion. In this paper, drawing from a study of ten men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we explore the complex social processes that mediate the lives of persons who are dependent on multiple medical and assistive technologies. In doing so we consider the embodied and emplaced nature of disability and how life is lived (...)
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