120 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Douglas N. Walton [115]Douglas Neil Walton [9]
  1. Commitment in Dialogue: Basic Concepts of Interpersonal Reasoning.Douglas Neil Walton & Erik C. W. Krabbe - 1995 - Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press.
    Develops a logical analysis of dialogue in which two or more parties attempt to advance their own interests. It includes a classification of the major types of dialogues and a discussion of several important informal fallacies.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   365 citations  
  2.  95
    Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   232 citations  
  3. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guide to the basic principles of constructing good arguments and criticizing bad ones. It is nontechnical in its approach, and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. The author explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound argument strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical questions for responding. Among the many subjects covered are: techniques of posing, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   135 citations  
  4.  10
    Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority.Douglas Neil Walton - 1997 - University Park, PA, USA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    A new pragmatic approach, based on the latest developments in argumentation theory, analyzing appeal to expert opinion as a form of argument. Reliance on authority has always been a common recourse in argumentation, perhaps never more so than today in our highly technological society when knowledge has become so specialized—as manifested, for instance, in the frequent appearance of "expert witnesses" in courtrooms. When is an appeal to the opinion of an expert a reasonable type of argument to make, and when (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   87 citations  
  5.  9
    The Place of Emotion in Argument.Douglas N. Walton - 1992 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Appeals to emotion—pity, fear, popular sentiment, and _ad hominem_ attacks—are commonly used in argumentation. Instead of dismissing these appeals as fallacious wherever they occur, as many do, Walton urges that each use be judged on its merits. He distinguished three main categories of evaluation. First, is it reasonable, even if not conclusive, as an argument? Second, is it weak and therefore open to critical questioning for argument? And third, is it fallacious? The third category is a strong charge that incurs (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   65 citations  
  6. Argument Structure a Pragmatic Theory.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.
    William Baird collection in Social Sciences is the gift of the Estate of William Cameron Baird.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   64 citations  
  7. Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argument.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This is an introductory guidebook to the basic principles of how to construct good arguments and how to criticeze bad ones. It is non-technical in its approach and is based on 150 key examples, each discussed and evaluated in clear, illustrative detail. Professor Walton, a leading authority in the field of informal logic, explains how errors, fallacies, and other key failures of argument occur. He shows how correct uses of argument are based on sound strategies for reasoned persuasion and critical (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   64 citations  
  8. What is Reasoning? What is an Argument?Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (8):399-419.
    In redefining logic, philosophers need to go back to the Aristotelian roots of the subject, to expand the boundaries of the subject to include informal logic and to give up false oppositions between informal and formal logic.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   98 citations  
  9.  1
    Legal Argumentation and Evidence.Douglas N. Walton - 2002 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   51 citations  
  10.  9
    Begging the Question: Circular Reasoning as a Tactic of Argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1991 - New York, NY, USA: Greenwood Press.
    This book offers a new theory of begging the question as an informal fallacy, within a pragmatic framework of reasoned dialogue as a normative theory of critical argumentation. The fallacy of begging the question is analyzed as a systematic tactic to evade fulfillment of a legitimate burden of proof by the proponent of an argument. The technique uses a circular structure of argument to block the further progress of dialogue and, in particular, the capability of the respondent to ask legitimate (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  11.  83
    Slippery Slope Arguments.Douglas N. Walton - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    A "slippery slope argument" is a type of argument in which a first step is taken and a series of inextricable consequences follow, ultimately leading to a disastrous outcome. Many textbooks on informal logic and critical thinking treat the slippery slope argument as a fallacy. Walton argues that used correctly in some cases, they can be a reasonable type of argument to shift a burden of proof in a critical discussion, while in other cases they are used incorrectly. Walton identifies (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   48 citations  
  12.  1
    Arguments From Ignorance.Douglas N. Walton - 1995 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    _Arguments from Ignorance _explores the situations in which the argument from ignorance functions as a respectable form of reasoning and those in which it is indeed fallacious. Douglas Walton draws on everyday conversations on all kinds of practical matters in which the _argumentum ad ignorantiam _is used quite appropriately to infer conclusions. He also discusses the inappropriate use of this kind of argument, referring to various major case studies, including the Salem witchcraft trials, the McCarthy hearings, and the Alger Hiss (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   45 citations  
  13.  8
    Logical Dialogue-Games and Fallacies.Douglas N. Walton - 1984 - Lanham, Md. : University Press of America.
  14. Plausible Argument in Everyday Conversation.Douglas N. Walton - 1992
  15.  5
    Argument: The Logic of the Fallacies.John Woods & Douglas N. Walton - 1982 - Toronto, Canada: Mcgraw-Hill Ryerson.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  16.  38
    Informal Fallacies: Towards a Theory of Argument Criticisms.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - John Benjamins.
    The basic question of this monograph is: how should we go about judging arguments to be reasonable or unreasonable? Our concern will be with argument in a broad sense, with realistic arguments in natural language. The basic object will be to engage in a normative study of determining what factors, standards, or procedures should be adopted or appealed to in evaluating an argument as "good," "not-so-good," "open to criticism," "fallacious," and so forth. Hence our primary concern will be with the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  17. Informal Logic, a Handbook for Critical Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1993 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 26 (1):48-52.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   84 citations  
  18. A Theory of Presumption for Everyday Argumentation.David M. Godden & Douglas N. Walton - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):313-346.
    The paper considers contemporary models of presumption in terms of their ability to contribute to a working theory of presumption for argumentation. Beginning with the Whatelian model, we consider its contemporary developments and alternatives, as proposed by Sidgwick, Kauffeld, Cronkhite, Rescher, Walton, Freeman, Ullmann-Margalit, and Hansen. Based on these accounts, we present a picture of presumptions characterized by their nature, function, foundation and force. On our account, presumption is a modal status that is attached to a claim and has the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  19.  2
    Fallacies: Selected Papers 1972-1982.John Woods & Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Foris.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  20.  92
    Action Theory.M. Brand & Douglas N. Walton (eds.) - 1976 - Reidel.
    INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITORS Gilbert Ryle, in his Concept of Mind (1949), attacked volitional theories of human actions; JL Austin, in his "If and Cans" ...
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  21.  8
    What Is Reasoning? What Is an Argument?Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (8):399-419.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   90 citations  
  22. Arguments From Ignorance.Douglas N. Walton - 1997 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 30 (1):97-101.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   48 citations  
  23.  13
    Topical Relevance in Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1982 - John Benjamins.
    It is a longstanding if not altogether coherent tradition of logic and rhetorical studies that an argument can be incorrect or fallacious in virtue of some ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  24. Reasoning From Paradigms and Negative Evidence.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas N. Walton - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (1):92-116.
    Reasoning from negative evidence takes place where an expected outcome is tested for, and when it is not found, a conclusion is drawn based on the significance of the failure to find it. By using Gricean maxims and implicatures, we show how a set of alternatives, which we call a paradigm, provides the deep inferential structure on which reasoning from lack of evidence is based. We show that the strength of reasoning from negative evidence depends on how the arguer defines (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  25. A History of AI and Law in 50 Papers: 25 Years of the International Conference on AI and Law. [REVIEW]Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori, Jochen L. Leidner, David D. Lewis, Ronald P. Loui, L. Thorne McCarty, Henry Prakken, Frank Schilder, Erich Schweighofer, Paul Thompson, Alex Tyrrell, Bart Verheij, Douglas N. Walton & Adam Z. Wyner - 2012 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (3):215-319.
    We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987. Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the paper discussed in the context of the development of AI and Law, while often offering some personal reactions and reflections. As a whole, the subsections build into (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  26.  13
    Arguer's Position: A Pragmatic Study of Ad Hominem Attack, Criticism, Refutation, and Fallacy.Douglas Neil Walton - 1985 - Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Press.
    Douglas N. Walton considers the question of whether the conventions of informal conversation can be articulated more precisely than they are at present. Specifically, he addresses the problem of the fallacy of ad hominem argumentation as it occurs in natural settings. Can rules be formulated to determine if criticisms of apparent hypocrisy in an argument are defensible or refutable? Walton suggests that they can, and ultimately defends the thesis that ad hominem reasoning is not fallacious per se. He carries his (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  27.  46
    Practical Reasoning: Goal-Driven, Knowledge-Based, Action-Guiding Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1990 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book is an analysis of the distinctive form of reasoning, called practical reasoning by Aristotle (as opposed to theoretical reasoning), that serves to guide behaviour.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  28.  87
    Are Circular Arguments Necessarily Vicious?Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (4):263-274.
  29. Begging the Question as a Pragmatic Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1994 - Synthese 100 (1):95 - 131.
    The aim of this paper is to make it clear how and why begging the question should be seen as a pragmatic fallacy which can only be properly evaluated in a context of dialogue. Included in the paper is a review of the contemporary literature on begging the question that shows the gradual emergence over the past twenty years or so of the dialectical conception of this fallacy. A second aim of the paper is to investigate a number of general (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  30.  74
    Dialogue Theory for Critical Thinking.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (2):169-184.
    A general outline of a theory of reasoned dialogue is presented as an underlying basis of critical analysis of a text of argument discourse. This theory is applied to the analysis of informal fallacies by showing how textual evidence can be brought to bear in argument reconstruction. Several basic types of dialogue are identified and described, but the persuasive type of dialogue is emphasized as being of key importance to critical thinking theory.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  31. Alltagslogik: Struktur Und Funktion von Argumentationsmustern.Manfred Kienpointner & Douglas N. Walton - 1994 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 27 (3):270-275.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  32.  8
    Question-Reply Argumentation.Douglas Neil Walton - 1989 - New York and Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Walton's book is a study of several fallacies in informal logic. Focusing on question-answer dialogues, and committed to a pragmatic rather than a semantic approach, he attempts to generate criteria for evaluating good and bad questions and answers. The book contains a discussion of such well-recognized fallacies as many questions, black-or-white questions, loaded questions, circular arguments, question-begging assertions and epithets, ad hominem and tu quoque arguments, ignoratio elenchi, and replying to a question with a question. In addition, Walton develops several (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  33. Question-Reply Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1992 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 25 (1):79-82.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  34.  1
    Appeal to Popular Opinion.Douglas N. Walton - 1999 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Arguments from popular opinion have long been regarded with suspicion, and in most logic textbooks the _ad populum _argument is classified as a fallacy. Douglas Walton now asks whether this negative evaluation is always justified, particularly in a democratic system where decisions are based on majority opinion. In this insightful book, Walton maintains that there is a genuine type of argumentation based on commonly accepted opinions and presumptions that should represent a standard of rational decision-making on important issues, especially those (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  35.  57
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  36. Historical Foundations of Informal Logic.Douglas N. Walton & Alan Brinton - 1997 - Brookfield, VT, USA: Routledge.
    In response to the growing recognition of informal logic as a discipline in its own right, this collection of essays from leading contributors in the field provides the formative knowledge and historical context required to understand the development of a.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  37.  38
    Enthymemes, Common Knowledge, and Plausible Inference.Douglas N. Walton - 2001 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 34 (2):93-112.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  38. Begging the Question: Circular Reasoning as a Tactic of Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1995 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 28 (2):171-175.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  39.  8
    Supererogation.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Noûs 19 (2):284-288.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  40. The Ad Hominem Argument as an Informal Fallacy.Douglas N. Walton - 1987 - Argumentation 1 (3):317-331.
    This article outlines criteria for the evaluation of the argumentum ad hominem (argument against the person, or personal attack in argument) that is traditionally a part of the curriculum in informal logic. The argument is shown to be a kind of criticism which works by shifting the burden of proof in dialogue through citing a pragmatic inconsistency in an arguer's position. Several specific cases of ad hominem argumentation which pose interesting problems in analyzing this type of criticism are studied.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  41.  30
    Ethical Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    Bridging the gap between applied ethics and ethical theory, Ethical Argumentation draws on recent research in argumentation theory to develop a more realistic model of how ethical justification actually works.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  42.  17
    The Speech Act of Presumption.Douglas N. Walton - 1993 - Pragmatics and Cognition 1 (1):125-148.
    This paper presents a speech act analysis of presumption, using the framework of a dialogue in which two parties reason together. In the speech act of presumption, as opposed to that of assertion, the burden of proof resides not on the proponent to prove, but on the respondent to rebut. Some connections of this account with nonmonotonic reasoning and informal fallacies in argumentation are explored.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  43.  11
    The Carneades Model of Argument Invention.Douglas N. Walton & Thomas F. Gordon - 2012 - Pragmatics and Cognition 20 (1):1-31.
    Argument invention is a method that can be used to help an arguer find arguments that could be used to prove a claim he needs to defend. The aim of this paper is to show how argumentation systems recently developed in artificial intelligence can be applied to the task of argument invention. One such system called Carneades is featured. Carneades can be used to analyze arguments, evaluate arguments, to make an argument diagram, and to construct arguments from a database. Using (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  44.  17
    Games, Graphs and Circular Arguments.Douglas N. Walton & Lynn M. Batten - 1984 - Logique Et Analyse 106 (6):133-164.
  45.  11
    Practical Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1991 - Mind 100 (3):417-418.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  46.  55
    New Directions in the Logic of Dialogue.Douglas N. Walton - 1985 - Synthese 63 (3):259 - 274.
  47.  52
    Reasoned Use of Expertise in Argumentation.Douglas N. Walton - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (1):59-73.
    This article evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of arguments based on appeals to expertise. The intersection of two areas is explored: (i) the traditional argumentum ad verecundiam (literally, “appeal to modesty,” but characteristically the appeal to the authority of expert judgment) in informal logic, and (ii) the uses of expert systems in artificial intelligence. The article identifies a model of practical reasoning that underlies the logic of expert systems and the model of argument appropriate for the informal logic of the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  48.  43
    New Directions in the Logic of Dialogue.Douglas N. Walton - 1984 - Synthese 58 (2):259 - 274.
  49. On Defining Death.Douglas N. Walton - 1981 - Ethics 92 (1):148-149.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  50.  25
    Argument Kinds and Argument Roles in the Ontario Provincial Election, 2011.Hans V. Hansen & Douglas N. Walton - 2013 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 2 (2):226-258.
    This paper is a report of a pilot study of how candidates argue when they are running for political office. The election studied was the provincial election in Ontario, Canada, in the fall of 2011. Having collected about 250 arguments given during the election from newspaper media, we sought answers to the following questions, among others: which argumentation schemes have the greatest currency in political elections? Is a list of the best known argumentation schemes sufficient to classify the arguments given (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
1 — 50 / 120