Though the relation of spirituality to self has long been recognized in established spiritual and religious systems, serious scientific interest in spirituality and its relation to identity has only started to grow in the past 20 years. This paper overviews the literature on spirituality and identity. Particular attention is given to describing and critiquing conventional and transpersonal perspectives with emphasis given to empirically testable theories. Using MacDonald’s five dimensional model of spirituality, a structural model of spirituality is proposed as is (...) a model of spiritual identity formation. (shrink)
Using a sample of 296 university students, this study examined the reliability and factorial validity of the Death Transcendence Scale using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability analyses found that with the exclusion of one item from the Nature subscale, all five DTS subscales showed satisfactory reliability. A CFA completed to test the goodness of fit of a correlated five-factor model produced mostly positive support for the test, though there were some indications of poor fit. Initial revisions to the model did not (...) result in substantive improvement of overall fit in a second CFA. In response to the perception of item content manifesting some degree of overlap and redundancy, the authors elected to shorten all subscales by only retaining items with high corrected item-to-subscale total correlations. A CFA of the 15-item test produced notably stronger fit statistics for the overall model but found evidence that the subscales are not ubiquitously intercorrelated. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the meaning and implications of the study and directions for future research. (shrink)
This paper discusses certain parallels between the work of Jean Gebser, the European philosopher and student of consciousness, and A Course in Miracles , a contemporary spiritual system. More specifically, it 1) establishes parallels between Gebser’s conception of the ego, especially its basis in anger, and the ego according to ACIM, and 2) shows how a forgiveness exercise may lead to a time-free present, called in ACIM, “The Holy Instant.”.