Results for 'Discrimination'

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  1. Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.Alvin Goldman - 1976 - Journal of Philosophy 73 (November):771-791.
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  2.  17
    Religious Discrimination at the Border.Jesse Tomalty - 2021 - Ethical Perspectives 28 (3):362-373.
    One of the main questions Gillian Brock takes up in Justice for People on the Move (2020) is whether it is morally permissible for states to enact migration policies that discriminate on the basis of religion against those who wish to enter. The main focus of her discussion is on the United States context, and, in particular, the so-called ‘Muslim Ban’ enacted by President Donald Trump in 2017. While Brock offers a powerful critique of this policy, I argue that it (...)
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  3.  67
    Discrimination and the Value of Lived Experience in Sophia Moreau's Faces of Inequality. [REVIEW]Erin Beeghly - forthcoming - University of Toronto Law Journal.
    In Faces of Inequality: A Theory of Wrongful Discrimination, Sophia Moreau embarks on a classic philosophical journey. It’s what philosophers nowadays call an explanatory project. The goal of explanatory projects is to deepen our understanding of wrongful actions and what they share in common. In this review essay, I argue that Moreau’s book embodies a valuable explanatory project and contribution to discrimination theory that ought to be on the radar of lawyers, legal theorists, and philosophers. After sketching the (...)
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  4.  8
    Discrimination and Disrespect.Benjamin Eidelson - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Hardly anyone disputes that discrimination can be a grave moral wrong. Yet this consensus masks fundamental disagreements about what makes something discrimination, as well as precisely why acts of discrimination are wrong. Benjamin Eidelson develops systematic answers to those two questions. He claims that discrimination is a form of differential treatment distinguished by its special connection to the differential ascription of some property to different people, and goes on to argue that what makes some cases of (...)
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  5.  55
    Harmless Discrimination.Adam Slavny & Tom Parr - 2015 - Legal Theory 21 (2):100-114.
    In Born Free and Equal: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Nature of Discrimination, Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen defends the harm-based account of the wrongness of discrimination, which explains the wrongness of discrimination with reference to the harmfulness of discriminatory acts. Against this view, we offer two objections. The conditions objection states that the harm-based account implausibly fails to recognize that harmless discrimination can be wrong. The explanation objection states that the harm-based account fails adequately to identify all of (...)
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  6.  60
    Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity.Carl Knight - 2018 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. London, UK: pp. 140-150.
    Discrimination, understood as differential treatment of individuals on the basis of their respective group memberships, is widely considered to be morally wrong. This moral judgment is backed in many jurisdictions with the passage of equality of opportunity legislation, which aims to ensure that racial, ethnic, religious, sexual, sexual-orientation, disability and other groups are not subjected to discrimination. This chapter explores the conceptual underpinnings of discrimination and equality of opportunity using the tools of analytical moral and political philosophy.
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  7. Non-Discrimination in Human Resources Management as a Moral Obligation.Geert Demuijnck - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):83-101.
    In this paper, I will argue that it is a moral obligation for companies, firstly, to accept their moral responsibility with respect to non-discrimination, and secondly, to address the issue with a full-fledged programme, including but not limited to the countering of microsocial discrimination processes through specific policies. On the basis of a broad sketch of how some discrimination mechanisms are actually influencing decisions, that is, causing intended as well as unintended bias in Human Resources Management (HRM), (...)
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  8.  88
    Discrimination.Andrew Altman - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  9.  17
    Disability Discrimination and Misdirected Criticism of the Quality-Adjusted Life Year Framework.David G. T. Whitehurst & Lidia Engel - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (11):793-795.
    Whose values should count – those of patients or the general public – when adopting the quality-adjusted life year framework for healthcare decision making is a long-standing debate. Specific disciplines, such as economics, are not wedded to a particular side of the debate, and arguments for and against the use of patient values have been discussed at length in the literature. In 2012, Sinclair proposed an approach, grounded within patient preference theory, which sought to avoid a perceived unfair discrimination (...)
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  10.  63
    The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys.David Benatar - 2012 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Does sexism against men exist? What it looks like and why we need to take it seriously_ This book draws attention to the "second sexism," where it exists, how it works and what it looks like, and responds to those who would deny that it exists. Challenging conventional ways of thinking, it examines controversial issues such as sex-based affirmative action, gender roles, and charges of anti-feminism. The book offers an academically rigorous argument in an accessible style, including the careful use (...)
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  11.  97
    Born Free and Equal?: A Philosophical Inquiry Into the Nature of Discrimination.Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    This book addresses these three issues: What is discrimination?; What makes it wrong?; What should be done about wrongful discrimination? It argues: that there are different concepts of discrimination; that discrimination is not always morally wrong and that when it is, it is so primarily because of its harmful effects.
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  12. Identity and Discrimination.Timothy Williamson - 1990 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Identity and Discrimination_, originally published in 1990 and the first book by respected philosopher Timothy Williamson, is now reissued and updated with the inclusion of significant new material. Williamson here proposes an original and rigorous theory linking identity, a relation central to metaphysics, and indiscriminability, a relation central to epistemology.__ Updated and reissued edition of Williamson’s first publication, with the inclusion of significant new material Argues for an original cognitive account of the relation between identity and discrimination that has (...)
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  13. Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge.Alvin I. Goldman - 1976 - In Sven Bernecker & Fred I. Dretske (eds.), Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
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  14.  38
    Discrimination and Collaboration in Science.Hannah Rubin & Cailin O’Connor - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (3):380-402.
    We use game theoretic models to take an in-depth look at the dynamics of discrimination and academic collaboration. We find that in collaboration networks, small minority groups may be more likely to end up being discriminated against while collaborating. We also find that discrimination can lead members of different social groups to mostly collaborate with in-group members, decreasing the effective diversity of the social network. Drawing on previous work, we discuss how decreases in the diversity of scientific collaborations (...)
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  15.  69
    Non-Discrimination and Equality in India: Contesting Boundaries of Social Justice.Vidhu Verma - 2012 - London: Routledge.
    Social Justice is a concept familiar to most Indians but one whose meaning is not always understood as it signifies a variety of government strategies designed to enhance opportunities for underprivileged groups. By tracing the trajectory of social justice from the colonial period to the present, this book examines how it informs ideas, practices and debates on discrimination and disadvantage today. After outlining the historical context for reservations for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes that began under British colonial rule, (...)
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  16. Accuracy Conditions, Functions, Perceptual Discrimination.Susanna Schellenberg - 2019 - Analysis 79 (4):739-754.
    I am deeply indebted to Alex Byrne, Jonathan Cohen and Matthew McGrath for their careful, constructive, and penetrating comments on The Unity of Perception and I am grateful for the opportunity to clarify my view further.
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  17.  13
    Discrimination Learning as a Function of Prior Discrimination and Nondifferential Training.Kenneth O. Eck, Richard C. Noel & David R. Thomas - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (1p1):156.
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  18.  31
    Discrimination Reaction Time for a 1,023-Alternative Task.Robert Seibel - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (3):215.
  19. Ideological Diversity, Hostility, and Discrimination in Philosophy.Uwe Peters, Nathan Honeycutt, Andreas De Block & Lee Jussim - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (4):511-548.
    Members of the field of philosophy have, just as other people, political convictions or, as psychologists call them, ideologies. How are different ideologies distributed and perceived in the field? Using the familiar distinction between the political left and right, we surveyed an international sample of 794 subjects in philosophy. We found that survey participants clearly leaned left (75%), while right-leaning individuals (14%) and moderates (11%) were underrepresented. Moreover, and strikingly, across the political spectrum, from very left-leaning individuals and moderates to (...)
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  20.  28
    Discrimination and Learning Without Awareness: A Metholodological Survey and Evaluation.C. W. Eriksen - 1960 - Psychological Review 67 (5):279-300.
  21.  12
    Discrimination Learning as a Function of Prior Discrimination and Nondifferential Training: A Replication.Kenneth O. Eck & David R. Thomas - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (3p1):511.
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  22.  67
    Sex, Discrimination, and Violence: Surprising and Unpopular Results in Applied Ethics.Stephen Kershnar - 2009 - Upa.
    This book is about how the systematic application of some basic principles of applied ethics yields some surprising and very unpopular results. In particular, Kershnar investigate three areas: sex, discrimination, and violence. The book argues that the following are some permissible in theory and practice. (1) Adult-child sex (2) Watching rape-pornography (3) State universities discriminating against women (4) The U.S. denying welfare to immigrants (5) Interrogational torture (6) Assassination In addition, the book argues that different races likely have different (...)
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  23.  61
    Discrimination and Disability.Sean Aas & David Wasserman - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. New York: Routledge.
  24.  34
    Discriminability and Stimulus Generalization.Norman Guttman & Harry I. Kalish - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (1):79.
  25.  39
    Discrimination as an Individual Wrong.Michael P. Foran - 2019 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 39 (4):901-929.
    This article argues that anti-discrimination rights are individual rights to be free from wrongful treatment and do not directly advance group-based interests or prohibit group-based harm. In light of this, a number of recurring accounts of the wrong of discrimination, particularly the wrong of indirect discrimination, are unsustainable. Claims that indirect discrimination is concerned with harm that is done to social groups or that laws prohibiting indirect discrimination seek to reduce or eliminate advantage gaps between (...)
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  26. Discrimination and Self-Knowledge.Patrick Greenough - 2012 - In Declan Smithies & Daniel Stoljar (eds.), Introspection and Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper I show that a variety of Cartesian Conceptions of the mental are unworkable. In particular, I offer a much weaker conception of limited discrimination than the one advanced by Williamson (2000) and show that this weaker conception, together with some plausible background assumptions, is not only able to undermine the claim that our core mental states are luminous (roughly: if one is in such a state then one is in a position to know that one is) (...)
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  27.  34
    Discriminative Conditioning. I. A Discriminative Property of Conditioned Anticipation.W. K. Estes - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (2):150.
  28. Social Discrimination in the Epoch of Artificial Intelligence.Anastasia Lobacheva & Ekaterina Kashtanova - 2022 - Wisdom 2 (1):97-105.
    The article aims to study the genesis of understanding the causes of social discrimination from its traditional manifestations to the era of digitalization and artificial intelligence. The methodological basis of this scientific article was formed by the approaches, methods and principles of scientific research. The authors independently check existing theories and previous results of practical research in the field of social discrimination, as well as discover new modern forms of its manifestation generated by the action of artificial intelligence (...)
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  29. Infants' Discrimination of Number Vs. Continuous Extent.Elizabeth Spelke - manuscript
    Seven studies explored the empirical basis for claims that infants represent cardinal values of small sets of objects. Many studies investigating numerical ability did not properly control for continuous stimulus properties such as surface area, volume, contour length, or dimensions that correlate with these properties. Experiment 1 extended the standard habituation/dishabituation paradigm to a 1 vs 2 comparison with three-dimensional objects and confirmed that when number and total front surface area are confounded, infants discriminate the arrays. Experiment 2 revealed that (...)
     
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  30. Subjective Discriminability of Invisibility: A Framework for Distinguishing Perceptual and Attentional Failures of Awareness.Ryota Kanai, Vincent Walsh & Chia-Huei Tseng - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1045-1057.
    Conscious visual perception can fail in many circumstances. However, little is known about the causes and processes leading to failures of visual awareness. In this study, we introduce a new signal detection measure termed subjective discriminability of invisibility that allows one to distinguish between subjective blindness due to reduction of sensory signals or to lack of attentional access to sensory signals. The SDI is computed based upon subjective confidence in reporting the absence of a target . Using this new measure, (...)
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  31. Discrimination, Harassment, and the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives as Change Agents. [REVIEW]Myrtle P. Bell, Mary E. Mclaughlin & Jennifer M. Sequeira - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 37 (1):65 - 76.
    In this article, we discuss the relationships between discrimination, harassment, and the glass ceiling, arguing that many of the factors that preclude women from occupying executive and managerial positions also foster sexual harassment. We suggest that measures designed to increase numbers of women in higher level positions will reduce sexual harassment. We first define and discuss discrimination, harassment, and the glass ceiling, relationships between each, and relevant legislation. We next discuss the relationships between gender and sexual harassment, emphasizing (...)
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  32.  7
    Probabilistic Discrimination Learning in the Pigeon.Charles P. Shimp - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (3):292.
  33.  71
    Discrimination & Disrespect.Erin Beeghly - 2017 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), Routledge Handbook to the Ethics of Discrimination. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 83 - 96.
    In this essay, I explore the view that wrongful discrimination is disrespectful. In section 1, I articulate three conceptions of disrespect, each of which provides a special way to understand the way in which wrongful discrimination is disrespectful. In section 2, I ask what it would take for any of these conceptions to serve as the basis for a plausible theory of wrongful discrimination. I argue that any adequate theory of wrongful discrimination must be able to (...)
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  34.  48
    The Discrimination of Speech Sounds Within and Across Phoneme Boundaries.Alvin M. Liberman, Katherine Safford Harris, Howard S. Hoffman & Belver C. Griffith - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (5):358.
  35. Discrimination Revised: Reviewing the Relationship Between Social Groups, Disparate Treatment, and Disparate Impact.Ryan Cook - 2015 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 2 (2):219-244.
    It is usually accepted that whether or not indirect discrimination is a form of immoral discrimination, it appears to be structurally different from direct discrimination. First, it seems that either one involves the agent focusing on different things while making a decision. Second, it seems that the victim’s group membership is relevant to the outcomes of either sort of action in different ways. In virtue of these two facts, it is usually concluded that indirect discrimination is (...)
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  36.  36
    Philosophical Foundations of Discrimination Law.Deborah Hellman & Sophia Moreau (eds.) - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Exploring the philosophical foundations of discrimination law as it exists in several jurisdictions, this collection of all new essays bridges the gap between abstract philosophical work on justice and fairness and legal work on specific types of discrimination.
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  37.  82
    Discrimination.Frej Klem Thomsen - 2017 - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.
    The conceptualization and moral analysis of discrimination constitutes a burgeoning theoretical field, with a number of open problems and a rapidly developing literature. A central problem is how to define discrimination, both in its most basic direct sense and in the most prominent variations. A plausible definition of the basic sense of the word understands discrimination as disadvantageous differential treatment of two groups that is in some respect caused by the properties that distinguish the groups, but open (...)
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  38.  97
    Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.Fei Xu & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2000 - Cognition 74 (1):1-11.
    Six-month-old infants discriminate between large sets of objects on the basis of numerosity when other extraneous variables are controlled, provided that the sets to be discriminated differ by a large ratio (8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). The capacities to represent approximate numerosity found in adult animals and humans evidently develop in human infants prior to language and symbolic counting.
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  39. Affective Discrimination of Stimuli That Cannot Be Recognized.W. R. Kunst-Wilson & R. B. Zajonc - 1980 - Science 207:557-58.
  40.  71
    Numerosity Discrimination in Infants: Evidence for Two Systems of Representations.Fei Xu - 2003 - Cognition 89 (1):B15-B25.
  41.  10
    Probabilistic Discrimination Learning.W. K. Estes, C. J. Burke, R. C. Atkinson & J. P. Frankmann - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):233.
  42.  78
    Non Discrimination as a Moral Obligation in Human Resources Management.Geert Demuijnck - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):83-101.
    In this paper, I will argue that it is a moral obligation for companies, firstly, to accept their moral responsibility with respect to non-discrimination, and secondly, to address the issue with a full-fledged programme, including but not limited to the countering of microsocial discrimination processes through specific policies. On the basis of a broad sketch of how some discrimination mechanisms are actually influencing decisions, that is, causing intended as well as unintended bias in Human Resources Management, I (...)
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  43.  20
    Human Discrimination Learning: A Test of the Blank-Trials Assumption.Fred Frankel, Marvin Levine & David Karpf - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):342-348.
  44. Racial Discrimination: How Not to Do It.Adam Hochman - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (3):278-286.
    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that ‘race’ is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social (...)
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  45.  27
    Non-Discrimination, in-Work Benefits, and Free Movement in the EU.Andrea Sangiovanni - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (2):143-163.
    The Cameron government has recently negotiated a deal with the EU which permits the UK to restrict access to in-work benefits for recent EU migrants in the first four years of residence. Withdrawing access to in-work benefits will lead to significant inequalities in pay between British workers and their EU equivalents working at the same job, in the same general situation. The proposal has been widely decried as discriminatory. Is it? I do not, in this article, ask the legal question: (...)
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  46.  13
    The Discrimination of Two Simultaneously Presented Brightnesses.N. R. Bartlett - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (5):380.
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  47.  78
    Discrimination and Immigration.José Jorge Mendoza - 2018 - In Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Discrimination. Routledge.
    In this chapter, I outline what philosophers working on the ethics of immigration have had to say with regard to invidious discrimination. In doing so, I look at both instances of direct discrimination, by which I mean discrimination that is explicitly stated in official immigration policy, and indirect discrimination, by which I mean cases where the implementation or enforcement of facially “neutral” policies nonetheless generate invidious forms of discrimination. The end goal of this chapter is (...)
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  48.  51
    Discrimination and Well-Being in Organizations: Testing the Differential Power and Organizational Justice Theories of Workplace Aggression. [REVIEW]Stephen Wood, Johan Braeken & Karen Niven - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):617-634.
    People may be subjected to discrimination from a variety of sources in the workplace. In this study of mental health workers, we contrast four potential perpetrators of discrimination (managers, co-workers, patients, and visitors) to investigate whether the negative impact of discrimination on victims’ well-being will vary in strength depending on the relative power of the perpetrator. We further explore whether the negative impact of discrimination is at least partly explained by its effects on people’s sense of (...)
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  49.  5
    Equal Discriminability Scale of Number.Stanley J. Rule - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p1):35.
  50.  17
    Discrimination of Cues in Mazes: A Resolution of the "Place-Vs.-Response" Question.Frank Restle - 1957 - Psychological Review 64 (4):217-228.
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