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Dirk Baltzly [57]Dirk C. Baltzly [4]Dirk Christian Baltzly [1]
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Dirk Baltzly
University of Tasmania
  1. Stoicism.Dirk Baltzly - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Stoicism was one of the new philosophical movements of the Hellenistic period. The name derives from the porch (stoa poikilê) in the Agora at Athens decorated with mural paintings, where the members of the school congregated, and their lectures were held. Unlike ‘epicurean,’ the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins. The Stoics did, in fact, hold that emotions like fear or envy (or impassioned sexual attachments, or passionate love of anything (...)
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  2. The Classical Ideals of Friendship.Dirk Baltzly & Nick Eliopoulos - 2009 - In Barabara Caine (ed.), Friendship: a history,. Equinox.
  3. Stoic Pantheism.Dirk Baltzly - 2003 - Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
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  4. The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius.Dirk Baltzly - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):764-767.
    I recognise in retrospect that this review chides Prof. Hadot for those things that he didn't do so well, while failing to give due credit to the kinds of writing about philosophy that he did do well.
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  5.  78
    Proclus and Theodore of Asine on female philosopher-rulers: Patriarchy, metempsychosis, and women in the Neoplatonic commentary tradition.Dirk Baltzly - 2013 - Ancient Philosophy 33 (2):403-424.
    The Platonic dialogues contain passages that seem to point in quite opposite directions on the question of the moral equality of women with men. Rep. V defends the view that sexual difference need not be relevant to a person’s capacity for philosophy and thus for virtue. Tim. 42a-c, however, makes incarnation in a female body a punishment for failure to master the challenges of embodiment. This paper examines the different ways in which two subsequent Platonists, Proclus (d. 485 CE) and (...)
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  6.  87
    Moral dilemmas are not a local issue.Dirk Baltzly - 2000 - Philosophy 75 (2):245-263.
    It is sometimes claimed that the Kantian Ought Implies Can principle (OIC) rules out the possibility of moral dilemmas. A certain understanding of OIC does rule out the possibility of moral dilemmas in the sense defined. However I doubt that this particular formulation of the OIC principle is one that fits well with the eudaimonist framework common to ancient Greek moral philosophy. In what follows, I explore the reasons why Aristotle would not accept the OIC principle in the form in (...)
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  7.  25
    The Virtues and 'Becoming like God': Alcinous to Proclus.Dirk Baltzly - 2004 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26:297-321.
    Later versions of Platonic ethics fit the frame of eudaimonism and specify a telos based on Theaetetus 176B and Timaeus 90A-D: 'likeness to god in so far as possible'. This paper examines the development of this idea from the middle Platonist Alcinous to the Neoplatonist Proclus. It examines the way in which Proclus makes this specification of human happiness a bit less "other worldy".
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  8. Peripatetic Perversions.Dirk Baltzly - 2003 - The Monist 86 (1):3-29.
    The idea that there is a coherent and morally relevant concept of sexual perversions has been increasingly called into question. In what follows, I will be concerned with two recent attacks on the notion of sexual perversion: those of Graham Priest and Igor Primoratz. Priest’s paper is the deeper of the two. Primoratz goes methodically through various accounts of sexual perversion and finds difficulties in them. This is no small task, of course, but unlike Priest he does not attempt to (...)
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  9. Is Plato’s Timaeus Panentheistic?Dirk Baltzly - 2010 - Sophia 49 (2):193-215.
    Hartshorne and Reese thought that in the Timaeus Plato wasn’t quite a panentheist—though he would have been if he’d been consistent. More recently, Cooper has argued that while Plato’s World Soul may have inspired panentheists, Plato’s text does not itself describe a form of panenetheism. In this paper, I will reconsider this question not only by examining closely the Timaeus but by thinking about which features of current characterizations of panentheism are historically accidental and how the core of the doctrine (...)
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  10. Hermias: On Plato Phaedrus 227a–245e.Dirk Baltzly & Michael Share - 2018 - London: Bloomsbury.
    Translation and commentary on the only surviving sustained work on Plato's Phaedrus from antiquity.
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  11.  27
    Plato's Authority and the Formation of Textual Communities.Dirk Baltzly - 2014 - Classical Quarterly 64 (2):793-807.
    It is widely agreed that, in the re-emergence of Platonism as a dogmatic school of philosophy following the demise of the sceptical academy, Plato's works came to have an authoritative status. This paper argues for a particular understanding of what that authority consists in and how it was acquired.
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  12.  41
    Journeys in the Phaedrus: Hermias' Reading of the Walk to the Ilissus.Dirk Baltzly - 2019 - In John F. Finamore, Christina-Panagiota Manolea & Sarah Klitenic Wear (eds.), Studies in Hermias’ Commentary on Plato’s Phaedrus. Leiden: Brill. pp. 7-24.
    Plato’s Phaedrus is a dialogue of journeys, a tale of transitions. It begins with Socrates’ question, ‘Where to and from whence, my dear Phaedrus?’ and concludes with the Socrates’ decision, ‘Let’s go’ (sc. back into the city from whence they’ve come). In the speech that forms its centre-piece Socrates narrates another famous journey—the descent of the soul into the body and its reascent to the realm of Forms through erotic madness. It is not too implausible to suppose that Plato himself (...)
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  13.  40
    Hermias on the Unity of the Phaedrus.Quinton Gardiner & Dirk Baltzly - 2019 - In John F. Finamore, Christina-Panagiota Manolea & Sarah Klitenic Wear (eds.), Studies in Hermias’ Commentary on Plato’s Phaedrus. Leiden: Brill. pp. 68-83.
    In the Phaedrus, Socrates insists that every proper logos must have the unity of an organic living thing. And yet it is hard to say what imposes any such unity on the various speeches and topics that are dealt with in this very dialogue. This chapter situates the view of Hermias of Alexandria in relation to modern debates about what, if anything, unifies the Phaedrus. For the ancient Neoplatonists, the question of unity was bound up with the question of each (...)
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  14.  39
    The ethics of celestial physics in late antique Platonism.Dirk Baltzly - 2016 - In T. Buchheim & D. Meissner (eds.), ΣΩΜΑ Körperkonzepte und körperliche existenz in der antiken Philosophie und Literaturand. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag. pp. 183-97.
    Plato's Tim. 90b1-c6 describes a pathway to the soul's salvation via the study of the heavens. This paper poses three questions about this theme in Platonism: 1. The epistemological question: How is the paradigmatic function of the visible heavenly bodies to be reconciled with various Platonic misgivings about the faculty of perception? 2. The metaphysical question: How can »assimilation« to the motions of bodies in the realm of Becoming provide for the salvation of souls when souls are »higher«- a mid-point (...)
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  15.  35
    Plato, Aristotle, and the λόγος ἐκ τῶν πρός τι.Dirk Baltzly - 1997 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 15:177-206.
    In his commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics, Alexander of Aphrodisias quotes from Aristotle's now-lost work On the Ideas -- his account of the arguments offered by Plato for the theory of Forms and his criticisms of those arguments. This paper considers one of these arguments, the Argument from Relatives (ta pros ti). It considers how Plato argued for Forms or Ideas such as the Large Itself, the Just Itself and so on and whether Plato supposed that there were Forms corresponding to (...)
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  16.  62
    "To an Unhypothetical First Principle" in Plato's "Republic".Dirk C. Baltzly - 1996 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 13 (2):149 - 165.
  17.  7
    The Optimal Times for Incarnation: Let Me Count the Ways.Dirk Baltzly & Dorothy Gieseler Greenbaum - 2023 - In Sara Ahbel-Rappe, Danielle A. Layne & Crystal Addey (eds.), Soul Matters: Plato and Platonists on the Nature of the Soul. Atlanta, GA: Society for Biblical Literature. pp. 345-84.
    In this paper we examine some of the astrological content in Proclus' exegesis of the 'nuptial number' in Republic 545d, ff. The downfall of the best city-state is said by Socrates to be due to the fact that the Guardians, for all their wisdom, make a mistake about the timing of the breeding of future rulers and this mistake is somehow due to perception. We argue that Proclus' Republic Commentary is best understood as supposing that the Guardians are highly capable (...)
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  18.  39
    Divine Immutability for Henotheists.Dirk Baltzly - 2016 - Sophia 55 (2):129-143.
    Discussions of divine immutability normally take place against the backdrop of a presupposition of monotheism. This background makes some problems seem especially salient—for instance, does the notion that God is immutable have any implications for God’s relation to time? In what follows, I’ll consider the problem of divine immutability in the context of henotheistic conceptions of god. I take henotheism to be the view that, although there are a plurality of gods, all of them are in some sense dependent upon (...)
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  19. Adunamic hedonism.Dirk Baltzly - 2001 - In Dirk Baltzly, Harold Tarrant & Dougal Blyth (eds.), Power and Pleasure, Virtue and Vice: Essays in Ancient Moral Philosophy. Auckland: pp. 136-159.
    It is widely supposed that Epicurus' identification of aponia (painlessness) and the absence of anxiety (ataraxia) yields as a consequence the claim that the most pleasant life is one that requires little in the way of resources or power. This paper argues that the remarks in Cicero which attempt to reconstruct Epicurus' reasons for thinking that aponia and ataraxia are the limit of pleasure are best interpreted if we suppose that the inference runs the other direction. Epicurus supposed that it (...)
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  20. Knowledge and belief in Republic V.Dirk Baltzly - 1997 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 79 (S):239-72.
    We ought to combine the predicative and veridical readings of estin. Plato’s view involves a parallelism between truth and being: when we know, we grasp a logos which is completely true and is made true by an on which is completely (F). Opinion takes as its object a logos which is no more true than false and which concerns things which are no more (F) than not (F). This view, I argue, is intelligible in the context of the presuppositions which (...)
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  21. Aristotle and Platonic Dialectic in Metaphysics gamma.Dirk Baltzly - 1999 - Apeiron 32 (4):171-202.
    I come not to clarify Aristotle’s defence of the principle of non-contradiction, but to put it in its proper context. I argue that remarks in Metaphysics IV.3 together with the argument of IV.4, 1006a11-31 show that Aristotle practises Plato’s method of dialectic in his defence of PNC. I mean this in the strong sense that he uses the very methodology described in the middle books of the Republic and, I claim, illustrated in such dialogues as Parmenides, Sophist and Theaetetus.
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  22.  28
    Hermias: On Plato's Phaedrus.Harold A. S. Tarrant & Dirk Baltzly - 2018 - In Harold Tarrant, François Renaud, Dirk Baltzy & Danielle A. Layne (eds.), Brill’s Companion to the Reception of Plato in Antiquity. Leiden: Brill.
    This article tackles the sole surviving ancient commentary on what was perhaps the second most important Platonic work, with special interest for the manner in which the ancients tackled the setting of Plato's dialogues, Socratic ignorance, Socratic eros, the central myth-like Palinode, and the question of oral as against written teaching.
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  23.  50
    The Starry Heavens Above.Dirk Baltzly - 2022 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 16 (1):49-57.
    Lengthy review of the 2020 Brill Companion to Hellenistic Astronomy with special reference to Neoplatonism.
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  24.  23
    Aristotle and Platonic Dialectic in Metaphysics Γ 4.Dirk Baltzly - 1999 - Apeiron 32 (3):171-202.
  25.  70
    Socratic Anti-Empiricism in the "Phaedo".Dirk Baltzly - 1996 - Apeiron 29 (4):121-142.
    In the Phaedo, Socrates endorses the view that the senses are not a means whereby we may come to gain knowledge. Whenever one investigates by means of the senses, one is deceived. One can attain truth only by inquiry through intellect alone. It is a measure of the success of empiricism that modern commentators take a very different approach to Phaedo 65a9-67b3 than their neoplatonist forebearers did. In what follows I shall argue that, if they made too much of "Socrate's" (...)
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  26.  49
    Intimate relations: friends and lovers.Dirk Baltzly & Jeanette Kennett - 2017 - In E. Kroeker and K. Schaubroek (ed.), Love, Reason and Morality. New York, NY, USA: pp. 110–124.
    In this paper we look at two kinds of relations that give rise to reasons for action of a distinctive sort: friendship and erotic love. We argue that what is common to these different relations of affection is that the people in them exhibit dispositions toward mutual direction by one another and interpretation of one another (in a sense that we describe in detail below). This mutual responsiveness is, in part, a matter of responding to reasons that arise from the (...)
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  27.  33
    The Human Life.Dirk Baltzly - 2016 - In Pieter D'Hoine & Marije Martijn (eds.), All From One: A Guide to Proclus. Oxford University Press UK.
    In previous chapters, it has become clear that Proclus’ metaphysics is often relevant to human life. In this chapter, that relation is elaborated on in detail, starting from the notion of a ‘textual community’. In the first section, the author presents the Neoplatonic goal of human life, assimilation to the divine. In the second section, he elaborates the scale of virtues through which, according to Proclus, one may reach that assimilation. The third section is devoted to establishing the interesting hypothesis (...)
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  28.  51
    Review Article: An Octave of Straw.John Bigelow & Dirk Baltzly - 2012 - Polis 29 (2):321-331.
    Lengthy critical notice of J. B. Kennedy, The Musical Structure of Plato's Dialogues (Acumen, 2011). -/- We approached the prospect of reviewing Kennedy’s book with excitement and optimism, but we’ve left rather disappointed. The case doesn’t hang together, we think, because it requires us to suppose that Plato composed to a pattern that his readers wouldn’t be looking for. They wouldn’t be looking for it musically, because it is not musically significant. Moreover, if he expected them to be looking for (...)
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  29. Gaia gets to know herself: Proclus on the world's self-perception.Dirk Baltzly - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (3):261-285.
    Proclus' interpretation of the Timaeus confronts the question of whether the living being that is the Platonic cosmos perceives itself. Since sense perception is a mixed blessing in the Platonic tradition, Proclus solves this problem by differentiating different gradations of perception. The cosmos has only the highest kind. This paper contrasts Proclus' account of the world's perception of itself with James Lovelock's notion that the planet Earth, or Gaia, is aware of things going on within itself. This contrast illuminates several (...)
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  30.  24
    Appearance in this list neither guarantees nor precludes a future review of the book.John Anderson, D. M. Armstrong & Dirk Baltzly - 2007 - Mind 116:463.
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  31. Feelings, Virtues, and Happiness in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.Dirk Baltzly - 2024 - In Michael Hemmingsen (ed.), Ethical Theory in Global Perspective. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 27-42.
    An accessible introduction to Aristotelian virtue ethics.
     
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  32.  13
    Jamming with the Gods—Reflections on Writing the History of Late Antique Platonism.Dirk Baltzly - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):225-231.
    Lengthy review of Nicola Spanu's 2020 book, Proclus and the Chaldean Oracles A Study on Proclean Exegesis, with a Translation and Commentary of Proclus’ Treatise On Chaldean Philosophy. The review indulges in some reflections on methodology and the interpretation of Neoplatonic texts.
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  33.  99
    Mereological Modes of Being in Proclus.Dirk Baltzly - 2008 - Ancient Philosophy 28 (2):395-411.
    It is an axiom of late neoplatonic metaphysics that all things are in all, but in each in an appropriate manner (ὀικείως, ET 103). These manners or modes of being are indicated by adverbial forms such as παραδειματικῶς or εἰκονικῶς. Thus, for example, the Forms are in the World Soul in the mode of images, while the objects in the sensible realm below Soul are in it in the manner of paradigms (in Tim. II 150.27). Among the many modes of (...)
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  34. Pleasure and Power, Virtues and Vices.Dirk Baltzly, Dougal Blyth & Harold Tarrant (eds.) - 2001 - Prudentia Supplement.
     
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  35.  24
    Philosophy and the Philosophical Life: A Study in Plato's Phaedo.Dirk Baltzly - 1992 - Review of Metaphysics 46 (2):399-401.
    The Phaedo is usually taken to be among Plato's metaphysically richest dialogues. Dilman argues that, at best, the views of Plato's Socrates are here free of the taint of metaphysics, or that worthwhile, nonmetaphysical theses are propounded alongside metaphysical ones. In these cases, Dilman attempts to separate out "Socrates' spiritual and moral perceptions" from the metaphysical claims. The latter are "a mystification of the grammar of the language in which such perceptions are expressed". Dilman's objection to such metaphysical theses is (...)
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  36.  50
    Plato and the New Rhapsody.Dirk C. Baltzly - 1992 - Ancient Philosophy 12 (1):29-52.
    In Plato’s dialogues we often find Socrates talking at length about poetry. Sometimes he proposes censorship of certain works because what they say is false or harmful. Other times we find him interpreting the poets or rejecting potential interpretations of them. This raises the question of whether there is any consistent account to be given of Socrates’ practice as a literary critic. One might think that Plato himself in the Ion answers the question that I have raised. Rhapsody, at least (...)
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  37.  50
    Plato and the New Rhapsody.Dirk C. Baltzly - 1992 - Ancient Philosophy 12 (1):29-52.
  38. Proclus: Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, part IV – Proclus on the World Soul. A translation with notes and introduction.Dirk Baltzly - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the present volume Proclus describes the 'creation' of the soul that animates the entire universe. This is not a literal creation, for Proclus argues that Plato means only to convey the eternal dependence of the World Soul upon higher causes. In his exegesis of Plato's text, Proclus addresses a range of issues in Pythagorean harmonic theory, as well as questions about the way in which the World Soul knows both forms and the visible reality that comprises its body. This (...)
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  39. Proclus Commentary on Plato's Republic volume 2.Dirk Baltzly, Graeme Miles & John Finamore - 2022 - Cambridge: CUP.
    The commentary on Plato's Republic by Proclus (d. 485 CE), which takes the form of a series of essays, is the only sustained treatment of the dialogue to survive from antiquity. This three-volume edition presents the first complete English translation of Proclus' text, together with a general introduction that argues for the unity of Proclus' Commentary and orients the reader to the use which the Neoplatonists made of Plato's Republic in their educational program. Each volume is completed by a Greek (...)
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  40. Proclus: Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, part III – Proclus on the World’s Body. A translation with notes and introduction,.Dirk Baltzly - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the present volume Proclus comments on the creation of the body of the universe in Plato's Timaeus.
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  41. Proclus: Commentary on Plato's Republic, vol 1.Dirk Baltzly, Graeme Miles & John Finamore - 2018 - Cambridge: CUP.
    Covers Essays 1 to 6 in Proclus' Commentary and includes a general introduction to the work as a whole.
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  42. Proclus on Plato's Dialectic: Argument by Performance.Dirk Baltzly - 2023 - In Ancient Greek Dialectic and Its Reception. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 413-26.
    Neoplatonist commentators generally regarded Plato as having a unified account of a method called 'dialectic'. This paper looks at the manner in which they reconciled the idea of dialectic from the Republic (with its ascent to an unhypothetical first principle) with the method of collection and division described in dialogues like Phaedrus and Philebus and seemingly illustrated in dialogues like the Statesman.
     
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  43.  25
    Two Aristotelian Puzzles about Planets and their Neoplatonic Reception.Dirk Baltzly - 2015 - Apeiron 48 (4):1-19.
    Journal Name: Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print.
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  44. The Myth of Er and Female Guardians in Proclus’ Republic Commentary.Dirk Baltzly - 2022 - In Jana Schultz & James Wilberding (eds.), Women and the Female in Neoplatonism. Leiden: Brill. pp. 104-121.
    Proclus takes the Republic’s (Book V) recommendation that there should be both male and female Guardians as a serious political proposal, but like Plato, he gives few specifics. A recurring theme in Proclus’ commentary is that political arrangements are just to the extent that they effectively mirror the providential administration of the cosmos. Thus the Myth of Er is not merely an adornment at the end of the dialogue, but contains important information about the cosmic paradigm to which the just (...)
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  45.  19
    The Skopos Assumption: Its Justification and Function in the Neoplatonic Commentaries on Plato.Dirk Baltzly - 2017 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 11 (2):173-195.
    _ Source: _Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 173 - 195 This paper examines the role of the theme in Neoplatonic interpretive practice, particularly with respect to Platonic dialogues. The belief that every dialogue has a single _skopos_ and that every aspect of the dialogue can be seen as subserving that _skopos_ is one of the most distinctive of the Neoplatonists’ intepretive principles. 1 It is also the one that is most directly responsible for the forced and artificial character of their (...)
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  46.  44
    Who are the mysterious dogmatists of Adversus Mathematicus ix 352?Dirk C. Baltzly - 1998 - Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):145-170.
  47.  23
    A role for virtue in unifying the ‘knowledge’ and ‘caring’ discourses in nursing theory.Suzanne Bliss, Dirk Baltzly, Rosalind Bull, Lisa Dalton & Jo Jones - 2017 - Nursing Inquiry 24 (4):e12191.
    A critical examination of contemporary nursing theory suggests that two distinct discourses coexist within this field. On the one hand, proponents of the ‘knowledge discourse’ argue that nurses should drop the ‘virtue script’ and focus on the scientific and technical aspects of their work. On the other hand, proponents of the ‘caring discourse’ promote a view of nursing that embodies humanistic qualities such as compassion, empathy and mutuality. In view of this, we suggest a way to reconcile both discourses despite (...)
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  48.  16
    Women in Philosophy, Engineering & Theology: Gendered disciplines and projects of critical re-imagination.Eliza Goddard, Ruby Grant, Lucy Tatman, Dirk Baltzly, Bernardo León de la Barra & Rufus Black - 2021 - Women's Studies International Forum 86.
    Philosophy, theology and engineering are each characterised by striking, yet similar, low participation rates by female academics. While these disciplines seem very different, and so the diagnosis of the causes of this under-representation might likewise be expected to differ, we show a commonality of analysis in the diagnoses of, and responses to, women's under-representation. In each, we find a shared argument that concepts and methodologies central to that discipline are gendered male. We also find a shared response which urges engagement (...)
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  49.  40
    On Plato : Phaedrus 227a-245e.Michael Share & Dirk Baltzly - 2018 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic. Edited by Dirk Baltzly & Michael John Share.
    This commentary records, through notes taken by Hermias, Syrianus' seminar on Plato's Phaedrus, one of the world's most influential celebrations of erotic beauty and love. It is the only Neoplatonic commentary on Plato's Phaedrus to have survived in its entirety. Further interest comes from the recorded interventions by Syrianus' pupils - including those by Proclus, his eventual successor as head of the Athenian school, who went on to teach Hermias' father, Ammonius. The second of two volumes of Hermias' commentary, the (...)
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  50.  8
    Proclus: Commentary on Plato's Timaeus: Volume 4, Book 3, Part 2, Proclus on the World Soul.Dirk Baltzly (ed.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the present volume Proclus describes the 'creation' of the soul that animates the entire universe. This is not a literal creation, for Proclus argues that Plato means only to convey the eternal dependence of the World Soul upon higher causes. In his exegesis of Plato's text, Proclus addresses a range of issues in Pythagorean harmonic theory, as well as questions about the way in which the World Soul knows both forms and the visible reality that comprises its body. This (...)
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