Dieter Henrich is one of the most respected and frequently cited philosophers in Germany today. His extensive and highly innovative studies of German Idealism and his systematic analyses of subjectivity have significantly impacted on advanced German philosophical and theological debates. Dieter Henrich and Contemporary Philosophy presents a comprehensive analysis of Henrich's work on subjectivity, evaluating it in the context of contemporary debates in both continental and analytic traditions. Familiarising the non-German reader with an important development in contemporary German (...) philosophy, this book explains the significance of subjectivity for any philosophy that attempts to offer existential orientation and contrasts competing conceptions in analytic philosophy and in the social philosophy of Juergen Habermas. Presenting Henrich's philosophy of subjectivity as a credible alternative to analytic philosophy of mind and a radical challenge to Heideggerian, Habermasian, neo-pragmatist, and postmodern positions, Freundlieb argues that a philosophy of the kind developed by Henrich can regain the cultural significance philosophical thinking once possessed. Dieter Freundlieb is Senior Lecturer in the School of Humanities, Griffith University, Australia. (shrink)
Current theories assume that perception and affect are separate realms of the mind. In contrast, we argue that affect is a genuine online-component of perception instantaneously mirroring the success of different perceptual stages. Consequently, we predicted that the success (failure) of even very early and cognitively encapsulated basic visual Processing steps would trigger immediate positive (negative) affective responses. To test this assumption, simple visual stimuli that either allowed or obstructed early visual processing stages without participants being aware of this were (...) presented briefly. Across 5 experiments, we found more positive affective responses to stimuli that allowed rather than obstructed Gestalt completion at certain early visual stages (Experiments 1–3; briefest presentation 100 ms with post-mask), and visual disambiguation in possible vs. impossible Necker cubes (Experiments 4 and 5; briefest presentation 100 ms with post-mask). This effect was observed both on verbal preference ratings (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and as facial muscle responses occurring within 2–4 s after stimulus onset (zygomaticus activity; Experiments 3 and 7). For instance, in participants unaware of spatial possibility we found affective discrimination between possible and impossible Necker cubes (the famous Freemish Crate) for 100 ms presentation timings, although a conscious discrimination took more than 2000 ms (Experiment 4). (shrink)
A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker–Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal non-locality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.
Dieter Birnbacher is professor of philosophy at the University of Düsseldorf and a member of the Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations’ scientific board. In 1988 he published the book Verantwortung für zukünftige Generationen ; which was translated into French and Polish. Hanna Schudy is an ethicist and environmentalist interested in questions of intergenerational responsibility concerning the natural environment. She is a doctoral student at the University of Wroclaw and a DAAD scholarship holder. The interview was conducted in (...) December 2011 at the Heinrich Heine Universität; Duesseldorf. It is part of Ms. Schudy’s current research into “The principle of responsibility in Hans Jonas’ and Dieter Birnbacher’s environmental ethics”. (shrink)
The political crises and upheavals of our age often originate from the periphery rather than the center of power. Figures like Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, and Chelsea Manning acted in ways that disrupted power, revealing truths that those in power wanted to keep hidden. They are thorns in the side of power, troublemakers in the eyes of the powerful, though their actions may be valuable and lead to positive changes. In this important new book, Dieter Thomä examines the crucial (...) but often overlooked function of these figures on the margins of society, developing a philosophy of troublemakers from the seventeenth century to the present day. Thomä takes as his starting point Hobbes’s idea of the puer robustus, meaning a figure who rebels against order and authority. While Hobbes saw the puer robustus as a threat, he also recognized the potential, in the right conditions, for figures to rise up and become agents of positive change. Building on this notion, Thomä provides a rich survey of intellectuals who have been inspired by this idea over the past 300 years, from Rousseau, Diderot, Schiller, Victor Hugo, Marx, and Freud to Carl Schmitt, Leo Strauss, and Horkheimer, right up to the recent work of Badiou and Agamben. In doing so, he develops a typology of the puer robustus and a means by which we can evaluate and assess the troublemakers of our own times. Thomä shows that troublemakers are an inescapable part of modernity, for as soon as social and political boundaries are defined, there will always be figures challenging them from the margins. This book will be of great interest not only to students and scholars in the humanities and social sciences but to anyone seeking to understand the crucial impact of these liminal figures on our world today. (shrink)
The well-known empiricist apories of the lawfulness of nature prevent an adequate philosophical interpretation of empirical science until this day. Clarification can only be expected through an immanent refutation of the empiricist point of view. My argument is that Hume’s claim, paradigmatic for modern empiricism, is not just inconsequent, but simply contradictory: Empiricism denies that a lawlike character of nature can be substantiated. But, as is shown, anyone who claimes experience to be the basis of knowledge (as the empiricist naturally (...) does), has, in fact, always already presupposed the lawfullness of nature, i.e. has assumed the ontology of a nature lawful in itself. If lawfulness is, more closely, understood as dependency on conditions, then the functional character of the laws of nature is involved with the consequence that verification is not to be taken as a mere repetition of measurements but as clarification of the conditional structure of the physical process. Furthermore the functionality of the laws of nature also includes a statement on their invariance (relative to certain transformations) and so their lawlikeness. This throws a new light on the problem of induction. Seen in this way it is hardly surprising that the notorious neglect of the functional aspect in empiricism has led to fundamental problems with the concept of the law of nature. (shrink)
This volume pays tribute to the remarkable scholarship of Hans Dieter Betz, which has combined amazing range with consistency of vision. Defying the traditional boundaries of the academy, Hans Dieter Betz, Shailer Mathews Professor emeritus at the University of Chicago Divinity School, has made significant contributions in the fields of New Testament, classics, church history, theology, and history of religions. This Festschrift brings together the work of major scholars of ancient religion and philosophy who are part of Betz's (...) international circle of conversation. The volume also contains a complete bibliography of Hans Dieter Betz's publications from 1959 to 2000. (shrink)
This paper analyzes the scenario for a post-revolutionary society as developed in Lenin’s “The State and Revolution.” Lenin heavily relies on Marx and Engels’s metaphors of waking up and falling asleep: Post-revolutionary society is marked by a grand awakening and a conversion of dreams into reality, while the State is said to fall asleep or wither away. Lenin applies these metaphors yet applies them in a strangely inverted manner. Instead of embracing agency, he argues for a new regime of “habit,” (...) which has sedating effects on humans, while the state survives its demise and returns under the title of “administration.” Lenin’s plea for “habit” and “administration” is discussed in a broader context of other philosophical accounts reaching from Kant to Hegel, Max Weber, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hannah Arendt and beyond. These critical considerations lead to some general findings on the status of moral agency in revolutionary change. Trotsky’s account of permanent revolution with its experimentalist and theatrical implications is a case in point here. The paper concludes by discussing the intricate relation between revolution, democracy, and the state. (shrink)
Seit der ersten Auflage hat die Forschung die Kenntnis der mittelalterlichen nordischen Rechtsquellen erweitert und vertieft. Dementsprechend ist die neue Auflage vollständig durchsehen, erheblich überarbeitet und erweitert worden. Neu sind Ausführungen über Runensteine als Rechtsquellen, die Eroberungen der Dänen und Schweden im Baltikum, vor allem in Estland, und ihre dortige Verwaltung. Strauch hat nunmehr auch den Einfluss der Chasaren in Russland auf die dortige Herrschaft der Waräger berücksichtigt. Erhebliche Änderungen ergaben sich bei Jyske Lov, im älteren und jüngeren Västgötalag und (...) im schwedischen Landslag. Erweitert und vertieft behandelt werden nunmehr die Rolle des kanonischen Rechts und der kirchlichen Landbücher Norwegens, der Begriff "Folklande" in Uppland und des crimen laesae maiestatis in Schweden. Auch die beigefügten Karten sind überarbeitet worden. Die Literaturnachweise sind auf den neuesten Stand gebracht und erheblich erweitert worden. Somit ist die Neuauflage wieder ein unentbehrliches Referenzwerk für Skandinavisten und Rechtshistoriker. (shrink)
Das besondere Augenmerk der Studie gilt den globalen und oft auch verstörenden Aspekten der Technikentwicklung. Gegenstand des ersten, analytischen Teils sind gewisse Besonderheiten technischer Rationalität, ihre Durchdringung der Lebenswelt bis hin zur Entwicklung künstlicher Intelligenz sowie die unser Denken bis heute determinierenden geistesgeschichtlichen Weichenstellungen durch Bacon, Galilei und Descartes. Im zweiten, ‘dialektischen’ Teil wird eben jener ‘verstörende’ Wesenszug moderner Technik näher analysiert, der zu ungeplanten ‘Umschlagsphänomenen’ führt, etwa dass technische Befreiung unversehens in strukturellen Zwang umschlägt. Im dritten, ethischen Teil wird, (...) als Folge der Massentechnisierung, die Notwendigkeit eines ‘Globalisierungsprinzips’ im Rahmen einer ‘post-klassischen’ Öko-Ethik begründet – mit der Pointe eines Grundrechts auch und gerade des Geistes auf eine ‘heile’ Natur: eine bislang nicht angemessen gewürdigte geistige Dimension des Ökoproblems! (shrink)
Constitutionalism: Past, Present, and Future will offer a definitive collection of Professor Dieter Grimm's most important scholarly writings on constitutional thought and interpretation. The essays included in this volume explore the conditions under which the modern constitution could emerge; they treat the characteristics that must be given if the constitution may be called an achievement, the appropriate way to understand and interpret constitutional law under current conditions, the function of judicial review, the remaining role of national constitutions in a (...) changing world, as well as the possibility of supra-national constitutionalism.Many of these essays have influenced the German and European discussion on constitutionalism and for the first time, much of the work of one of German's leading scholars of public law will be available in the English language. (shrink)
The debates about human free will are traditionally the concern of metaphysics but neuroscientists have recently entered the field arguing that acts of the will are determined by brain events themselves causal products of other events. We examine that claim through the example of free or voluntary switch of perception in relation to the Necker cube. When I am asked to see the cube in one way, I decide whether I will follow the command (or do as I am asked) (...) using skills that reason and language give to me and change my brain states accordingly. The voluntary shift of perspective in seeing the Necker cube this way or that exemplifies the top-down control exercised by a human being on the basis of the role of language and meaning in their activity. It also indicates the lived story that is at the centre of each human consciousness. In the third part of this essay, three arguments are used to undermine metaphysical objections to the very idea of top-down self control. (shrink)
Starting with D. Scott's work on the mathematical foundations of programming language semantics, interest in topology has grown up in theoretical computer science, under the slogan `open sets are semidecidable properties'. But whereas on effectively given Scott domains all such properties are also open, this is no longer true in general. In this paper a characterization of effectively given topological spaces is presented that says which semidecidable sets are open. This result has important consequences. Not only follows the classical Rice-Shapiro (...) Theorem and its generalization to effectively given Scott domains, but also a recursion theoretic characterization of the canonical topology of effectively given metric spaces. Moreover, it implies some well known theorems on the effective continuity of effective operators such as P. Young and the author's general result which in its turn entails the theorems by Myhill-Shepherdson, Kreisel-Lacombe-Shoenfield and Ceĭtin-Moschovakis, and a result by Eršov and Berger which says that the hereditarily effective operations coincide with the hereditarily effective total continuous functionals on the natural numbers. (shrink)
We construct a model for the level by level equivalence between strong compactness and supercompactness in which below the least supercompact cardinal κ, there is a stationary set of cardinals on which SCH fails. In this model, the structure of the class of supercompact cardinals can be arbitrary.
"In einen Toten tritt man ein wie in eine offene Stadt"--So beginnt Thomäs Heidegger-Interpretation, und darin wird zugleich ihr Anspruch deutlich. Wenn Heidegger selbst seine Werke "Wege" nennt, so geht es Thomä darum, dessen philosophische Entwicklung als ein Netz solcher Wege zu erschließen - und zugleich zu fragen, wo Heideggers Irrwege, Abwege oder Auswege einsetzen.
In the seventeenth century, the Jewish mystical tradition which is known as Kabbalah was integrated into the curriculum of studying the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud. Kabbalah became popular in these times in the wake of the dissemination of Isaac Luria’s teachings, in particular within the Jewish communities in Prague and Amsterdam, where members of the Horowitz family took a leading role. Kabbalistic psychology was applied to the whole Jewish lifestyle then, and to the understanding of Jewish tradition. Kabbalistic intentions (...) of prayer intensified the expectation of redemption, and during the messianic movement initiated by Shabtai Zvi, the kabbalistic meaning of repentance was also adapted in prayer books composed for so-called Conversos, who had to familiarize themselves with Jewish tradition. The article exemplifies this process by a Spanish anthology of prayers, Libro entitulado ensenha à pecadores, and shows the historical impact of Kabbalah in the field of Jewish education. (shrink)
In Spescha and Strahm , a system of explicit mathematics in the style of Feferman  and  is introduced, and in Spescha and Strahm  the addition of the join principle to is studied. Changing to intuitionistic logic, it could be shown that the provably terminating operations of are the polytime functions on binary words. However, although strongly conjectured, it remained open whether the same holds true for the corresponding theory with classical logic. This note supplements a proof of (...) this conjecture. (shrink)
I began with the hypothesis that the scientific productivity of a small country is promoted by the integration of research activities into the international scientific community. Integration occurs both individually and institutionally. The integration of individual research workers into the informal international movement of knowledge about problems, techniques and sharing in a particular branch of science, stimulates them and offers them a better chance of recognition by competent peers for their contributions to science. It thereby strengthens their incentive to exert (...) themselves to the utmost in research. Institutional integration as the modelling of institutional arrangements in the small country on foreign academic organisation also increases productivity. In these ways, small countries can avoid being shunted to the periphery of world science. (shrink)
In examples like the total recursive functions or the computable real numbers the canonical indexings are only partial maps. It is even impossible in these cases to find an equivalent total numbering. We consider effectively given topological T 0 -spaces and study the problem in which cases the canonical numberings of such spaces can be totalized, i.e., have an equivalent total indexing. Moreover, we show under very natural assumptions that such spaces can effectively and effectively homeomorphically be embedded into a (...) totally indexed algebraic partial order that is closed under the operation of taking least upper bounds of enumerable directed subsets. (shrink)
Effective inseparability of pairs of sets is an important notion in logic and computer science. We study the effective inseparability of sets which appear as index sets of subsets of an effectively given topological T0-space and discuss its consequences. It is shown that for two disjoint subsets X and Y of the space one can effectively find a witness that the index set of X cannot be separated from the index set of Y by a recursively enumerable set, if X (...) intersects the topological closure of an effectively enumerable subset of Y. As a consequence of a more general parametric inseparability result a theorem of Rice-Shapiro type is obtained. Moreover, under some additional requirements it follows that nonopen subsets have productive index sets. This implies a generalized Rice theorem: Connected spaces have only trivial completely recursive subsets. As application some decision problems in computable analysis and domain theory are studied. It follows that the complement of the halting problem can be reduced to the problem to decide of a number whether it is a computable irrational. The same is true for the problems to decide whether two numbers are equal, whether one is not greater than the other, and whether a number is equal to a given number. In the case of an effectively given continuous complete partial order the complexity of the last problem depends on whether the given element is the smallest element, in which case the complement of the halting problem is reducible to it, whether it is a base element and maximal, then the decision problem is recursively isomorphic to the halting problem, or whether it is none of these. In this case, both the halting problem and its complement are reducible to the problem. The same is true in nontrivial cases for the problems whether an element belongs to the basis, whether two elements of the partial order are equal, or whether one approximates the other. In general, for any nonempty proper subset of the partial order either the halting problem or its complement can be reduced to the membership problem of the subset. (shrink)
Dieses Buch zeigt die konkrete Ausformung und die Arbeitsprozesse des nicht-sprachlichen Denkens. Es untersucht die Funktionen des szenisch-phantasmatischen Systems in seinen grundlegenden Arten und Komponenten sowie dessen konkretes Arbeiten anhand zentraler Themen. Methodische Grundlage ist die deskriptive Phänomenologie Husserls. Als normale und entwickelte Menschen denken wir zwar für gewöhnlich im Modus der Sprache, aber das ist nicht unsere einzige Weise zu denken. Es gibt nicht nur prinzipiell, sondern auch faktisch funktionierende Alternativen: Ein System der nicht-sprachlichen Repräsentation kognitiver Inhalte im menschlichen (...) Bewusstsein. Dieses System kann zur Darstellung und Manipulation vorgestellter Sachverhalte eingesetzt werden, sodass Folgerungen, Handlungsalternativen und die Planung der Zukunft auf der Grundlage vorangegangener Erfahrung möglich werden. Für dieses nicht-sprachliche Denken ist das szenisch-phantasmatische System zentral, das auf der Grundlage von kurzfristigen Phantasmen arbeitet, die uns wie wirklich gesehene Tatsachen, Situationen und Szenen erscheinen, obwohl sie aus der Imagination stammen. Das nicht-sprachliche System lässt sich als ein noch funktionierendes Überbleibsel eines Systems interpretieren, das wir mit den Hominiden und vielen Tieren gemeinsam haben. Diese Hypothese, bestärkt durch viele eindrucksvolle Beispiele intelligenten Verhaltens bei Tieren, wird in einigen Aspekten bereits von der neurologischen Forschung bestätigt. Das Buch bietet eine systematische und umfassende Behandlung des Themas, indem es die eidetische Phänomenologie des Denkens mit der empirischen und vergleichenden Psychologie, mit Neurologie, Evolutionstheorie, Primatologie und auch einigen herausfordernden Einsichten angewandter Disziplinen in eine fruchtbare Diskussion bringt. (shrink)