Results for 'Definition'

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  1.  27
    Set theory influenced logic, both through its semantics, by expanding the possible models of various theories and by the formal definition of a model; and through its syntax, by allowing for logical languages in which formulas can be infinite in length or in which the number of symbols is uncountable.Truth Definitions - 1998 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).
  2. The Socratic Fallacy and the Epistemological Priority of Definitional Knowledge1 David Wolfsdorf.Definitional Knowledge - 2004 - Apeiron 37:35.
  3.  17
    Agent-Neutral Reasons: Are They for Everyone?I. Definitions - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (2).
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  4. Jan Tore l0nning.Collective Readings Of Definite & Indefinite Noun Phrases - 1987 - In Peter Gärdenfors (ed.), Generalized Quantifiers. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 203.
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  5. An Attempted Definition of Man, by G.G.G. G. & Attempted Definition - 1867
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  6.  2
    Pourquoi Des dictionnaires?'.I. La Définition Linguistique du Dictionnaire - 1971 - In Julia Kristeva, Josette Rey-Debove & Donna Jean Umike-Sebeok (eds.), Essays in semiotics. The Hague,: Mouton. pp. 216.
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  7. Definiteness and Indefiniteness.Barbara Abbott - 2004 - In Laurence R. Horn & Gregory Ward (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell.
    The prototypes of definiteness and indefiniteness in English are the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an, and singular noun phrases (NPs)1 determined by them. That being the case it is not to be predicted that the concepts, whatever their content, will extend satisfactorily to other determiners or NP types. However it has become standard to extend these notions. Of the two categories definites have received rather more attention, and more than one researcher has characterized the category of definite (...)
     
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  8. The definition of art.Thomas Adajian - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The definition of art is controversial in contemporary philosophy. Whether art can be defined has also been a matter of controversy. The philosophical usefulness of a definition of art has also been debated. -/- Contemporary definitions can be classified with respect to the dimensions of art they emphasize. One distinctively modern, conventionalist, sort of definition focuses on art’s institutional features, emphasizing the way art changes over time, modern works that appear to break radically with all traditional art, (...)
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  9.  33
    Definite Descriptions.Paul Elbourne - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Paul Elbourne defends the Fregean view that definite descriptions ('the table', 'the King of France') refer to individuals, and offers a new and radical account of the semantics of pronouns. He draws on a wide range of work, from Frege, Peano, and Russell to the latest findings in linguistics, philosophy of language, and psycholinguistics.
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  10. Definitions of Terms.Thaddeus Metz, Alejandro Adler, Ilona Boniwell, Evelyn Gibson, Martin Seligman, Yukiko Uchida & Zhanjun Xing - 2017 - In Centre for Bhutan Studies and G. N. H. (ed.), Happiness: Transforming the Development Landscape. Centre for Bhutan Studies and GNH. pp. 21-38.
    Definitions of terms that are central to a theoretical understanding of the Royal Government of Bhutan's policy of Gross National Happiness.
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  11.  79
    Arguing from Definition to Verbal Classification: The Case of Redefining 'Planet' to Exclude Pluto.Douglas Walton - 2008 - Informal Logic 28 (2):129-154.
    The recent redefinition of 'planet' that excludes Pluto as a planet led to controversy that provides a case study of how competing scientific definitions can be supported by characteristic types of evidence. An argumentation scheme from Hastings is used to analyze argument from verbal classification as a form of inference used in rational argumentation. The Toulmin-style format is compared to more recently developed ways of modeling such cases that stem from advances in argumentation technology in artificial intelligence. Using these tools, (...)
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  12.  48
    Nominal definition in the writings of Ibn taymiyya.Sobhi Rayan - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (2):123 – 141.
    I endeavour in this article to present Ibn Taymiyya's theory of nominal definition as an alternative to logical definition. Ibn Taymiyya argues that nominal definition is based on concrete principles that are subject to experiment. Furthermore, the function of definition is akin to the 'name' because it aims at distinguishing any one object from others but not at reaching the entity of things. Nominal definition aims to define the name or the named, and this aim (...)
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  13.  52
    The definition of the human mind and the numerical difference between subjects (2p11-2p13s).Ursula Renz, Michael Hampe & Robert Schnepf - 2011 - In . pp. 99-118.
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  14. Persuasive definition.Andrew Aberdein - 1997 - In H. V. Hansen, C. W. Tindale & A. V. Colman (eds.), Argumentation and Rhetoric. Vale.
    Charles Stevenson introduced the term 'persuasive definition’ to describe a suspect form of moral argument 'which gives a new conceptual meaning to a familiar word without substantially changing its emotive meaning’. However, as Stevenson acknowledges, such a move can be employed legitimately. If persuasive definition is to be a useful notion, we shall need a criterion for identifying specifically illegitimate usage. I criticize a recent proposed criterion from Keith Burgess-Jackson and offer an alternative.
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  15.  11
    Definitions and Definability: Philosophical Perspectives.J. H. Fetzer, D. Shatz & G. Schlesinger - 1991 - Springer.
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  16.  15
    Predicting Definite and Indefinite Referents During Discourse Comprehension: Evidence from Event‐Related Potentials.Georgia-Ann Carter & Mante S. Nieuwland - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (2):e13092.
    Linguistic predictions may be generated from and evaluated against a representation of events and referents described in the discourse. Compatible with this idea, recent work shows that predictions about novel noun phrases include their definiteness. In the current follow-up study, we ask whether people engage similar prediction-related processes for definite and indefinite referents. This question is relevant for linguistic theories that imply a processing difference between definite and indefinite noun phrases, typically because definiteness is thought to require a uniquely identifiable (...)
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  17. A definition, benchmark and database of AI for social good initiatives.Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsmadaos, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Nature Machine Intelligence 3:111–⁠115.
    Initiatives relying on artificial intelligence (AI) to deliver socially beneficial outcomes—AI for social good (AI4SG)—are on the rise. However, existing attempts to understand and foster AI4SG initiatives have so far been limited by the lack of normative analyses and a shortage of empirical evidence. In this Perspective, we address these limitations by providing a definition of AI4SG and by advocating the use of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a benchmark for tracing the scope and spread of (...)
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  18. Definition in Greek philosophy.David Charles (ed.) - 2010 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Socrates' greatest philosophical contribution was to have initiated the search for definitions. In Definition in Greek Philosophy his views on definition are examined, together with those of his successors, including Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Galen, the Sceptics and Plotinus. Although definition was a major pre-occupation for many Greek philosophers, it has rarely been treated as a separate topic in its own right in recent years. This volume, which contains fourteen new essays by leading scholars, aims to reawaken (...)
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  19. Definitions in ontologies.Selja Seppälä, Alan Ruttenberg, Yonatan Schreiber & Barry Smith - 2016 - Cahiers de Lexicologie 109 (2):175‐207.
    Definitions vary according to context of use and target audience. They must be made relevant for each context to fulfill their cognitive and linguistic goals. This involves adapting their logical structure, type of content, and form to each context of use. We examine from these perspectives the case of definitions in ontologies.
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  20. Definition and essence in Metaphysics vii 4.Lucas Angioni - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (1):75-100.
    I discuss Aristotle's treatment of essence and definition in Metaphysics VII.4. I argue that it is coherent and perfectly in accord with its broader context. His discussion in VII.4 offers, on the one hand, minimal criteria for what counts as definition and essence for whatever kind of object, but also, on the other hand, stronger criteria for a primary sort of definition and essence—and thereby it serves the interest of book VII in pointing to the explanatory power (...)
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  21. The Definition of Lying and Deception.James Edwin Mahon - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Survey of different definitions of lying and deceiving, with an emphasis on the contemporary debate between Thomas Carson, Roy Sorensen, Don Fallis, Jennifer Saul, Paul Faulkner, Jennifer Lackey, David Simpson, Andreas Stokke, Jorg Meibauer, Seana Shiffrin, and James Mahon, among others, over whether lies always aim to deceive. Related questions include whether lies must be assertions, whether lies always breach trust, whether it is possible to lie without using spoken or written language, whether lies must always be false, whether lies (...)
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  22. Hobbes, Definitions, and Simplest Conceptions.Marcus P. Adams - 2014 - Hobbes Studies 27 (1):35-60.
    Several recent commentators argue that Thomas Hobbes’s account of the nature of science is conventionalist. Engaging in scientific practice on a conventionalist account is more a matter of making sure one connects one term to another properly rather than checking one’s claims, e.g., by experiment. In this paper, I argue that the conventionalist interpretation of Hobbesian science accords neither with Hobbes’s theoretical account in De corpore and Leviathan nor with Hobbes’s scientific practice in De homine and elsewhere. Closely tied to (...)
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  23.  52
    Animal liberation: the definitive classic of the animal movement.Peter Singer - 2009 - New York: Ecco Book/Harper Perennial.
    Since its original publication in 1975, this groundbreaking work has awakened millions of people to the existence of "speciesism"—our systematic disregard of nonhuman animals—inspiring a worldwide movement to transform our attitudes to animals and eliminate the cruelty we inflict on them. In Animal Liberation, author Peter Singer exposes the chilling realities of today’s "factory farms" and product-testing procedures—destroying the spurious justifications behind them, and offering alternatives to what has become a profound environmental and social as well as moral issue. An (...)
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  24.  83
    Definiteness in English and Estonian: same pragmatic principles, different syntaxes (Määravus inglise ja eesti keeles: samad pragmaatilised põhimõtted, erinevad süntaksid).Alex Davies - 2023 - In Bruno Mölder & Jaan Kangilaski (eds.), Keel, vaim, tunnetus. Analüütilise filosoofia seminar 30+. Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus. pp. 59-83.
    Estonian doesn't have a definite article. Instead, bare singular noun phrases can unambiguously bear either a definite interpretation or an indefinite interpretation. This paper argues that the pragmatic principles governing the felicitous use of three English articles ("a", "the" and "another"), described by A Grønn and KJ Sæbø (2012, 'A, the, another: A game of same and different' Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21, 75-95) can also account for the conditions under which a bare singular noun phrase in Estonian (...)
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  25. Definition.Richard Robinson - 1950 - Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    The purpose of this book is to clarify the concept of definition and improve defining activities.
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  26. Generalized definitional reflection and the inversion principle.Peter Schroeder-Heister - 2007 - Logica Universalis 1 (2):355-376.
    . The term inversion principle goes back to Lorenzen who coined it in the early 1950s. It was later used by Prawitz and others to describe the symmetric relationship between introduction and elimination inferences in natural deduction, sometimes also called harmony. In dealing with the invertibility of rules of an arbitrary atomic production system, Lorenzen’s inversion principle has a much wider range than Prawitz’s adaptation to natural deduction. It is closely related to definitional reflection, which is a principle for reasoning (...)
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  27.  16
    Conflicting definitions of kinship: The challenge for state regulation of donor-assisted conception.Jennifer Speirs - 2003 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 9 (1):16-19.
  28.  48
    Phylogenetic definitions and taxonomic philosophy.Kevin de Queiroz - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):295-313.
    An examination of the post-Darwinian history of biological taxonomy reveals an implicit assumption that the definitions of taxon names consist of lists of organismal traits. That assumption represents a failure to grant the concept of evolution a central role in taxonomy, and it causes conflicts between traditional methods of defining taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. Phylogenetic definitions of taxon names (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990) grant the concept of common ancestry a central role in the definitions of taxon (...)
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  29. Definition.Samuel Elgin - manuscript
    This paper presents a puzzle about the logic of real definition. In particular, I demonstrate that five principles concerning definition (that it is coextensional and irreflexive, that it applies to its cases, that it permits expansion and that it is itself defined) are incompatible. I then explore the advantages and disadvantages of each principle—one of which must be rejected to restore consistency.
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  30. Definitions in law.Fabrizio Macagno - 2010 - Bulletin Suisse de Linguistique Appliquée 2:199-217.
    Legal definitions will be examined from three perspectives: their pragmatic function, their propositional structure, and their argumentative role. In law, definitions can be used for different pragmatic purposes: they can be uttered to describe a concept, or to establish a new meaning for a term. The propositional content of definitional speech acts can be different. In law, like in ordinary conversation, there might be different types of definition: we can define by providing examples, or showing the fundamental characteristics of (...)
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  31.  15
    The Definition of Good.Alfred C. Ewing - 1947 - Westport, Conn.: Routledge.
    First published in Great Britain in 1948, this book examines the definition of goodness as being distinct from the question of _What things are good?_ Although less immediately and obviously practical, Dr. Ewing argues that the former question is more fundamental since it raises the issue of whether ethics is explicable wholly in terms of something else, for example, human psychology. Ewing states in his preface that the definition of goodness needs to be confirmed before one decides on (...)
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  32.  14
    Truth Definitions and Consistency Proofs.Hao Wang - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (4):365-367.
  33. Aristotle's definition of syllogism in Prior Analytics 24b18-20.Lucas Angioni - manuscript
  34. The Definition of Assertion: Commitment and Truth.Neri Marsili - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    According to an influential view, asserting a proposition involves undertaking some “commitment” to the truth of that proposition. But accounts of what it is for someone to be committed to the truth of a proposition are often vague or imprecise, and are rarely put to work to define assertion. This paper aims to fill this gap. It offers a precise characterisation of assertoric commitment, and shows how it can be applied to define assertion. On the proposed view, acquiring commitment is (...)
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  35.  12
    Die Definition.Walter Dubislav - 1981 - F. Meiner.
    Die einwandfreie Bestimmung der Begriffe ist die Grundlage einer jeden wissenschaftlichen Arbeit. Im Sinne der modernen Logik und Axiomatik hat erstmals Walter Dubislav die Methode des Definierens von Begriffen systematisch wie auch an Beispielen entwickelt. Sein Werk zeichnet sich durch klare Gedankenführung und didaktisches Geschick bei der Vermittlung philosophischer Sachverhalte aus, und es diskutiert alle einschlägigen Fragen, die sich dem an Methoden interessierten Wissenschaftler stellen. Es hat daher auch heute noch seinen systematischen Wert. Den gegenwärtigen Stand der Forschung im B...
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  36. Definiteness Projection.Matthew Mandelkern & Daniel Rothschild - 2019 - Natural Language Semantics:1-33.
    We argue that definite noun phrases give rise to uniqueness inferences characterized by a pattern we call definiteness projection. Definiteness projection says that the uniqueness inference of a definite projects out unless there is an indefinite antecedent in a position that filters presuppositions. We argue that definiteness projection poses a serious puzzle for e-type theories of (in)definites; on such theories, indefinites should filter existence presuppositions but not uniqueness presuppositions. We argue that definiteness projection also poses challenges for dynamic approaches, which (...)
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  37.  90
    Definite descriptions and negative existential quantifiers.Paul Elbourne - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (7):1597-1612.
    Previous theorists have claimed that Russell’s theory of definite descriptions gives the wrong truth conditions to sentences in which definite descriptions are embedded under certain other operators; but the other operators used, such as conditionals and propositional attitude verbs, have introduced intensional and hyperintensional complications that might be thought to obscure the point against Russell. This paper shows that the same kind of problem arises when the operator in question allows the context to be extensional. It is further argued that (...)
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  38.  9
    The Definition of Good.Alfred C. Ewing - 1947 - Westport, Conn.: Routledge.
    First published in Great Britain in 1948, this book examines the definition of goodness as being distinct from the question of _What things are good?_ Although less immediately and obviously practical, Dr. Ewing argues that the former question is more fundamental since it raises the issue of whether ethics is explicable wholly in terms of something else, for example, human psychology. Ewing states in his preface that the definition of goodness needs to be confirmed before one decides on (...)
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  39.  7
    Predicting Definite and Indefinite Referents During Discourse Comprehension: Evidence from Event‐Related Potentials.Georgia-Ann Carter & Mante S. Nieuwland - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (2):e13092.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2022.
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  40. Definiteness and determinacy.Elizabeth Coppock & David Beaver - 2015 - Linguistics and Philosophy 38 (5):377-435.
    This paper distinguishes between definiteness and determinacy. Definiteness is seen as a morphological category which, in English, marks a uniqueness presupposition, while determinacy consists in denoting an individual. Definite descriptions are argued to be fundamentally predicative, presupposing uniqueness but not existence, and to acquire existential import through general type-shifting operations that apply not only to definites, but also indefinites and possessives. Through these shifts, argumental definite descriptions may become either determinate or indeterminate. The latter option is observed in examples like (...)
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  41.  15
    The definition of morality.Gerald Wallace - 1970 - London,: Methuen. Edited by Arthur David McKinnon Walker.
    "Distributed in the U.S.A. by Barnes & Noble, inc." Bibliography: p. [251]-257.
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  42. Definite Descriptions and Semantic Pluralism.Brendan Murday - 2014 - Philosophical Papers 43 (2):255-284.
    We pose two arguments for the view that sentences containing definite descriptions semantically express multiple propositions: a general proposition as Russell suggested, and a singular proposition featuring the individual who uniquely satisfies the description at the world-time of utterance. One argument mirrors David Kaplan's arguments that indexicals express singular propositions through a context-sensitive character. The second argument mirrors Kent Bach's and Stephen Neale's arguments for pluralist views about terms putatively triggering conventional implicatures, appositive, and nonrestrictive relative clauses. After presenting these (...)
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  43. Definite Knowledge and Mutual Knowledge.Herbert H. Clark & Catherine R. Marshall - 1981 - In Aravind K. Joshi, Bonnie L. Webber & Ivan A. Sag (eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–63.
  44.  51
    Definition: A practical guide to constructing and evaluating definitions of terms.David Hitchcock - 2021 - Windsor, ON: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    This book proposes guidelines for constructing and evaluating definitions of terms, i.e. words or phrases of general application. The guidelines extend to adoption of nomenclature. The book is meant to be a practical guide for people who find themselves in their daily lives or their employment producing or evaluating definitions of terms. It can be consulted rather than being read through. The book’s theoretical framework is a distinction, due to Robert H. Ennis, of three dimensions of definitions: the act of (...)
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  45.  70
    The Definition of Religion, Super-empirical Realities and Mathematics.Andrea Sauchelli - 2016 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 58 (1):67-75.
    Providing a precise definition of “religion”—or an analysis in terms of sufficient and necessary conditions of the concept of religion—has proven to be a difficult task, more so in light of the diverse types of practices considered religious by scholars. Here, I discuss Kevin Schilbrack’s recent definition of “religion”, elaborate it and raise several objections, one of which is based on a specific theory in philosophy of mathematics: mathematical realism.
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  46. Definite Descriptions in Intuitionist Positive Free Logic.Nils Kürbis - 2020 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 30:1.
    This paper presents rules of inference for a binary quantifier I for the formalisation of sentences containing definite descriptions within intuitionist positive free logic. I binds one variable and forms a formula from two formulas. Ix[F, G] means ‘The F is G’. The system is shown to have desirable proof-theoretic properties: it is proved that deductions in it can be brought into normal form. The discussion is rounded up by comparisons between the approach to the formalisation of definite descriptions recommended (...)
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  47. Definiteness and identification in English.Barbara Abbott - manuscript
    Many characterizations of definiteness in natural language have been given. However a number of them converge on a single idea involving uniqueness of applicability of a property. This paper will attempt to do two things. One is to try to unify some of these current views of definiteness, seeing them as drawing out Gricean conversational implicatures of the uniqueness concept, and the other is to try a more articulated approach to dealing with some recalcitrant counterexamples. I will focus primarily, but (...)
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  48. Some Critical Remarks on Definitions and on Philosophical and Logical Ideals.Paul Weingartner - 1996 - In Piergiorgio Odifreddi (ed.), Kreiseliana: About and Around Georg Kreisel. A K Peters. pp. 417--438.
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  49.  29
    Free Definite Description Theory – Sequent Calculi and Cut Elimination.Andrzej Indrzejczak - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    We provide an application of a sequent calculus framework to the formalization of definite descriptions. It is a continuation of research undertaken in [20, 22]. In the present paper a so-called free description theory is examined in the context of different kinds of free logic, including systems applied in computer science and constructive mathematics for dealing with partial functions. It is shown that the same theory in different logics may be formalised by means of different rules and gives results of (...)
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  50.  41
    Truth definitions without exponentiation and the Σ₁ collection scheme.Zofia Adamowicz, Leszek Aleksander Kołodziejczyk & Jeff Paris - 2012 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 77 (2):649-655.
    We prove that: • if there is a model of I∆₀ + ¬ exp with cofinal Σ₁-definable elements and a Σ₁ truth definition for Σ₁ sentences, then I∆₀ + ¬ exp +¬BΣ₁ is consistent, • there is a model of I∆₀ Ω₁ + ¬ exp with cofinal Σ₁-definable elements, both a Σ₂ and a ∏₂ truth definition for Σ₁ sentences, and for each n > 2, a Σ n truth definition for Σ n sentences. The latter result (...)
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