This paper is motivated by the observation that Southern governments start to take responsibility for a more sustainable production of agricultural commodities as a response to earlier private initiatives by businesses and non-governmental organizations. Indonesia is one of the leading countries in this respect, with new public sustainability regulations on coffee, cocoa and palm oil. Based on the concept of governance capacity, the paper develops an evaluation tool to answer the question whether the new public regulation on sustainable palm oil (...) may become a viable alternative to private regulation. ISPO embraces a tremendous governance challenge as thousands of companies and millions of smallholder farmers are expected to participate. It is concluded that, although ISPO has initiated a process of change, it has not yet developed its full potential. The main reason regards ISPO’s rather loose problem definition, weak authority of the implementing organization, and the fact that the reliability of ISPO is still too low to convince of the global market. ISPO may therefore face difficulties in meeting its own targets and solving palm-oil related problems, such as deforestation, biodiversity loss, greenhouse gas emissions, and social conflicts between big plantations and local communities. The main governance challenge regards combining a more authoritative implementation mechanism with a convincing balance between sustainability objectives and economic interests of the sector. (shrink)
If Place Spirituality is considered as an attachment experience to a geographic place or an “object,” for Muslims this concept can be explained by the sharia or Islamic law. However, in the highest level of experience as a Muslim, one may attach to God everywhere and at all times, without consideration of any place, time, or object. This experience can clearly be understood with the explanation of the three levels for Muslims: sharia or “conceptual knowledge,” tariqa or “experiential knowledge,” and (...) ma’rifa or “divine spiritual experiences” or “spiritual consciousness”. At the first and second levels, one may have a Place Spirituality, while at the third level the understanding of and connection to God might be enhanced, and the experience to connect to God can be everywhere, all the time. (shrink)
Every person always experiences life changes. Positive or negative life changes cause stress. Retirement represents one of life changes which can cause stress. Stress is an organism’s phyciological and psychological responses that can cause unpleasant situation and make mental and emotional dysfunction. Resilient people are more to see changes as opportunity to grow rather than as stressors. Resiliency is the ability to bounce back quickly from misfortune and successfully adapt in a smart way to adverse with more power. This quantitative (...) research represents a non-experimental method using questionnaires with Likert scale as the instrument to find correlation between resiliency and stress in the preparatory phase of retirement. There were 32 participant (male & female) from various tribes and religions. Result indicates that there is no correlation between resiliency and stress.  . (shrink)
Brentanos 1904 vollendete Theorie, nur Reales sei vorstellbar und könne existieren, führte auch unter seinen Schülern zu Kontroversen. Dieser Band enthält eine umfangreiche Studie, die Einleitung der Herausgeber zu diesem Problemkreis, Auszüge aus dem Briefwechsel mit A. Marty und O. Kraus sowie die einschlägigen Abhandlungen Brentanos.
While much has been written regarding Heidegger’s Nazism, his 1936 work on Schelling, a book-length treatment of the metaphysics of evil, has been largely ignored. Here Heidegger sought to show how evil is no mere human quality but a constitutive feature of the essence of man. The argument revolves around a reformulated version of the difference between “ground” and “existence,” where the former signifies the dark embryonic latency of being or god, while the latter denotes God’s fully revealed manisfestation in (...) his creation. The self-willing of man elevates itself to the point where it wills to determine its own unity of ground and existence. Evil arises from the rebellion of ground against existence and vice versa, resulting in a profound ontological perversion. This paper spells out Heidegger’s complex views along the lines of evil being a manifestation of unbridled subjectivity in the most extreme metaphysical discord. (shrink)
This paper examines the contribution of sociology to the Islamic proselytization. In the context of epistemology, it has the opportunity to develop based on five aspects: factors, systems, interpretative, developmentalism and participatory. The five principles can be developed based on sociological theories. Among these theories, for example are the phenomenology of Islamic proselytization, the social construction of Islamic proselytization, dramaturgy of Islamic proselytization, hermeneutics of Islamic proselytization, communicative acts of Islamic proselytization, and ethnomethodology of Islamic proselytization. Through a sociological approach, (...) the Islamic proselytization will be able to develop more quickly. In further, it can be said that the inclusion of social science is a form of pattern of science development based on the integration of science, namely the phenomenon of Islamic proselytization as an object of study and utilizing other sciences as an approach. (shrink)
The Acehenese Islamic educational institution, dayah, has played a major role in institutionalisation of Islam among the Acehness. the development of diversity in community. As a traditional institution, the dayah system has developed and successfully translated principles of modernity through the establishment an integrated educational system. This article examines the modernization of Darul Mukhlisin in Central Aceh and its characteristic in modernising its educational system. The modernization of the education system is characterized by changes in the aspects of objectives, Teungku (...) and the students of dayah, implementation of an integrated curriculum, the treasury of contemporary books, use of active strategies and varieties of educational methods, environmental changes, the application of test and non-test evaluation types, and so forth. This article further argues that the Darul Mukhlisin has been successfully adopting the dayah system into modern principles of modern management in educational institution. The Darul Mukhlisin resorts as an important agent for religious education, producing learned Muslims who contributes to the development of the Acehness. (shrink)
The existence of Dayah as an Islamic educational institution in Central Aceh District has a major role in the development of diversity in community. Step by step, the educational institution is developing, both in quality and quantity. Departing from this reality, this paper uses a phenomenological approach, examines the modernization of Darul Mukhlisin’s integrated Dayah educational system, which includes the Dayah education sub-systems. The modernization of the education system is characterized by changes in the aspects of objectives, Teungku and Santri (...) Dayah, implementation of an integrated curriculum, the treasury of contemporary books, use of active strategies and varied methods, environmental changes, the application of test and non-test evaluation types, and so forth. Thus, the existence of Darul Mukhlisin was able to become a bastion of religious education in producing religious cadres and religious generations in Central Aceh. (shrink)